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Historical Background of Science and Technology in the Philippines

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  1. 1. Historical Background of Science and Technology in the Philippines<br />Group 3 <br />Dayan, Herschel <br />Delos Reyes, Kristine<br />Dizon, Justin <br />Enriquez, Renz<br />Estrada, Gemee<br />Garcia, Clarissa<br />Genuino, Jill<br />
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  5. 5. Pre-colonial<br />Simple technological development for early Filipinos’ practical needs<br />Lavishly surrounded by natural resources= they were not pressured in inventing<br />Accdg. To Spaniards(1565): disseminated and autonomous communities had uneven technological development<br />Paleolithic Era Metal Age 500 A.D.: Double bellows technology<br />(300,000-10,000 years ago) (around 3095 B.C.-500 B.C)10th century A.D<br />stone tools building boats<br /> Neolithic Erafor coastal trade-<br />polished stone tools, highly developed technology<br /> practiced pottery, and <br /> developed science of agriculture <br />improvements in farming, hunting, fishing, house and boat building and production of food <br />new industries: tinsmithing, jewelry and ceramic making <br />
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  7. 7. Spanish Regime<br />
  8. 8. Spanish Regime<br />No schools yet that can offer engineering =few people go to Europe to study.<br />January 1, 1820-1st nautical School established (for the profession pilot of merchant marine)<br />1887-1st school of Agriculture<br />-provide theoretical and practical education of skilled farmers and oversees and to promote agricultural development in the Philippines<br />
  9. 9. Spanish Regime<br />University of Santo Tomas<br /> -highest institution of learning<br /> -run by the Dominicans<br /> -1611, established by Fray Miguel de Benavides<br /> -offered courses: theology, philosophy and humanities <br /> -but 18th century the jurisprudence and canon law established<br />
  10. 10. Spanish Regime<br />1871-1886: UST granted the degree of Licenciado en Medicina to 82 graduates<br />for the doctorate degree in medicine at least and additional year of study was required at Universidad Cental de Madrid in Spain.<br />There were also 164 pharmacy graduates when the University first offered the bachelor’s degree in Pharmacy, among them was Leon Ma. Guerrero referred to as the “Father of Philippine Pharmacy.<br />
  11. 11. Spanish Regime<br />Higher education feared by colonial authorities<br /> -might encourage conspiracy and rebellion <br /> =only the more daring and persevering students -able to study<br />
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  13. 13. First Republic<br />Universidad Literaria de Filipinas(secular and state supported institution of higher learning)-established by Emilio Aguinaldo because of education deprivation during Spanish colonialism<br />Out of the eight-million Philippine population, only <br />less than half a million knew how to speak, read or write.<br />“Importance of education in nation building”revolutionary leaders yearned to uphold an education system (Civil and Criminal Law, Administrative Law, Medicine and Surgery, Pharmacy and studies pertaining to the Notarial Profession)<br />
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  15. 15. American period<br />advanced  rapidly <br />Americans support us in financial aspects<br />-gave scholarships for higher education in science and engineering <br />-established science based public services and research agencies<br />January 21, 1901:Philippine Commission promulgated Act No. 74 -establishment of schools that will give free education to all the Filipinos<br />Introduced science  subjects  and industrial  and  vocational education <br />Establishment of Philippine Normal School to train Filipino teachers.<br />Most of the early instructors and professors-Americans and other foreigners.<br />Some Filipinos(qualified)-sent abroad to enhance their knowledge and for advanced training.<br />Later on, foreign faculty-gradually replaced by Filipinos<br />1903:they sent 135 boys and girls of high school age to United States to be educated as teachers, engineers, physicians and lawyers<br /> PENSIONADOS, they were to serve in the public service for 5 years after their studies<br />1905: Philippine Medical School- established, followed by other  professional  and  technical schools<br />1905:Bureau of Science, a valuable training ground for Filipino scientists-created<br />June 18, 1908: University of the Philippines was created and the 1st colleges to be opened were: the College of  Agriculture  in  Los Baños,  Laguna in 1909 - the Colleges of Liberal Arts,  Engineering and  Veterinary Medicine in 1910 - the College of Law  in  1911.  <br />In Field of Medicine- Philippine Commission provided as many scholarships for Filipinos to be engaged in this profession<br /> Recipients of scholarships-required to return to their provinces and serve there for as many years as his education was paid by the government<br />
