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Significance of nursing education

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Significance of nursing education

  1. 1. The Significance of Nursing Education JILLIAN NICHOLS CASTLETON UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. Professionalism in Nursing A profession is a group within an occupation that has a set of attitudes, behaviors, or both. The criteria of a true profession share the following characteristics (Black, 2017): 1. Prolonged training that is specialized in an abstract area of knowledge. 2. A service based orientation. 3. Ideology which is based on the faith of the members. 4. Binding ethics within the practitioners. 5. Knowledge that is unique to the members. 6. Skill sets that form the techniques of the profession. 7. An organization which entitles those to practice in the profession. 8. Authority which is granted by society. These individuals are licensed or certified in their practice. 9. Practice in a recognized professional setting. 10. A theory of shared benefits that are taken from the ideology. (Black, 2017)
  3. 3. Characteristics of a “Profession” To be Professional one must: ◦ Be respectful ◦ Be ethical ◦ Be honest ◦ Be the best ◦ Be consistent ◦ Ba a communicator ◦ Be accountable ◦ Be collaborative ◦ Be forgiving ◦ Be current ◦ Be involved ◦ Be a model nurse ◦ Be responsible for your own learning ◦ Be prepared (Black, 2017)
  4. 4. Professionalism in Nursing A profession develops from an occupation that originally consisted of tasks but became specialized by developing educational pathways and publicly legitimized status. A profession differs from an occupation in its preparation and commitment (Black, 2017). Professions follow a sequenced development. The process includes the following components: ◦ The work performed is full-time. Work standards are determined, a body of knowledge is identified and an educational program is established in an institution of higher learning. ◦ Organizations are promoted into occupational associations and legal protection is established to protect the limited practice of the unique skills by outsiders. ◦ A code of ethics is established. (Black, 2017)
  5. 5. Facilitators and Barriers to Professionalism in Nursing Nurses have struggled to be recognized as professionals (Black, 2017). The following have been known to contribute to the facilitators and barriers to professionalism in nursing: ◦ Nursing Education Preparation ◦ Gender Issues ◦ Historical Influences ◦ Ethical Issues ◦ Internal Conflicts ◦ External Conflicts
  6. 6. Barriers in Nursing Education Nursing Education Preparation ◦ Professional preparation takes place in a college or university. It includes a specialized body of knowledge and skills within the profession. Beliefs, values, and attitudes are taught which are expected of the members within the profession. Standards and ethical concerns are also taken into consideration (Black, 2017). ◦ There are varying entry levels of education in nursing. This causes an obvious barrier. The three levels of entry in nursing include: ◦ The BSN, the ADN, and the diploma nurse. No other profession allows for variability or entry into practice with less than a bachelor’s degree. This causes controversy and questions how nursing can be called a profession when most nurses do not hold a bachelor’s degree (Black, 2017).
  7. 7. Barriers in Nursing Education Barriers in nursing education include nurses who are presently practicing as registered nurses without a bachelor’s degree. Many nurses are the financial providers for their families. These nurses choose the associate’s degree because of the timely entry into the workforce. Other reason’s nurses choose an associate’s degree education are based on family and time constraints, child care issues and not having incentives to continue their education (Sarver, Cichra, & Kline, 2015). “Barriers to returning to school have included lack of time, lack of funding, negative experiences in the past, and role conflict” (Sarver et al., 2015, p.154).
  8. 8. Facilitators in Nursing Education In addition to the technical aspects in nursing, baccalaureate programs include evidence-based clinical practice and leadership skills through research in their coursework (Haverkamp & Ball, 2013). Motivators of practicing nurses include financial support from institutions and facilities, flexible education programs, increased knowledge and personal satisfaction (Sarver et al., 2015).
  9. 9. Gender Issues Gender politics in nursing have been known to create a barrier for the nursing profession. Nursing has predominantly been known as women’s work. Although more men are joining the profession, a gender balance may never occur (Black, 2017). Society’s perception of a nurse is the most common barrier to males entering the profession of nursing (Gheller & Lordly, 2015). Women’s work is constantly being devalued in our society. This has created an ongoing struggle for the nursing profession (Black, 2017).
  10. 10. Historical Influences on Professional Nursing The nursing profession “has been influenced by the social, political, and economic climate of the times, as well as by technological advances and theoretical shifts in medicine and science (Black, 2017, p.25). The important influential figures in nursing history created pathways for fellow nurses to follow as we embrace the profession and associated education required to be experts. Florence Nightingale ◦ An important historical figure in nursing. Nightingale is highly associated with the development of modern-day nursing. Nightingale focused her studies on the impact of infection control, hospital epidemiology, and hospice care (Black, 2017). Isabelle Hampton Robb ◦ a central figure in nursing. Robb helped build the professional path for nursing education. She focused on making professional and political connections to advancing nursing and the quality of patient care (Black, 2017).
  11. 11. Ethical Issues in Professional Nursing Ethics are used to define the actions an individual should use in a situation. Ethics involve the use of critical thinking and are process oriented. Having a clear code of ethics is hallmark for a mature profession (Black, 2017). “A code of ethics is a written, public document that reminds practitioners and the public they serve of the specific responsibilities and obligations accepted by the profession’s practitioners” (Black, 2017, p.59). ◦ Ethical barriers in nursing involve nurses who have beliefs, values or morals which differ from the standard of care but must uphold an obligation due to the code of ethics. The ANA published a position statement in 1983, this Code of Ethics is nonnegotiable and must be upheld by all nurses. The ANA Code of Ethics protects patients by establishing clear standards of care (Black, 2017).
