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How to Setup and Adjust the Dynamic Compensation of Feedforward Signals

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How to Setup and Adjust the Dynamic Compensation of Feedforward Signals

  1. 1. Interactive Opportunity Assessment Demo and Seminar (Deminar) Series for Web Labs – Feedforward Control Jan 5, 2011 Sponsored by Emerson, Experitec, Monsanto, & Mynah Created by Greg McMillan and Jack Ahlers www.processcontrollab.com Website - Charlie Schliesser (csdesignco.com)
  2. 2. Welcome <ul><li>Gregory K. McMillan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greg is a retired Senior Fellow from Solutia/Monsanto and an ISA Fellow. Presently, Greg contracts as a consultant in DeltaV R&D via CDI Process & Industrial. Greg received the ISA “Kermit Fischer Environmental” Award for pH control in 1991, the Control Magazine “Engineer of the Year” Award for the Process Industry in 1994, was inducted into the Control “Process Automation Hall of Fame” in 2001, was honored by InTech Magazine in 2003 as one of the most influential innovators in automation, and received the ISA “Life Achievement Award” in 2010. Greg is the author of numerous books on process control, his most recent being Essentials of Modern Measurements and Final Elements for the Process Industry. Greg has been the monthly “Control Talk” columnist for Control magazine since 2002. Greg’s expertise is available on the web site: http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/ </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3.   The Top Ten Things You Don’t Want to Hear on a Startup <ul><li>(10) You need the owner to be a little more patient (supplier expert). </li></ul><ul><li>(9) Don’t bother with a checkout - just light it up! What is the worst that can happen? </li></ul><ul><li>(8) We didn’t do any simulation or testing. We decided that would spoil the adventure. </li></ul><ul><li>(7) I don’t understand. It fit fine on the drawing. </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Cool - This is my first time in a real plant (supplier expert). </li></ul><ul><li>(5) I tried to open the valve and nothing happened. Wait! The same valve on the other reactor just opened. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Should the Variable Frequency Drive smoke like that? </li></ul><ul><li>(3) I don’t understand. I am sure I left all your tools and radios in a box right here. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The CEO is holding on a phone for you. </li></ul><ul><li>And the Number 1 thing: </li></ul>Source: “Final Word on Instrument Upgrade Projects”, Control Talk, Control , Dec 2010 http://www.controlglobal.com/articles/2010/InstrumentProjects1012.html
  4. 4. The Top Ten Things You Don’t Want to Hear on a Startup <ul><li>(1) Boom!!! WHAT was that?!?! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cascade Loop Block Diagram (First Order Approximation)  p1  p2  p2 K p2  p1  m2  m2 K m2  c2  f2 Primary Process K v  v  v K L2  L2  L2 Primary Load Upset  CV p  CO p  MV  PV p2 Delay Lag Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Lag Lag Lag Lag Lag Gain Gain Gain Gain Local Set Point  DV p2 % % % Delay <=> Dead Time Lag <=>Time Constant K L1  L1  L1 Delay Lag Gain  DV p1 Secondary Load Upset  CO s Secondary PID Cascade Set Point % % K p1 Gain  CV s  m2  m2 K m2 Delay Lag Gain  c2  f2 Delay Lag Secondary Process Primary PID 20 sec Secondary Feedforward Primary Feedforward K c2 T i2 T d2 K c1 T i1 T d1 Primary:  o2  v  p1  p2  m2  c2  f2  v  p1  Secondary:  o1  v  p1  m1  c1  f1  v
  6. 6. <ul><li>Feedback correction is essential in industrial processes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While technically, the correction should be a multiplier for a change in slope and a bias for a change in the intercept in a plot of the manipulated variable versus independent variable (independent from this loop but possibly set by another), a multiplier creates scaling problems for the user, consequently the correction of most feedforward signals is done via a bias. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bias correction must have sufficient positive and negative range for worst case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model predictive control (MPC) and PID loops get into a severe nonlinearity by creating a controlled variable that is the ratio. Instead of a ratio as the controlled variable, the independent variable is multiplied by a desired ratio and the result is corrected by a feedback loop with the process variable (composition, conductivity, gage, temperature, or pH) as the controlled variable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedforward gain is the desired ratio for flow (load) upsets. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedforward gain is the inverse of the process gain for setpoint feedforward. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process gain is the open loop gain seen by the PID (product of manipulated variable, process variable, and measurement variable gain) that is dimensionless. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedforward action must be in the same direction as feedback action for upset. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedforward action is the opposite of the control action for setpoint feedforward. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedforward delay and lag adjusted to match any additional delay and lag, respectively in path of upset so feedforward correction does not arrive too soon. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedforward lead is adjusted to compensate for any additional lag in the path of the manipulated variable so the feedforward correction does not arrive too late. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual and desired feedforward ratio should be displayed along with the bias correction by the process controller. This is often best done by the use of a ratio block and a bias/gain block instead of the internal PID feedforward calculation. </li></ul>Feedforward Implementation
  7. 7. Bias Correction of Ratio Control http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/2009/04/what_have_i_learned_-_ratio_co_1.html
  8. 8. Feedforward Demo 1 <ul><li>Objective – Show the upset without feedforward </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to Main Display, select Feedforward Loop Lab03, and click on any block </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Disturbances detail check primary upset size is 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail set primary feedforward gain = 0.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Lab03 desired run time from 600 to 70 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Lab03 mode from Explore to Run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on Trend icon next to faceplate icon and open Lab03 chart </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Feedforward Demo 2 <ul><li>Objective – Show effect of a feedforward correction arriving right on time </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail set primary feedforward gain = 1.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail set primary feedforward delay = 20 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Lab03 mode from Explore to Run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on Trend icon next to faceplate icon and look at Lab03 chart </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Feedforward Demo 3 <ul><li>Objective – Show effect of a feedforward correction arriving too late </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail set primary feedforward delay = 40 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Lab03 mode from Explore to Run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on Trend icon next to faceplate icon and look at Lab03 chart </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Feedforward Demo 4 <ul><li>Objective – Show effect of a feedforward correction arriving too early </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail set primary feedforward delay = 0 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Lab03 mode from Explore to Run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on Trend icon next to faceplate icon and look at Lab03 chart </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Feedforward Demo 5 <ul><li>Objective – Show effect of a feedforward correction arriving too early with wireless measurement and traditional PID </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail check primary feedforward delay = 0 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail set primary sensitivity = 100% & refresh = 60 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Lab03 mode from Explore to Run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on Trend icon next to faceplate icon and look at Lab03 chart </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Feedforward Applications <ul><li>Feedforward is the most common advanced control technique used - often the feedforward signal is a flow or speed for ratio control that is corrected by a feedback process controller. