PlanningAuthor: Jihad Daniel (Construction Consultant)
Index1. Planning2. Project Schedule3. Types of Schedule4. Project Management Planning5. Work Breakdown Structure6. Cost and Resource Loading7. Delay Analysis Procedure
1. Planning Planning is an important investment in the success of a project. Carrying out the process not only prepares you for what lies ahead, ensuring you have adequate resources and use them in the most effective way possible, but also can warn you that a plan is not worth pursuing. This is valuable information, however frustrating it may be! Good Planning takes place in a cycle, with evaluation following detailed planning. Where evaluation indicates a plan should not be followed, you can still return to take a different course with minimal loss. After a plan you assess the plan, and learn how to improve your planning and execution.
1. Planning •Spotting What Needs to be Done By spotting new ideas, SWOT Analysis, or responding to outside pressure. •Identifying the Aim of your Plan By asking yourself how you want the future to be. Maybe prepare a vision or mission statement. •Exploring Options Firstly evaluating a number of options by logical thinking, Brain Storming or research. Selecting options with e.g. Decision Trees.
1. Planning •Detailed Planning By identifying key activities, prioritizing and target setting, and by putting control mechanisms into place. The plan will be better if it is structured clearly, if you have won support for it, have considered transitional arrangements and have though about contingencies.
1. Planning •Plan Evaluation This allows you to work out the likelihood of your plan working before you try to implement it. Techniques such as cost/benefit analysis, PMI, Force Field Analysis, Cash Flow Forecasting and Risk Analysis can alert you to unsuspected considerations. Information learned can be fed back into the plan. Plan evaluation should also consider unquantifiable points such as ethics, effects on people, and the environment. Where a plan is not likely to work, it should either be adjusted, other options could be explored, or the plan could be scrapped.
1. Planning •Implementing Change Once you have selected a plan, you will have to implement it. To do this you will need to monitor execution of the plan so that you can apply corrections if necessary. You may have to understand and overcome resistance to change. •Closing a Plan Here the success or failure of the plan is acknowledged, and information is fed back into future planning.
2. Project Schedule A project schedule is a strategic and an important tool in a project managers portfolio for guiding a project successfully to its target completion date. For simple projects, a project schedule is basically a timeline or calendar which lists tasks and activities with expected start and finish dates. For more complex projects, a project schedule can be layered with different details to enable project managers to direct and manage resources more smoothly, communicate more frequently and effectively with stakeholders, and identify and monitor dependencies and constraints between tasks to avert preventable delays.
2. Project Schedule The project schedule can be expressed in several display forms depending upon the purpose of the schedule, the stage of the development of the project, and the primary user of the schedule. The three most common types of project schedules are the master project schedule, the milestone schedule, and the detailed schedule.
3. Types of Project Schedule 1. Master Project Schedule Developed in the initial phase of project planning, the master project schedule is a summary level schedule which highlights the principal activities and tasks and their estimated duration. This schedules strength lies in its ability to aggregate individual activity schedules and display them in one convenient document. The schedule can serve as an early communication tool for building buy- in for the project with upper level management and external stakeholders. The schedule is also useful for facilitating team brainstorming during the initial phases of the project to work out logistics.
3. Types of Project Schedule 1. Master Project Schedule
3. Types of Project Schedule 2. Milestone Schedule As an advanced schedule, a milestone schedule is often referred to throughout the project’s life cycle. The milestone schedule is a summary level schedule that allows the project team leader to review and identify all of the significant and major project related milestones that may surface during the course of a project. A milestone is a significant event in the project usually marked by the completion of a major deliverable. Because of its visually- pleasing format, the milestone schedule is recommended for reporting status reports to top level management and external stakeholders.
3. Types of Project Schedule 2. Milestone Schedule
3. Types of Project Schedule 3. Detailed Schedule Detailed schedules are operational schedules intended to help front line managers in directing hourly, daily, or weekly project work. The detailed schedule is considered the execution playbook for the project. Analogous to a football playbook that can be broken down into activities (passes and runs) or the two sides of the game (offense and defence), the detailed project schedule playbook can be broken down into chapters to show the detailed schedule for each activity or each phase of the project as it unfolds.
