Transgender - by Gaby (Malta)


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  • Gender-variant people experience different degrees of acceptance in different cultures. Terms and concepts concerning gender identity and sexuality vary significantly among different language or cultural groups. Thus, in some cultures, whether or not a person is considered homosexual depends on what role they take in a sexual interaction, not simply on the sex of their partner. Also, it is difficult to extend western concepts of gender identity and sexuality to a society where being a male homosexual is unacceptable and is penalized, but being a male-to-female transsexual is allowed.For example, before the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the issue of transsexualism in Iran had never been officially addressed by the government. Beginning in the mid-1980s, however, transsexual individuals have been officially recognized by the government and allowed to undergo sex reassignment surgery (see Transsexuality in Iran), while male same-sex relations are still forbidden.In Thailand, kathoey (who are often, but not always, transsexual) are accepted to a greater extent than in most countries, but are not completely free of societal stigma. Feminine transsexual kathoey are much more accepted than gay male kathoey; this may be seen as an example of heteronormativity. Due to the relative prevalence and acceptance of transsexualism in Thailand, there are many accomplished Thai surgeons who specialize in male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. Thai surgeons are a popular option for Western transpeople seeking surgery because of the lower costs.Transsexual- (and tg-) related issues remain largely taboo in much of Africa.[28]
  • Transsexualism is a condition in which an individual identifies with a physical sex that is different from their biological one. A medical diagnosis can be made if a person experiences discomfort as a result of a desire to be a member of the opposite sex,or if a person experiences impaired functioning or distress as a result of that gender identification.Transsexualism is stigmatized in many parts of the world but has become more widely known in Western culture in the mid to late 20th century, concurrently with the sexual revolution and the development of sex reassignment surgeries.
  • “A desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex." The DSM does not distinguish between gender identity disorder and transsexualism. There are no reliable statistics on the prevalence of transsexualism. The DSM-IV (1994) quotes a prevalence of roughly 1 in 30,000 assigned males and 1 in 100,000 assigned females seek sex reassignment surgery in the USA. The most reliable estimate of prevalance is from the Amsterdam Gender Dysphoria Clinic[29] The data, spanning more than four decades in which the clinic has treated roughly 95% of Dutch transsexuals, gives figures of 1:10,000 assigned males and 1:30,000 assigned females.Olyslager and Conway presented a paper[30] at the WPATH 20th International Symposium (2007) arguing that the data from their own and other studies actually imply much higher prevalence, with minimum lower bounds of 1:4,500 male-to-female transsexuals and 1:8,000 female-to-male transsexuals for a number of countries worldwide. They suggest the prevalence might be as high as 1:500 births overall.Olyslager and Conway also argued that the U.S. population of assigned males having already undergone reassignment surgery by the top three U.S. SRS surgeons alone is enough to account for the entire transsexual population implied by the 1:10,000 prevalence number. This excludes all other U.S. SRS surgeons, surgeons in countries such as Thailand, Canada, and others, and the high proportion of transsexuals who have not yet sought treatment, suggesting that a prevalance of 1:10,000 is too low.A presentation at the LGBT Health Summit in Bristol UK [31], based upon figures from a number of reputable European and UK sources, shows that this population is increasing rapidly (14% per year) and that the mean age of transition is actually rising.
