Professional preparation &training for counselling
DEFINITION OF COUNSELLING Counseling is a helping process where one person ,explicitly and purposefully gives his/her time ,attention and skill to assist a client to explore the situation ,identify solutions within the limitations of their given environment.
ATTRIBUTES AND SKILL REQUIRED OF A COUNSELLOR For effective counseling the counselor needs to demonstrate certain attitude ,skills and knowledge. There are two types of counselors attributes:- PRE TRAINING ATTRIBUTES INTER TRAINING ATTRIBUTES
PRE TRAINING ATTRIBUTES1. SELF AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING A person who has awareness of her needs, motivation for helping ,feelings, personal strength and weakness acts as a good counselor.2. GOOD PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH Although no persons is totally problem free but a person with less problems or good psychological health can be trained to be counselor.
3. SENSITIVITY A person who is aware of resources ,limitations and vulnerability of other persons feelings and need are considered to have sensitivity.4. OPEN MINDNESS A person who is free from fixed or pre occupied ideas .They are aware of their own values and beliefs and are able to distinguish them from the beliefs and values of others.
5. THRUST WORTHINESS A person who is reliable ,honest and does not hurt other persons. He/She keep the information to herself.6. APPROACHABILITY The counselor who is friendly has positive attitudes about others and can be approached without a feeling of apprehension.
INTER TRAINING ATTRIBUTES A counselor need to have skills in interviewing .Infact without these skills a counselor cannot counsel. Stewart etal (1978) have identified six components of interviewing skills .They are:-1.)INTERVIEW SETTING AND GREETING STARTED A. PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT The chairs should face each other with a learning facility for both. The closeness of counselor helps in indicating the attentiveness
B. GREETINGS A warm and friendly greeting facilitate the helping process. eg:Shaking hands with the individual or greeting with a smile.C. INVITING THE INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPATION Counselor should not waste time on rituals like “oh”,Todays climate is very good etc.But should start the interview by asking the individuals why they have come for counseling .simple statements such as “ so may I help you”?or “What should you like to discussed.
D. MAINTAINING EYE CONTACT Eye contact helps in building personal relationship and permits the counselor to observe non verbal behavior.E. DEMONSTRATING PROPER BODY POSTURE An attentive and relaxed counselor helps in building intimate atmosphere. A mobile posture Allows freedom to movement and ability to use the body to assist in communications.
2.) PROBLEM FOCUSS Most counseling is short term , so the counselor should assist the individual to focus on important problems.3.) IDENTIFYING AN IMPORTANT THEME While the individual is talking the counselor should try to identify the important theme by observing the individuals pre occupations and the emotional significance attached to the topics.
4.) FOCUSSING ON A THEME The counselor should direct verbalization of the individual once the theme has been identified.5.) DIRECTING THE THEME TOWARDS THE GOAL Once the theme has been identified and explored in sufficient depth to have an understanding if individuals self perception and environment.
6.)MANAGING INTERACTION WITH THE INDIVIDUAL To Facilitate the discussion, more skills are needed ,the following techniques may be used to continue the interaction. a.) Restatement It involves putting the individuals statement into different words to draw the attention or to point out the individual what she is finding difficult to verbalize.
b.) Interpretation It is used to counselor while presenting solutions to the individual for mutual consideration. the purpose is to have different perspective of the same solution.c.) Managing Pause and Silence Pauses and silence are important techniques in counseling but too long pauses and silence may give a feeling of avoidance.
CHARACTERISTICS OR QUALITIES OF A COUNSELLORI.) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Friendly nature Sympathetic ,understanding Sincerity Patience Tactfulness Ability to maintain confidentiality Respects clients attitudes and needs Attentive listener Speaks in clients languages Capacity for being trusted by others
II.) PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT Shows matured behaviour,Integrated personality Maintains emotional stability Flexilibility and adaptability Aware about ones limitations Shows self respect and self confidenceIII.) SCHOLASTIC POTENTIALITIES AND EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS Should be motivated and committed Aware of polices ,beliefs, misconceptions and rumors existing with in the local community.
Capacity for work Positive interest Scholastic aptitude Respects the facts He will have masters degree in essential areas of guidance programmed the area in training are:- a.) Counselor process b.) Understanding the individual c.) Educational, occupational and vocational information d.) Administrative relationship
e.) Research and evaluation proceduresf.) Additional training in behavioral sciences (Psychology & Sociology)IV. HEALTH AND PERSONAL APPEARANCE Pleasing voice Pleasing appearanceV. LEADERSHIP Ability to stimulate and lead others Reinforces important information
VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE Good character Positive philosophy of life Integrated personality Shows significant spiritual and religious valuesVII. PROFESSIONAL DEDICATION Interest in guidance work, professional attitude Shows loyalty
Had strong sense of professional ethics Maintaining helping relationship Shows interest in research activity Uses psychotherapy in solving client problemsVIII. FAITH IN THE SPIRITUAL QUALITY OF THE WORLD RESPECTS UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES OF RELIGIONIX. HAD A SENSE OF MORALITY
FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNCELLOR Councilor plays an vital role in the counseling process .the general objective of counseling is to help the client to improve their mental health and develop in selfconfidence,understanding ,self control and ability to work effectively .the various functions of councilor include :- 1.) ADVICE One of the important function of counseling is offering advice to counselee. The councilor has to understand the problem of the counselee.
2.) REASSURANCE In order to give courage to face a problem confidently,counselling provides clients with reassurance .normally reassurance is not acceptable to the counselee.3.) COMMUNICATION Counseling will improve both upwards and downward communications abilities of the counselees.
4.) REALASE OF EMOTIONAL TENSION Releasing emotional tension is an important function of counseling . People feel emotional release from their frustration after counseling.5.) CLARIFIED THINKING Release of tension and thereby removal of mental of mental blocks ton the solution through counseling allows the counselee to think freely and objectively.
Thus clarified thinking tends to be the result of emotional release.6.) REORIENTATION Reorientation is not just emotional release or clear thinking. but it involves a change in the counselee’s psychic self through a change in the basic goals and values.
COUNSELLOR PREPARATION A.) Education: Masters or bachelors degree in teaching and education .they should have basic course in principles and practice of the guidance programmed and additional area of training either in behaviour sciences of community health. B.) Experience: 2 years in teaching or counseling experience. 1 year of cumulative work experience in the field of school programmed.
3-6 months of supervised counseling experience. Significant experience in social activities ( eg: working with in the community ,volunteer work, participating community training programmed)