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? - Flow is the predominant process input that is manipulated to set production rate and to control key process outputs (e.g. composition, level, pressure, and temperature). Exception is power input. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blend composition control - additive/feed (flow/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Column temperature control - distillate/feed, reflux/feed, stm/feed, and bttms/feed (flow/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion temperature control - air/fuel (flow/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drum level control - feedwater/steam (flow/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extruder quality control - extruder/mixer (power/power) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat exchanger temperature control - coolant/feed (flow/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralizer pH control - reagent/feed (flow/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactor reaction rate control - catalyst/reactant (speed/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactor composition control - reactant/reactant (flow/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet, web, and film line machine direction (MD) gage control - roller/pump (speed/speed) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaker conductivity control - lime/liquor (speed/flow) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spin line fiber diameter gage control - winder/pump (speed/speed) ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedforward is most effective if the loop deadtime is large, disturbance speed is fast and size is large, feedforward gain is well known, feedforward measurement and dynamic compensation are accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Setpoint feedforward is most effective if the loop deadtime exceeds the process time constant and the process gain is well known. </li></ul>http://www.controlglobal.com/articles/2008/171.html “ Feeding on Feedforward” Control Talk, Control , May 2008
  14. 14. Feedforward Assumptions <ul><li>Feedforward gain can be computed from a material or energy balance Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) * & explored for different setpoints and conditions from a plot of the controlled variable (e.g. composition, conductivity, pH, temperature, or gage) vs. ratio of manipulated variable to independent variable (e.g. feed) but is most often simply based on operating experience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/repository/AdvancedApplicationNote004.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plots are based on an assumed composition, pressure, temperature, and/or quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For concentration and pH control, the flow/flow ratio is valid if the changes in the composition of both the manipulated and feed flow are negligible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For column and reactor temperature control, the flow/flow ratio is valid if the changes in the composition and temperature of both the manipulated and feed flow are negligible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For reactor reaction rate control, the speed/flow is valid if changes in catalyst quality and void fraction and reactant composition are negligible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For heat exchanger control, the flow/flow ratio is valid if changes in temperatures of coolant and feed flow are negligible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For reactor temperature control, the flow/flow ratio is valid if changes in temperatures of coolant and feed flow are negligible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For slaker conductivity (effective alkali) control, the speed/flow ratio is valid if changes in lime quality and void fraction and liquor composition are negligible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For spin or sheet line gage control, the speed/speed ratio is valid only if changes in the pump pressure and the polymer melt quality are negligible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic compensation is used to insure the feedforward signal arrives at same point at same time in process as upset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption is delay in the feedforward path is not greater than delay in upset path ! </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Feedforward Demo 6 <ul><li>Objective – Show effect of a feedforward correction arriving too early with wireless measurement and enhanced wireless PID (PIDPlus) </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail check primary feedforward delay = 0 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 PID detail, Enable Primary PIDPlus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on Trend icon next to faceplate icon and look at Lab03 chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait for process to stabilize with PIDPlus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail set primary refresh = 0 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait for process to line out with PIDPlus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lab03 Measurements detail set primary refresh = 60 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Lab03 mode from Explore to Run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on Trend icon next to faceplate icon and look at Lab03 chart </li></ul></ul>
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  17. 17. Summary of Feedforward Conclusions <ul><li>Feedforward correction for load upsets usually involves multiplying a feed flow or speed by a ratio that is corrected by a bias from a feedback process controller via a bias and gain block </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio PV and SP should be displayed and trended from a ratio block </li></ul><ul><li>An Integral-only loop can slowly correct ratio SP to match the ratio PV (similar to a valve position control whose reset time is set greater than 10x process feedback controller reset time divided by controller gain) </li></ul><ul><li>The feedforward delay, lead, and lag should be adjusted so the feedforward does not arrive too early or too late </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation of a delay in the feedforward path greater than delay in upset path is not possible. </li></ul><ul><li>A feedforward signal too early creates inverse response. </li></ul><ul><li>A feedforward signal too late creates a second disturbance. </li></ul><ul><li>Since inverse response is particularly disruptive, a conservative approach is to make the feedforward gain slightly less and the timing slightly slower than estimated requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless measurements with a PIDPlus can prevent a feedback controller from reacting to a feedforward timing error if the refresh time (default update rate) is larger than the process response time. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Help Us Improve These Deminars! WouldYouRecommend.Us/105679s21/
  19. 19. Join Us Feb 9, Wednesday 10:00 am CST <ul><li>Split Range Control (How to reduce the discontinuity, nonlinearity, and oscillations across the split range point ) </li></ul><ul><li>Look for a recording of Deminar 11 at: www.ModelingAndControl.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.EmersonProcessXperts.com </li></ul>
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