  • The current diagnosis for transsexual people who present themselves for psychological treatment is "gender identity disorder" (leaving out those who have sexual identity disorders without gender concerns). As the DSM has changed its terminology in 1994 instead of the diagnosis of "transsexualism". According to the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association's Standards Of Cares, this diagnostic label is often necessary to obtain sex reassignment therapy with health insurance coverage, and states that the designation of gender identity disorders as mental disorders is not a license for stigmatization, or for the deprivation of gender patients' civil rights. However, some people diagnosed with gender identity disorder known as transgenders rather than transsexuals have no desire for sex reassignment therapy at all, particularly not genital reassignment surgery, and/or are not appropriate candidates for such treatment. While some feel that formal diagnosis helps to destigmatize transsexualism, others feel that it only adds stigma, essentially feeling that such a diagnosis is equivalent to saying something really is wrong with transsexual people. The diagnosis of "gender identity disorder" is seen as insulting and irrelevant to some transsexuals, and may be considered a causal factor in instances of harm occurring to, or death of, transsexual people as the result of prejudice and discrimination when deprived of their civil rights. (Brown 105)
  • Transsexualism is often included within the broader term transgender, which is generally considered an umbrella term for people who do not conform to typical accepted gender roles, for example cross-dressers, drag queens, and people who identify as genderqueer. Some transsexuals object to this inclusion. Historically the reason that transsexuals rejected associations with the transgender or broader LGBT community is largely that the medical community in the 1950s through the late 1980s encouraged (and in many ways required) this rejection of such a grouping in order to be a 'good transsexual' who would thus be allowed to access medical and surgical care. The animosity that is present today is no longer fed by this same kind of pressure from the medical community.However, where some of the beliefs of modern day transsexual people that they are not transgender, is reflective of this historical division (Denny 176), other transsexual people state that someone choosing to retain their former physical sex (no SRS) is very different from someone who needs to be of "the other sex", that the groups have different issues and concerns and are not doing the same things.[16] The latter view is rather contested, with opponents pointing out that merely having or not having some medical procedures hardly can have such far-reaching consequences as to put those who have them and those who have not into such distinctive categories. Notably Harry Benjamin's original definition of transsexualism does not require that they need to have had SRS.[14]
  • There's not a solid consensus on the cause of transsexuality, nor for any other sexual or gender identity.[citation needed] Psychological and biological causes for transsexualism have been proposed.[23][24][25][26] Some people consider research into the "causes" of transsexualism to be based on the assumption that it is a pathology, an assumption that is rejected by some transsexuals. Others think of the condition as a form of intersexuality, and support research into possible causes, believing that it will verify the theory of a biological origin and thereby reduce social stigma by demonstrating that it is not a delusion, a political statement, or a paraphilia. Note stigma has a role to play in the development of and adherence to both viewpoints.
  • Transgender - by Gaby (Malta)

    1. 1.
    2. 2. 37-year-old was crowned Miss International Queen 2009 in Thailand<br />Tanyarat Jirapatpakon was named Miss International Queen 2007<br />
    3. 3. Transexuality<br />Gaby Scicluna<br />Malta Medical Students Association<br />NORA ’09 – ‘10<br />
    4. 4. Definition<br />Transexuality <br />individuals feel and identify as members of the opposite sex as that of their body<br />
    5. 5. Insistence of belonging to opposite sex<br />
    6. 6. Insistence of belonging to opposite sex<br />Strong discomfort in one’s biological sex<br />
    7. 7. Insistence of belonging to opposite sex<br />Strong discomfort in one’s biological sex<br />Not intersex<br />
    8. 8. Insistence of belonging to opposite sex<br />Strong discomfort in one’s biological sex<br />Not intersex<br />Distress in work and social life<br />source - Americal Psychiatric Association<br />
    9. 9. Important differences<br />Intersex<br />Transexual<br />Transgender<br />Genderqueer<br />Homosexual<br />
    10. 10. Science & facts <br /><ul><li>“…findings support the concept of transsexualism as an intersex disorder, where the sexual differentiation of the brain is not consistent with chromosomal pattern and gonadal sex” [1]</li></ul>[1] Gooren L J G et all, ‘Transsexualism : biologic considerations, definition and diagnosis’ , Last literature review version 17.3: September 2009 .This topic last updated: October 5, 2009 <br />
    11. 11. Science & facts <br />“…research on the brains of male-to-female transsexuals has found that the sexual differentiation of one brain area — the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis — follows a female pattern.” [1]<br />[1] Gooren L J G et all, ‘Transsexualism : biologic considerations, definition and diagnosis’ , Last literature review version 17.3: September 2009 .This topic last updated: October 5, 2009 <br />
    12. 12. Treatment…<br />…and experiences<br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14.
    15. 15.
    16. 16.
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Laws & Rights<br /><ul><li>Vary with culture, religion, country, state
    19. 19. Overall still lacking, or incomplete
    20. 20. Include access to healthcare and SRS</li></li></ul><li>Say 1, 2, 3!<br />
    21. 21. The mind is like a parachute. It doesn’t work unless it’s open.<br />
    22. 22. Thank you!<br />