  12. 12. External Conflicts ◦ Tension has been created between nursing and medicine. Nurses are becoming highly educated individuals. Advanced practice nurses are increasing in number, assuming the responsibility for patient care that was once considered the job of a physician. ◦ Professional associations are making efforts in state legislature to ensure the legal scope of nursing is protected and reflects the current training and expertise of the professional nurse (Black, 2017). ◦ Nursing shortages can occur due to internal and external factors. External nursing shortages are caused by the aging population, demand for nursing services, a greater degree of illness occurring in hospitalized patients (Black, 2017).
  13. 13. Internal Conflicts The power and influence of professional nursing has been disjointed by subgroups. ◦ Tension created between diploma, associate-degree and bachelor-degree educated nurses have reduced the strength of the profession (Black, 2017). ◦ Competition among members of nursing organizations diminish nursing’s influence in health care by diluting the number of stakeholders across the organizations. ◦ Less than 10% of the RN’s in the United States are members of the ANA. Since most nurses are not members of a professional organization it hampers the ability of nurses to govern themselves, set standards, and use collective power for lobbying, causing major challenges for nursing’s collective professional power and autonomy (Black, 2017).
  14. 14. Nursing’s Position on the Professionalism Continuum Nursing is a profession. ◦ Although nurses have varying levels of education, we uphold the standards it takes to be a professional workforce. Nurse’s are forever continuing their education. The healthcare field is forever changing with new standards of care and best practice being brought into practice. Nurses who don’t stay current on changing practices are not practicing to the best of their abilities. Healthcare facilities and institutions required nurses to complete yearly competencies which require all nurses to have the same knowledge and skill sets. ◦ Nurses uphold the ANA’s Code of Ethics. ◦ Nurses use theories and philosophy to guide the ever changing practice. ◦ Nurses practice services in regulated settings approved by the JCAHO and State Boards of Nursing. ◦ Nurses are licensed by their states and certified by specialty nursing organizations. ◦ Nurses join associations and organizations in their specialty areas to stay currant with best evidenced-based practice.
  15. 15. Influences on the Growth of Baccalaureate Education Studies on nursing and nursing education have shown the need for nursing education and clinical based knowledge from science and humanities (Black, 2017). The following reports have been shown as influences to the growth of bachelors education. ◦ In 1948, Lucille Brown published Nursing for the Future, also known as the Brown Report. ◦ The Brown Report recommends that basic nursing schools be placed in universities and colleges. Brown also recommends that men and minorities be recruited into nursing programs (Black, 2017). ◦ In 1965, the ANA published a position paper known as Educational Preparation for Nurse Practitioners and Assistants to Nurses. ◦ The ANA concluded in this position paper that a bachelor’s education should be the foundation for professional practice. The ANA also agreed that education should take place in an institution of higher learning (Black, 2017).
  16. 16. Influences on the Growth of Baccalaureate Education ◦ In 1970, the National Commission for the Study of Nursing and Nursing Education published An Abstract for Action, also known as the Lysaught Report. ◦ The Lysaught Report made recommendations relating to the supply and demand for nurses, the roles and functions of nurses, along with nursing education. The report supported “the need for increased research into both the practice and the education of nurses” along with “enhanced educational systems and curricula” (Black, 2017, p.71). ◦ In 1982, the National League for Nursing (NLN) approved a position statement called the Position Statement on Nursing Roles: Scope and Preparation. ◦ The NLN acknowledged the bachelor’s degree as the minimum education for professional nurses and the associates or diploma degree for technical nursing practice (Black, 2017). ◦ In 1996, The AACN board approved The Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing as Minimal Preparation for Professional Practice. ◦ The document approved by the AACN supports programs which enable associate degree nurses to obtain their bachelor’s degree (Black, 2017).
  17. 17. Media Images in Nursing The Woodhall Study ◦ A comprehensive study of nursing conducted in 1997. Seventeen students and three faculty from University of Rochester found that “Nurses and the nursing profession are essentially invisible to the media and, consequently, to the American public” (Black, 2017 p.41). The Johnson & Johnson Campaign • A campaign conducted by the giant health care corporation in 2002. It consisted of a campaign for the future of nursing, “to enhance the image of the nursing profession, recruit new nurses and educators, and to retain nurses currently in the system” (Black, 2017 p. 41). The Truth about Nursing • A mission created by the nonprofit organization to “increase public understanding of the central, front- line role nurses play in modern health care” (Black, 2017, p. 42).
  18. 18. Media Images of Nursing Transformed through Professional Education Media portrays the nursing profession in positive and negative ways. As nurses it is our job to be educated and learn what is an appropriate media image of the nursing profession. Nurses need to take responsibility of public images by becoming sensitive to the media (Black, 2017). Media will help transform professional nursing education by portraying nurses as professional, caring and educated individuals. Media is a powerful tool in our world today. Media can entice nurses to continue their education and the portray the positive view’s of nurses around the world.
  19. 19. References Black, B. P. (2017). Professional nursing: Concepts & challenges (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Gheller, B., & Lordly, D. (2015). Males in dietetics, what can be learned from the nursing profession? A narrative review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, 76(4). https://doi.org/10.3148/cjdpr-2015-016 Haverkamp, J., & Ball, K. (2013). BSN in 10: What is Your Opinion? AORN Journal, 98(2), 144-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2013.06.006 Sarver, W., Cichra, N., & Kline, M. (2015). Perceived benefits, motivators and barriers to advancing nurse education: Removing barriers to improve success. Nursing Education Perspectives, 36(3), 153-156. https://doi.org/10.5480/14-1407

Editor's Notes

  • The diploma nurse completes a hospital-based program. The associate degree nurse (ADN) completes 2 years of schooling at a college or university. The bachelor prepared nurse (BSN) completes 4 years of school at a college or university.
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