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Presentation: Substitution of Benzotriazole UV Absorbers in Plastics


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Presented at the SPE Thermoplastic Elastomers TOPCON, September 2018. This paper discusses how UV-328 and other benzotriazoles came to be classified as SVHC under REACH, and identifies potentially safer substitutes for additive users based on the results of a hazard assessment.

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Presentation: Substitution of Benzotriazole UV Absorbers in Plastics

  1. 1. BotkinChemie Substitution of Benzotriazole UV Absorbers in Plastics Jim Botkin SPE Thermoplastic Elastomers TOPCON September 20, 2018
  2. 2. BotkinChemie Benzotriazole UV Absorbers •  Widely used as light stabilizers in plastics and coatings •  Function by competitive absorption of harmful UV light •  Products with wide range of secondary properties (e.g. physical form, volatility, melting point) are available •  Substitution of some products is being driven by regulatory pressures from Europe
  3. 3. BotkinChemie Questions •  What products are affected? •  What is happening and what does it mean? •  Why are some products being regulated? •  Will other products be regulated in the future? •  How can safer substitutes be identified? •  How to formulate in new applications to minimize risks?
  5. 5. BotkinChemie Commercial Benzotriazole UV Absorbers X R R’ UV-P H H CH3 UV-234 H tert-cumyl tert-cumyl UV-320 H tert-butyl tert-butyl UV-326 Cl tert-butyl CH3 UV-327 Cl tert-butyl tert-butyl UV-328 H tert-pentyl tert-pentyl UV-329 H H tert-octyl UV-350 H sec-butyl tert-butyl UV-360 H CH2-UV-329 tert-octyl UV-928 H tert-cumyl tert-octyl
  6. 6. BotkinChemie Status in the EU: 2014-2015 •  UV-328, UV-320, UV-327, & UV-350 on the Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) –  Evaluated as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) and/or very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) –  Increased regulatory burden is driving additive users to phase out their use •  Informal evaluations of six other benzotriazoles initiated under the PACT – RMOA program
  7. 7. BotkinChemie Status in the EU: 2018 •  ECHA recommended addition of UV-328, UV-320, UV-327, and UV-350 to the REACH Annex XIV List (“Authorisation List”) in February 2018 –  Increased pressure to phase-out due to additional regulatory requirements •  PACT – RMOA evaluations of the six other benzotriazoles are still pending
  8. 8. BotkinChemie Status of Benzotriazole UV Absorbers X R R’ UV-P H H CH3 UV-234 H tert-cumyl tert-cumyl UV-320 H tert-butyl tert-butyl UV-326 Cl tert-butyl CH3 UV-327 Cl tert-butyl tert-butyl UV-328 H tert-pentyl tert-pentyl UV-329 H H tert-octyl UV-350 H sec-butyl tert-butyl UV-360 H CH2-UV-329 tert-octyl UV-928 H tert-cumyl tert-octyl On the Candidate List of SVHC, recommended to the Authorisation List Assessment under PACT – RMOA
  9. 9. BotkinChemie Status in Other Countries •  Japan Chemical Substance Control Law (CSCL) –  UV-320: Class I Specified Chemical Substance –  UV-327 & UV-350: Monitoring Chemical Substances –  No special restrictions on other benzotriazoles, including UV-328 •  USA –  No current assessments by the EPA under TSCA •  Canada –  Screening assessment of UV-328 completed with no further action •  The importance of Europe in global supply chains continues to drive additive users to replace UV-328 with safer alternatives
  11. 11. BotkinChemie Definitions •  Persistence (P) is resistance to environmental degradation through natural processes •  Bioaccumulation (B) is the tendency of a substance to accumulate in organisms •  Toxicity (T) is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism •  PBT (and vPvB) chemicals are of special concern to regulators such as ECHA and the EPA
  12. 12. BotkinChemie Benzotriazoles and PBT •  PBT properties are assessed using standardized tests •  Regulators have set criteria to designate chemicals as PBT or vPvB based on the test results •  Only UV-320, UV-327, UV-328, and UV-350 appear to meet the REACH criteria for PBT or vPvB •  Criteria used by regulators to evaluate chemicals as PBT and vPvB may be subject to change
  14. 14. BotkinChemie Hazard Assessment •  Part of a larger alternatives assessment process •  Provides a framework to rank attractiveness of alternatives based on analysis of hazard data –  Numerical ratings make comparisons easier •  Based on methods developed by or consistent with those used by regulatory agencies •  Supports informed decision-making by additive suppliers, formulators, and end users
