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oral habits and mouth breathing

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mouth breathing

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oral habits and mouth breathing

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO HABITS AND MOUTH BREATHING HABIT Presented by: Jigyasha timsina Batch 2011
  2. 2. CONTENTS: • Introduction • Classification • Etiology • Mouth Breathing habit • Clinical features • Diagnosis • Management
  3. 3. HABITS • Habit as quoted by ‘Hogeboon’ and attributed by Salder is the methodical way in which mind and body act as a result of the frequent repetition of a certain definite sets of nervous impulses.
  4. 4. • Fixed or constant practice established by frequent repetition Dorland • Frequent or constant practice or acquired tendency, which has been fixed by frequent repetition Buttersworth • Habits are learnt pattern of muscle contraction of a very complex nature MOYER
  5. 5. Classification James (1923) a)useful habits b)harmful habits Kingsley(1958) a)Functional habits b)Muscular habits c)Combined Morris and Bohanna(1969) a)Pressure habits b)Bitting habits
  6. 6. • Klein (1971) a)Empty habits b)Meaningful habits • Finn (1987) 1) a)Compulsive habits b)Non Compulsive habits 2) a)Primary habits b)Secondary habits
  7. 7. HabitsFrequency Intensity Duration
  8. 8. ETIOLOGY OF HABIT DEVELOPMENT 1) Anatomical: For ex: Posture of tongue. Infantile swallow occurs due to a large tongue in a small oral cavity coupled with anterior open bite
  9. 9. 2)Mechanical interferences 3) Pathological 4) Emotional 5) Imitation 6) Random behavior
  10. 10. Commonly occuring habits • Thumb-sucking • Tongue thrusting • Mouth breathing • Bruxism • Nail biting • Finger biting • Masochistic
  11. 11. Mouth Breathing CHACKER FM (1961) Defined mouth breathing as a prolonged or continued exposure of the tissues of anterior areas of mouth to the drying effects of inspired air. Merle (1980) - Suggested the term oro - nasal breathing instead of mouth breathing
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION A) Obstructive B) Habitual. C) Anatomic.
  13. 13. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY a) Lowering of the mandible. b) Positioning of the tongue downwards and forwards. Lowering of the tongue and mandible upsets the orofacial equilibrium. There is an unrestricted buccinator activity that influences the position of the teeth and also the growth of jaws.
  14. 14. Clinical feature • Adenoid faces
  15. 15. Normal Mouth Breathers
  16. 16. Diagnosis • History • Examination • Clinical tests – Mirror test Massler’s butterfly test Water hold test
  17. 17. • CHEPHALOMETRY • RHINOMANOMETRY
  18. 18. MANAGEMENT  Elimination of the cause Interception of habits A)Exercises Lip exercise Holding of metal disc between lips
  19. 19. B) Maxillo-thorax myotherapy • advocated by Macaray in 1960 • used in conjuction to Macaray activator • 10 sets of exercise while wearing the activator thrice daily done
  20. 20. • Oral screen
  21. 21. • Correction of Malocclusion class I malocclusion – oral shield appliance class II division I malocclusion - monobloc activator
  22. 22. class III malocclusion – chin cup
  23. 23. Conclusion • Oral habits have a definite bearing on the development of occlusion. • One may acquire certain habits that may either temporarily or permanently be harmful to dental occlusion and to the tooth supporting structures. • So, such habits should be identified and treated as soon as possible.
  24. 24. • Harmful oral habits include : 1.Finger or thumb sucking 2.Mouth breathing 3.Bruxism 4.Cheek / Lip biting 5. All
  25. 25. • Etiology of mouth breathing is: 1) Rhinitis and Sinusitis 2)over eruption of lower incisors touching the palatal mucosa 3)deviated nasal septum 4)all of the above
  26. 26. • Due to habit of mouth breathing: 1) lower lips become hyperactive 2) upper lips become hypoactive 3) both lips become hypoactive 4) upper lips become hyperactive
  27. 27. REFERENCES • Orthodontics the art and science -S.I. Bhalajhi • Text book of pedodontics shova tandon • Web

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