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  17. 17. Commonwealth<br />1935-Philippine Commonwealth Constitution acknowledged importance of promoting  scientific development for the economic development of the country<br />incorporated a  provision (Article XIII, Section 4):"The State shall promote scientific research and invention,  Arts and Letters shall be under its patronage..."<br />
  18. 18. Commonwealth<br />Occupation of the Philippines by the Japanese during War educational and scientific activities stopped because citizens joined the resistance movement. <br />Manila, the  center  of all educational and  scientific  activities,razed to the ground<br />Philippines became  an independent  state<br />Government had to contend with economic reconstruction,  normalization of operations as well as the  task of planning the direction of economic development<br />
  19. 19. Commonwealth<br />Government worked towards the development of our economy to be independent<br />Several government corporations were created and reorganized<br />Namely: <br />National Power Corporation<br />National Development Company<br />National  Abaca  and  Other  Fibers  <br /> Corporation<br />Bureau of Mines<br />
  20. 20. Commonwealth<br />Government encouraged and provided assistance to private Filipino businessmen in the establishment of industries and manufacturing enterprises. <br />increased  appropriations for  the  Bureaus  of Science, Plant  and  Animal  Industry,  and thus encouraged  more  scientific research for industrial purposes.<br />In spite of all these efforts, Commonwealth  government -unable  to achieve its goal of  economic  self-reliance primarily because foreign trade and tariff policies remained under the control of American  government.  <br />
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  22. 22. Post-war period<br />1946:number of state universities and college has been increasing<br />Even if the number of Graduates increased, the proportion of those in agriculture, medical and natural sciences remained LOW.<br />Eventually, rise of organizations of scientists followed closely the higher education in the Philippines<br />The earliest organization were MEDICINE and PHARMACY.<br />
  23. 23. Curriculum Innovation! Medicine/Science<br />PMA (Philippine Medical Association)<br />Limiting enrollment in medical colleges<br />Adding courses required for the medical degree<br />More exposure to students to community medicine <br />Experimental curriculum to produce doctors of rural areas<br />
  24. 24. Curriculum InnovationTechnology<br />The Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineering<br />Initiation of series of conferences for the improvement of the curriculum.<br />DEC (Department of Education and Culture) convened meetings for educators to update and adopt uniform core curricula for all universities and colleges to follow.<br />These developments took place in 1973-1974<br />
  25. 25. Hindrances!<br />Government’s lack of support <br />The neglect of experimental work and meager appropriation in the national budget for scientific researches<br /> low salaries of government scientists.<br />Low morale of scientists<br />Lack of public awareness of science<br />
  26. 26. SOLUTION<br />Creation of NATIONAL SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT BOARD (NSDB)<br /><ul><li>To formulate policies for the development of science and coordinate the work of science agencies.</li></ul>Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)<br />National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST)<br />
  27. 27. Agencies CREATED!<br />Philippine Inventors Commission <br />Philippine Coconut Research Institute <br />Philippine Textile Research Institute <br />Forest Products Research and Industries Development Commission<br />Metals Industry Research and Development Center<br />Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research<br />
  28. 28. References<br />Garcia, C. D.(n.d.). Philippine History and Government. Mandaluyong City: Books Atbp. Publishing Corp.<br />Viloria, E. M., Dela Cruz, N. R., and Legaspi, R. V.(Eds.).(n.d.).Philippines: History and Government. Quezon City: Vibal Publishing House, Inc. <br />Caoili, O. C. (1986). A History of Science and Technology in the Philippines.<br />