3. Types of Project Schedule 3. Detailed Schedule
4. Project Management Planning 4.0. Introduction Traditional project management often do not attach importance to the management of planning, resulting in large-scale projects in the comprehensive management of organizations often overlap, accusing the division of labor is unknown, targeted plan is not strong, the work is not specific, information is not open, and other issues delayed the progress of the projects . Project management planning can be adopted in the project planning documents before the start of the form of a very good solution to these problems. Project Management Planning main content includes the following:
4. Project Management Planning 4.1. Determine the Organizational Structure By considering the process of project construction, in project implementation are project planning and decision- making stage, the early stage of the project, the project design stage, tender stage of the project, the project construction stage, project acceptance and summary evaluation stage. In accordance with the phasing of the work should be the creation of specialized units of the relevant administrative departments to manage.
4. Project Management Planning 4.2. Decomposition of Project Management Objectives Project decomposition is the core project management content. Project management in the development of project planning should be the goal of total control, including investment, progress, quality, security and other control objectives, and then will break down these overall objectives, can be broken down into various components of the specific implementation, through a variety of targeted technical, economic, organizational and management measures to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the various decomposition and thus achieve the overall objective of the project.
4. Project Management Planning 4.3. Decomposition of Project Contract Project management is carried out under market conditions in particular the management of trading activities, trading activity continued to work the whole process of project management, and integrated large-scale projects in various types of contracts, the number of large, it is necessary to carry out the decomposition of the contract, the contract decomposition After the monitoring of contract performance, coupled with the implementation of the project to deal with changes in the contract.
4. Project Management Planning 4.4. Decomposition of Project Management Work 4.4.1 : Pre-production Management The project to conduct a detailed environmental investigation, analysis of its planning; preparation of feasibility studies, feasibility studies for analysis and planning; the preparation of project reports at the idea of building a whole, clearly identified issues and report submitted for approval to build the work of program to identify matters of the staff reported that the division of labor to build.
4. Project Management Planning 4.4. Decomposition of Project Management Work 4.4.2 :Design Management Make sure the entire projects architectural style and planning program, the selected program to optimize the design; the development of survey and design progress control program, specifically designed accused; tracking the progress of inspections; involved in the analysis and assessment of building use function, size distribution, the architectural design standards; to review the design stages of the design documents; control design changes, design changes to check the reasonableness of the economy.
4. Project Management Planning 4.4. Decomposition of Project Management Work 4.4.3: Tender management An initial contract for the entire project to determine the structure of the contract means the planning project; by determining the structure of the contract, the contract means the preparation of project tenders the progress of planning, a clear duty of the parties concerned: the drafting of a need for the main material equipment list; commissioned by the tender agent, the different professional engineering review of tender documents, the tender process in the development of risk management strategy; review the price-cap Budget: Organization contract negotiations, signing of the contract.
4. Project Management Planning 4.4. Decomposition of Project Management Work 4.4.4: Construction management The progress of the preparation of project planning, construction progress to determine the overall objectives, clear responsibilities of relevant parties; organizational design of low cross-check the implementation of preparatory work for construction; review of construction organization design, personnel, equipment, materials availability; for government approval to start the necessary matters; audit approach and testing materials, finished products, the quality of semi-finished products and equipment; review the organizational structure
4. Project Management Planning 4.4. Decomposition of Project Management Work 4.4.4: Construction management supervision, supervision planning; the preparation of the construction phase of the annual, quarterly, monthly fund use plan and control their implementation; inspection of construction the production of safe and civilized unit of measure is in line with national and local requirements. 4.4.5: final acceptance and settlement management The main content management are: the completion of the preparation of project acceptance and settlement planning, the unit works to determine
4. Project Management Planning 4.4. Decomposition of Project Management Work 4.4.5: final acceptance and settlement management acceptance, transfer and settlement of the overall objective, clearly related to duties of the parties; the implementation of concluding the contract, the completion of the case data; organization and structure for major facilities, equipment list and the use of maintenance manuals for the use of departments, organizations of the project operation, maintenance personnel training.
4. Project Management Planning 4.4. Decomposition of Project Management Work 4.4.6: Control whole process of investment management The main management says: The total investment for the project break down, analyze the achievement of the overall investment objectives of the risk, the preparation of investment risk management, control of the preparation of a variety of investment statements, clearly related to the parties accused; the preparation of the book design to control the content of the investment the use of funds and the stage plan and control their implementation; control in accordance with their
4. Project Management Planning 4.4. Decomposition of Project Management Work 4.4.6: Control whole process of investment management investment plans designed to limit management; review the preliminary design of the project construction plans and budget estimates, the use of value engineering methods, the potential for mining investment savings; to carry out their investment plans and actual values of Comparison of dynamic tracking.
