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HTA english


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HTA english

  1. 1. Freire Jhonny Orellana Fabricio Pizarro Freddy Jessica Riofrio DOCENTE: Dr. Sergio Peñaloza CURSO: 3er Año Paralelo “A” HYPERTENSION INTEGRANTES
  2. 2. HYPERTENSION Term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body Blood pressure readings are usually given as two numbers -- for example, 120 over 80 (written as 120/80 mmHg). One or both of these numbers can be too high.
  3. 3. HYPERTENSION The top number is called the systolic blood pressure(when the heart contracts), and the bottom number is called the diastolic blood pressure(when the heart relaxes). Normal blood pressure is when your blood pressure is lower than 120/80 mmHg most of the time. High blood pressure (hypertension) is when your blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or above most of the time.
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE VALUES CATEGORY SYSTOLIC (mmHg) DIASTOLIC (mmHg) Optimum <120 <80 Normal <130 <85 Average high 130-139 85-89 Grade 1 Hypertension 140-159 90-99 (light) Grade 2 Hypertension 160-179 100-109 (Moderate) Grade 3 hypertension > 179 >109 (serious) Systolic hypertension > 139 <90 Isolated
  5. 5. CAUSES OF HYPERTENSION. • Excessive salt diet. • Obesity. • Dyslipidemia. • Stress. • Sedentary • Alcohol • Diabetes. • Smoke . • Black Race • Family history of hypertension. • Age (men over 55 and women over 65) • Being male. Most of the time does not identify any cause high blood pressure, which is called essential hypertension
  6. 6. SECONDARY HYPERTENSION. KIDNEY. PARENCHYMAL IDIOPATHIC glomerulonephritis, insterticiales nephropathy, polycystic disease. SYSTEMICS.-diabetes, lupus erythematosus, Wegener's syndrome, scleroderma, hemolytic uremic syndrome. UNILATERAL PARENCHYMAL Reflux nephropathy. Unilateral pyelonephritis. Hydronephrosis. RENIN PRODUCING TUMOR.
  7. 7. ENDOCRINE ADRENAL. Pheochromocytoma. Aldosterismo. Cushing's disease. THYROID. hyperthyroidism PARATHYROID. Hyperparathyroidism.
  8. 8. PREGNANCY Preeclampsia. NEUROGENIC Increased intracranial pressure. Sleep apnea. Guillain Barre syndrome. COARCTATION OF THE AORTA. SECONDARY TO INGESTION OF DRUGS. Anovulatory. Corticosteroids. sympathomimetic AINES. Antidepressants.
  9. 9. DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTENSIONHypertension is diagnosed by examining blood pressure. This test is done several times to be sure that the results are correct. If the numbers are high, your doctor may ask you to return to repeat the test and see how your blood pressure over a period of time. If your blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or more for a while, the doctor will diagnose high blood pressure. If you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease, a value of more than 130/80 mmHg is considered high blood pressure.DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES The basic laboratory studies are performed to : 1. identify or rule causes of secondary hypertension , 2. evaluate target organ diseases. 3. determine overall cardiovascular risk. 4. establish levels before initiating therapy .
  10. 10. The blood pressure test is easy and painless. It is performed in a doctor's office or clinic. What you should do to prepare: Do not drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for 30 minutes before taking a measurement. These activities can cause a temporary rise in blood pressure. Go to the bathroom before taking a measurement. Having a full bladder can alter the blood pressure reading. Sit five minutes before taking a measurement. Movement can cause temporary elevations in blood pressure. To measure blood pressure, your doctor or nurse uses a particular display device (sphygmomanometer), a stethoscope (or electronic sensor) and a band or bracelet worn around the arm to measure pressure. HOW DO YOU TAKE BLOOD PRESSURE?
  11. 11. If you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, your doctor will prescribe a treatment. They will have to take your blood pressure again to see what effect the treatment has had. When your blood pressure is controlled, it will have to continue the treatment .. Also will have regular blood pressure tests. Your doctor will tell you how often to do so. The early treatment can avoid problems such as heart attack, stroke and kidney failure. What meaning does a diagnosis of high blood pressure?
  12. 12. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS They work by slowing the movement of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessel walls, which makes it easier for the heart to pump and widens blood vessels. ACE INHIBITORS Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are high blood pressure drugs that widen or dilate your blood vessels to improve the amount of blood your heart pumps and lower blood pressure. ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKERS (ARBS) have the same effects as ACE inhibitors, another type of blood pressure drug, but work by a different mechanism. DIURETICS (WATER PILLS) help your body get rid of unneeded water and salt through the urine. Getting rid of excess salt and fluid helps lower blood pressure and can make it easier for your heart to pump. BETA-BLOCKERS Beta-blockers are drugs used to treat high blood pressure. They block the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on the heart.
  13. 13. • Adults over 18 should have their blood pressure checked regularly. • Lifestyle changes may help control your blood pressure. • Follow your health care provider's recommendations to modify, treat, or control possible causes of high blood pressure.
  14. 14. Prevention of hypertension • LDL Cholesterol < 130 mg/dl • HDL Cholesterol 50 mg/dl or higher Maintain a healthy weight Exercise Reduce salt and sodium intake Limit alcohol consumption Monitor Blood pressure