DOCENTE: Dr. Sergio Peñaloza
CURSO: 3er Año Paralelo “A”
Term used to describe high blood pressure.
Blood pressure is a measurement of the force
against the walls of your arteries as your heart
pumps blood through your body
Blood pressure readings are usually given as two
numbers -- for example, 120 over 80 (written as
120/80 mmHg). One or both of these numbers can
be too high.
The top number is called the systolic blood
pressure(when the heart contracts), and the
bottom number is called the diastolic blood
pressure(when the heart relaxes).
Normal blood pressure is when your blood
pressure is lower than 120/80 mmHg most of the
High blood pressure (hypertension) is when your
blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or above most of
CAUSES OF HYPERTENSION.
• Excessive salt diet.
• Smoke .
• Black Race
• Family history of hypertension.
• Age (men over 55 and women over 65)
• Being male.
Most of the time does not identify any cause high
blood pressure, which is called essential
Increased intracranial pressure.
Guillain Barre syndrome.
COARCTATION OF THE AORTA.
SECONDARY TO INGESTION OF DRUGS.
HYPERTENSIONHypertension is diagnosed by examining blood
pressure. This test is done several times to be sure
that the results are correct. If the numbers are
high, your doctor may ask you to return to repeat
the test and see how your blood pressure over a
period of time.
If your blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or more
for a while, the doctor will diagnose high blood
pressure. If you have diabetes or chronic kidney
disease, a value of more than 130/80 mmHg is
considered high blood pressure.DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES
The basic laboratory studies are performed to :
1. identify or rule causes of secondary
2. evaluate target organ diseases.
3. determine overall cardiovascular risk.
4. establish levels before initiating therapy .
The blood pressure test is easy and painless. It is performed in a doctor's office or clinic.
What you should do to prepare:
Do not drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for 30 minutes before taking a measurement. These
activities can cause a temporary rise in blood pressure.
Go to the bathroom before taking a measurement. Having a full bladder can alter the blood
Sit five minutes before taking a measurement. Movement can cause temporary elevations in
To measure blood pressure, your doctor or nurse uses a particular display device
(sphygmomanometer), a stethoscope (or electronic sensor) and a band or bracelet worn
around the arm to measure pressure.
HOW DO YOU TAKE BLOOD
If you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, your doctor will prescribe a treatment. They
will have to take your blood pressure again to see what effect the treatment has had.
When your blood pressure is controlled, it will have to continue the treatment .. Also will
have regular blood pressure tests. Your doctor will tell you how often to do so.
The early treatment can avoid problems such as heart attack, stroke and kidney failure.
What meaning does a diagnosis of high
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
They work by slowing the movement of calcium into
the cells of the heart and blood vessel walls, which
makes it easier for the heart to pump and widens
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are
high blood pressure drugs that widen or dilate your
blood vessels to improve the amount of blood your
heart pumps and lower blood pressure.
ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKERS (ARBS)
have the same effects as ACE inhibitors, another type of blood
pressure drug, but work by a different mechanism.
DIURETICS (WATER PILLS)
help your body get rid of unneeded water
and salt through the urine. Getting rid of
excess salt and fluid helps lower blood
pressure and can make it easier for your
heart to pump.
Beta-blockers are drugs used
to treat high blood pressure.
They block the effects of the
sympathetic nervous system
on the heart.
• Adults over 18 should have their
blood pressure checked regularly.
• Lifestyle changes may help control
your blood pressure.
• Follow your health care provider's
recommendations to modify, treat, or
control possible causes of high blood
Prevention of hypertension
• LDL Cholesterol < 130
• HDL Cholesterol 50 mg/dl
Maintain a healthy
Reduce salt and