  15. 15. BotkinChemie Examples of Hazard Assessment Methods •  GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals •  Quick Chemical Assessment Tool (QCAT) •  GreenScreen List Translator™ •  EPA TSCA Work Plan chemical scoring GreenScreen® and GreenScreen List Translator™ are trademarks of Clean Production Action
  16. 16. BotkinChemie TSCA Work Plan Chemical Scoring •  Hazard (toxicity) Scores (1-3 scale) are assigned based on data for 10 different toxicological endpoints •  Bioaccumulation (B) scores (1-3 scale) determined using experimental Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) values •  Persistence (P) scores (1-3 scale) determined based on degradation half life times •  B and P scores are normalized to give a PB score (1-3 scale) •  The PB and Hazard Scores can be summed to give a Total Score (2-6 scale)
  17. 17. BotkinChemie Benzotriazole Hazard Assessment •  Scope: UV-328 and six alternatives were assessed •  The TSCA Work Plan chemical scoring criteria were applied to data from the REACH dossiers to obtain Hazard and Bioaccumulation (B) Scores •  All of the benzotriazoles were assumed to be highly persistent and assigned Persistence (P) Scores of 3 (high) •  Normalized PB Scores were obtained by combining the P and B Scores •  Substances were ranked based on the Total Score (sum of Hazard Score and PB Score)
  18. 18. BotkinChemie Hazard Scoring UV-328 1 - 1 2 1 - 3 - 1 - 3 UV-P 1 1 1 1 1 - 2 - 1 3 3 UV-234 1 - 1 - 1 - 2 - 1 1 2 UV-326 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 UV-329 1 - 1 1 1 - 2 - 1 1 2 UV-360 1 - 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 UV-928 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 Values in italics are deemed to be of low confidence
  19. 19. BotkinChemie Calculation of Total Score Max. BCF B Score P Score PB Score Hazard Score Total Score UV-328 5,580 3 3 3 3 6 UV-P 494 1 3 2 3 5 UV-234 1,286 2 3 3 2 5 UV-326 895 1 3 2 1 3 UV-329 461 1 3 2 2 4 UV-360 1.5 1 3 2 1 3 UV-928 (1,286) 2 3 3 1 4 Values in italics are deemed to be of low confidence
  20. 20. BotkinChemie Comparison of Bioaccumulation & Toxicity Hazards UV-328 UV-P UV-234 UV-329 UV-928 UV-326 UV-360 1,000 5,000 Bioaccumulation(BCF) Hazard Score 1 (low toxicity) Hazard Score 2 (medium toxicity) Hazard Score 3 (high toxicity) 0
  22. 22. BotkinChemie Conclusions •  None of the alternatives (UV-P, UV-234, UV-326, UV-329, UV-360, UV-928) meet the REACH criteria for identification as PBT or vPvB based on available data. •  Based on the hazard assessment, the most attractive alternatives include UV-326, UV-329, UV-360, & UV-928. •  Less attractive alternatives include UV-P and UV-234.
  23. 23. BotkinChemie Recommendations •  Consider phase-out of UV-328 (and UV-320, UV-327, UV-350) in existing applications and avoid use in new applications. •  Based on the results of the hazard assessment, UV-326, UV-329, UV-360, and UV-928 represent preferred alternatives to UV-328. •  GreenScreen® assessments of UV-P and UV-234 would be helpful to better understand their inherent hazards and suitability as alternatives to UV-328. •  Hazard assessments can be used to identify other substances of concern (flame retardants, plasticizers, etc.) and safer alternatives. •  In today’s regulatory environment, assessing hazards is as important as assessing performance, cost, and commercial availability.
  24. 24. BotkinChemie Thank you for your attention! Jim Botkin (732) 309-3476 DISCLAIMER: Although the information and recommendations set forth herein (hereinafter "information") are presented in good faith and believed to be correct as of the date hereof, BotkinChemie makes no representation as to the completeness or accuracy thereof. Information is supplied upon the condition that persons receiving it will make their own determinations as to its suitability for their purpose prior to its use. In no event will BotkinChemie be responsible for damages of any nature whatsoever resulting from the use of or reliance upon information. No representations or warranties either expressed or implied, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or of any other nature are made hereunder with respect to information for any substance to which information refers. No statements herein are to be construed as inducements to infringe any valid patent. This presentation © 2018 James H. Botkin dba BotkinChemie