Europe's eastern frontier is now commonly delineated by the Ural
Mountains in Russia..
The southeast boundary with Asia is not universally defined, with the
Ural River, or alternatively, the Emba River most commonly serving
as possible boundaries. The boundary continues to the Caspian
Sea, the crest of the Caucasus Mountains or, alternatively, the Kura
River in the Caucasus, and on to the Black Sea; the Bosporus, the
Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles, and the Aegean Sea conclude the
The Mediterranean Sea to the south separates Europe from Africa.
The western boundary is the Atlantic Ocean; Iceland, though nearer
to Greenland (North America) than mainland Europe, is generally
included in Europe.
Because of sociopolitical and cultural differences, there are various
descriptions of Europe's boundary; For instance, geographers from Russia
and other post-Soviet states generally include the Urals in Europe while
including Caucasia in Asia. Similarly, Cyprus is approximate to Anatolia (or
Asia Minor), but is often considered part of Europe and currently is a
member state of the EU. In addition, Malta was considered an island of
Africa for centuries.
Western sources, such as the National Geographic Society, usually state
that the Europe-Asia boundary follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains
to the source of the Ural River, then follows that river to the Caspian Sea.
The border then follows the watershed of the Caucasus Mountains from the
Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. According to this definition, there are 4
◦ Azerbaijan - situated in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
◦ Georgia - situated in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
◦ Kazakhstan - situated in Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
◦ Russia - situated in Northern Asia and Eastern Europe.
◦ Turkey - situated in Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
Describa los productos y servicios pertenecientes
Blending of Roman and Germanic civilizations: the political
center of Europe moved to the North
Religious (Christian vs. Islam? Humanism? Rationalism?)
Cultural and linguistic (plurilingualism? Food and drink (alcohol)?)
Political/Ethical? (Peace, Democracy, Respect to Minorities,
Gender Equality, Human Rights, Multiculturalism?
Economic (Developed world?, Free Market? Welfare State?
Trade Unions?) European Union vs Council of Europe, Europe vs
USA, Is the economic crisis changing this?
Double/Triple Identity (National, Supranational, Regional?) “E
Pluribus Unum” (US)/”United in Diversity” (EU)? American
Positive vs. Negative Identities: Europe vs. USA (welfare state,
family ties?), Europe vs. Asia/Africa?
“ The foundation of European culture was laid by the Greeks, strengthened
by the Romans, stabilized by Christianity, reformed and modernized by the
fifteenth-century Renaissance and Reformation and globalized by
successive European empires between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries,
including predominantly Muslim Ottoman Turks. Thus the European Culture
developed into a very complex phenomenon of wider range of philosophy,
Islamic mysticism, Christian and secular humanism, rational way of life
and logical thinking developed through a long age of change and formation
with the experiments of enlightenment, naturalism, romanticism, science,
democracy, and socialism. Because of its global connection, the European
culture grew with an all-inclusive urge to adopt, adapt and ultimately
influence other trends of culture. As a matter of fact, therefore, from the
middle of the nineteenth century with the expansion of European education
and the spread of Christianity, European culture and way of life, to a great
extent, turned to be "global culture," if anything has to be so named”
(Wikipedia, Sailen Debnath, "Secularism: Western and Indian," Atlantic
Publishers, New Delhi)