DEFINITION OF TEACHING In my mind teaching is not merely a life work, a profession, an occupation, a struggle , it is passion. William Lyon Teaching refers to activities that are designed and performed to produce change in student behavior Clarke
LECTURING Presentation of the content by the teacher to the students usually accompanied by some type of visual aid or hand out.
GUIDELINESGENERAL :• Try to motivate your students for attending to your lecture not only in the beginning but to maintain it throughout.• Try to make use of the skill of stimulus variation by introducing the elements like pausing , changing voice tone , using gestures and physical movements, adopting multimedia approach etc.
GUIDELINES……• Don’t waste your time in irrelvant facts and unrequired detailed explanation• Don’t turn your lecturing into mere paper reading or notes dictating task.• Try to summarize the key points of the presented material at the end of your lecture.• Evaluation task at end of the lesson or in mid course.
GUIDELINES……MOVEMENTS:• Take centre stage – do not get stuck in a corner or behind a desk• Face the audience – do not face the board or screen when speaking• Make eye contact with the students in all sections of the audience.• Use natural gestures and facial expression - but try to avoid mannerism
GUIDELINES……• Move around the room – approach people to get their attention and response• Avoid blocking the audience’s view - watch for craning necks
GUIDELINES……SPEECH:• Slow and clear , and loud enough of everyone to hear naturally and lively – varied• Write difficult new words on the board , pronounce and explain them
GUIDELINES…… INTERACTION:• Try to interact with all participants – use name as appropriate• Ask the question suggested in the text- ask different participants• Allow time for the participant to answer- don’t give answer too quickly –drop hints• Respond encouragingly and positively to all answer – correct errors gently
GUIDELINES……• Involve all students- include quiet ones – control talkative ones• Avoid discussion which are off point or distracting – postpone them if necessary• Try to give satisfactory answers to questions from participants
GUIDELINES……VISUAL AIDS:• Have the required aids and equipment ready – check and arrange them before the session• Make sure that everyone can see clearly- arrange the room so that they can point to what you are taking about on the projector, or on the screen cover• Write large and clear on the board
GUIDELINES……USE OF MATERIALS:• Do not introduce too much extra material – but give local examples.• Emphasize important points – do not leave important point out• Try to avoid repetition unless really useful• If you find it necessary to read from the guide look at the audience sometimes
GUIDELINES……• Consult useful reference books, current journals.• In support of your lecturing , you may need to apply various tactics and techniques like question and answer, demonstration, use of black board , use of proper display material and Av aids .
GUIDELINES……TIME MANAGEMENT:• Keep to time – not too fast or nor too slow
ADVANTAGES• Lecture is a method familiar to most teachers because it was typically the way they were taught .• Lecturing is a straightforward way to impart knowledge to students quickly• Instructors also have a greater control over what is being taught in the class room because they are the sole source of information
ADVANTAGES ……• A large number of students can be accommodated at one time.• It stimulates thinking to open discussion.• Multiple resources persons, knowledgeable and with different points of view can interact with students.• Allows information of facts ,information and concepts in a relatively short span of time.
CHARACTERISTIC Educator-student interaction No interaction Two-way communication One-way communication Educator-student questions Few questions Variety of supporting media No supporting media Shared responsibility for active No student activities learning Small group, problem-solving Student depends on educator for all activities information Limited note taking required (students Extensive note taking requiredhave copies of lecture notes)
TIPS : To Reduce Presentation Anxiety• Avoid eating a big meal before the lecture. • Arrive early to make sure that everything is ready before the first student arrives. • Make sure all of the media equipment is working. • Locate and check the lighting• Decide where the lecture notes will be placed (e.g., on desk, table) when they are not being held.
MORE TIPS• Have a glass of water available during the lecture. • Go for a short walk just before the lecture. • Look over your lecture notes one last time. • Take a few deep breaths to relax before beginning the lecture.
SUMMARY• The first few minutes of a lecturer are important plan them well.• Verbal communication skills are critical.• Nonverbal communication skills also are very important. these include eye contact , positive facial expression ,gestures and movement.• Effective questioning and interaction.• Evaluation(video recording or an observer can assist)