4. Project Management Planning 4.5. Master Control Plan In the domestic construction of large and medium-sized projects, progress is often the principal contradiction. To resolve this contradiction, we must do a good job in controlling the progress of the total. The total project plan is to control the progress of the projects overall planning, is to ensure that the overall objective of the project is expected to commence by the programmatic document. Total control in the preparation of plans recommend the use of network technology for the preparation of plans, so that the progress of the possession or control of the project critical path, the key work, the
4. Project Management Planning 4.5. Master Control Plan timely detection of deviations and to take measures to reform, the implementation of corrective. Precision control of the total time scale network planning and is reported from the project pre-construction (approved) the work of clearing up to the completion of the project so far, in accordance with the procedures and the work of building the logic of the relationship between the preparation, covering the entire process of project construction, it achieved very good The overall control scheme.
5. Work Breakdown Structure A work breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering, is a tool used to define and group a projects discrete work elements (or tasks) in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project A work breakdown structure element may be a product, data, a service, or any combination. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control. Additionally the WBS is a dynamic tool and can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager.
5. Work Breakdown Structure The Work Breakdown Structure is a tree structure, which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective; for example a program, project, and contract. In a project or contract, the WBS is developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size, duration, and responsibility (e.g., systems, subsystems, components, tasks, subtasks, a nd work packages) which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective. The lowest level of each branch of the WBS is called the Work Package. Work Packages are decomposed into smaller components called activities.
5. Work Breakdown Structure The Work Breakdown Structure provides a common framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical, schedule, cost, and labor hour reporting can be established. In planning any project, you follow the same simple steps: if an item is too complicated to manage, it becomes a list of simpler items. People call this producing a work breakdown structure to make it sound more formal and impressive. Without following this formal approach you are unlikely to remember all the niggling little details; with this procedure, the details are simply displayed on the final lists.
5. Work Breakdown Structure One common fault is to produce too much detail at the initial planning stage. You should be stop when you have a sufficient description of the activity to provide a clear instruction for the person who will actually do the work, and to have a reasonable estimate for the total time/effort involved. You need the former to allocate (or delegate) the task; you need the latter to finish the planning.
6. Cost and Resource Loading The major goal of the planning effort is an integrated project schedule and budget. Schedule planning results in a schedule that describes the sequence of technical work and the task interdependencies necessary for a successful project outcome. Cost planning begins with the development of a cost estimate for all authorized work that eventually leads to the establishment of the project budget. Proper project planning ensures the amount of work to be accomplished, the time allotted to accomplish the project activities, and the resources required to complete the work scope are evenly balanced.
6. Cost and Resource Loading Once the schedule and cost planning are concluded, the resultant plans can be merged to form a time-phased project budget that is seamlessly integrated with the network schedule. This resource loaded schedule and initial project budget are validated and approved as the Integrated Project Baseline which is endorsed by the project team as the Performance Measurement Baseline, a foundational element of earned value management. Meaningful earned value performance metrics enable better management insight and decision making to help keep the project on track.
6. Cost and Resource Loading The objectives of schedule planning are to generate a reasonable schedule of work that leads to project completion, and to establish a schedule baseline that, when integrated with a cost baseline using resource loading techniques, will result in an Integrated Project Baseline for the project. The core of the schedule planning process is the Schedule Management System and its associated scheduling software. This system provides the requisite PM tools to plan and sequence project milestones and work activities, to assign resources to the activities, to monitor progress of activities toward project objectives, to forecast future schedule performance, and to provide the basis for earned value and performance calculations.
6. Cost and Resource Loading A. Cost planning is the other major planning activity required to develop an Integrated Project Baseline. The purpose of cost planning is to identify the resources needed to accomplish the scope of work and estimate the associated costs. Cost represents the dollar value required to accomplish the technical work scope within schedule and programmatic constraints. A preliminary cost estimate can be started after an initial WBS is developed. Cost estimate integration with the WBS occurs when the work scope in each project work and planning package has a definitive cost/resource estimate associated with it. Once the cost estimate is approved at all management levels, it becomes the cost baseline, i.e., the project’s budget.
6. Cost and Resource Loading B. Elements of the cost estimate include both direct charges and indirect charges. Direct charges are costs applicable to, and identified specifically with, the project work scope. Examples of these types of costs include labor, travel, material, subcontractor costs, etc. Indirect charges are costs that cannot be consistently or economically identified against a project and are spread over the total project portfolio.
6. Cost and Resource Loading Example of Cost Baseline & Cash Flow
6. Cost and Resource Loading With the work activities identified in the Control Account Plan, the Planning Manager estimates the resources (labor, expenses, and procurements) and the quantity (hours, dollars) required to accomplish the work activities. Labor resources are estimated according to various cost element categories, such as Plant Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, and Scientist, etc. Expense estimates are prepared for such items as supplies and materials, travel, and consulting. Labor and expense estimates are assigned to the month/fiscal year during which they will be used or expended. Estimates for procurements are also made and are assigned to the month/fiscal year in which payment is anticipated to occur.
6. Cost and Resource Loading Nominally, the cost estimates are entered in current year direct dollars. Once the resources have been identified and their costs estimated, a schedule of the work activities is developed with start dates, activity durations, and activity predecessors. Data from the Control Account Plan sheet is used to develop the initial Detail Schedule within the Schedule Management System. Once this initial resource-loaded Detail Schedule is created using the Control Account Plan sheets, the Detail Schedule then becomes the basis for future development of the Control Account Plans.
6. Cost and Resource Loading Example of Control Account Plan
7. Delay Analysis Procedure A- Introduction: Time is important to everyone, especially to those in the construction industry. Every construction contract stipulates either a time of performance or a specific project completion date. Yet, with so much attention to time, construction projects are frequently subject to delays. Sorting out the issues and determining which party is responsible often proves difficult and time-consuming. Though many techniques are available for determining schedule impacts, not all produce valid results.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure B- Type of Delay Analysis: Delay analysis techniques can be classified into three separate categories: the Foresight Method, the Hindsight Method, and the Contemporaneous Method. The differences between these delay analysis techniques involve the baseline schedule used for measuring the delay, the point in time when the delay is measured, and the treatment, if any, of concurrent delay.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure B.1- The Foresight Method: Commonly thought of as the simplest and easiest, generally employs two approaches: Impacted As-Planned, where only the owner-caused delays are identified, and Adjusted As- Planned, where only contractor-caused delays are identified. In both approaches, the alleged delays are reviewed to determine where and how the revisions should be incorporated into the as-planned or baseline schedule.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure B.1- The Foresight Method: The result of these implanted activities is an adjusted project completion date, which demonstrates, either directly or indirectly, the owner’s impact on the contractor’s planned schedule of performance. The Foresight Method is not generally favoured by courts and boards, because it ignores the as-built history of the project; it produces theoretical results; it does not measure the effect of delay on actual performance; and it assumes that the as-planned schedule does not change.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure Example of Impacted As Planned
7. Delay Analysis Procedure B.2- The Hindsight Method: It centres on an as-built schedule - a schedule depicting the dates that events actually occurred. Delaying events are normally depicted as distinct activities on the as-built schedule, which are invariably tied to the critical path. Typically, under this method, there are two approaches: As- Built Critical Path, which allocates time by determining the responsibility for the delays on the so-called critical path of the project, and Collapsed As-Built, which removes delays caused by one party to determine when the work would have been completed, if not for the delays of the other party.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure B.2- The Hindsight Method: The Hindsight Method has a number of disadvantages that include difficulty determining which work activities or delay events controlled the pace of the work; not considering what was critical at the time a delay occurred; not considering float through various paths at different periods of time; not accounting for concurrent delay; and not attempting to determine the individual impact of each delay.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure Example of Collapsed As Built
7. Delay Analysis Procedure Example of As Planned versus As Built
7. Delay Analysis Procedure B.3- The Contemporaneous Method: It hinges on the principle that in order to determine the impact of delaying events, the status of the project must be established at the time those events occurred. In essence, the schedule needs, first, to be updated at the time of the delay and, second, to be updated to incorporate any planning changes to coincide with the contractor’s plan for pursuing the work. The goal of this method is to develop a freeze- frame picture of the project - identifying the delaying event, the impact of the delay, and the plan to complete the remaining work at the time the delay occurred.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure B.3- The Contemporaneous Method: Two approaches are commonly used as part of this method: Time Impact Analysis, which looks at a particular point in time and utilizes a series of chronological time slices to evaluate major scheduling variations that occurred during the project, and Window Analysis, which examines the critical path between two points in time and assesses the delay as it occurs. Courts and boards hold that contemporaneous schedule updates should be considered in evaluating delay.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure B.3- The Contemporaneous Method: The Contemporaneous Method is favoured because it provides a baseline for measuring delay; the status of the project at the time a delay occurs; the impact of delaying events on remaining work; and insight into float, changes to critical path, and revisions to the plan to complete.
7. Delay Analysis Procedure Example of Time Impact Analysis