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Bilingual education at university uc policy plan

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Bilingual education at university uc policy plan

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Bilingual education at university uc policy plan

  1. 1. Bilingual EducationBilingual Education Programmes at HigherProgrammes at Higher Education (EMI: English-Education (EMI: English- Medium Instruction)Medium Instruction) Dr. Jesús Ángel González
  2. 2.  Overview: At University, EMI (English-Medium Instruction) not CLIL: ◦ EMI is only English, CLIL is in any language. ◦ EMI is global (very important in Asia and Africa, EFL and ESL) ◦ EMI has ideological implications  Increasing trend. Coleman 2006: English is “the language of higher education in Europe”. Wachter and Maiworm 2008. In Europe: ◦ 2002: 700 programmes ◦ 2007: 2400 programmes in English, 400 Universities ◦ ACA Study ◦ Why?
  3. 3.  Reasons: ◦ Internationalization (incoming students, global market) ◦ Improving English language skills (home students) ◦ Competitiveness, prestige (proportion of international students is a way of measuring success in rankings, international visibility) ◦ Erasmus and Bologna have accelerated this processs - English is already the language of research
  4. 4. Ibrahim 2001 Factors supporting the implementation of EMI ◦ Bilingualism gives cognitive advantages (divergent, creative thinking) ◦ The important role of English would motivate students and teachers to learn it ◦ EMI provides more exposure to English and more chances to acquire it ◦ Literacy skills and strategies gained in a native language transfer to a second language
  5. 5. Common Underlying Proficiency Model (Cummins)
  6. 6. The Threats of EMI (1) Problems?
  7. 7. The Threats of EMI (1) ◦ The dilemma between ‘instruction’ and ‘English’ (forcing English as an L2 may lead to academic failure) ◦ The unsopportive environment in acquiring English (EFL and not ESL, input only in the classroom) ◦ The general lack of English proficiency among students and teachers. Negative impacts:  Academically: ineffective teaching and learning  Socially: deficient classroom social interaction  Psychologically: frustration  Ethical responsibility (Karen Lauridsen)
  8. 8. The European Survey on Language Competences First administration – Main Study Spring 2011 (England November 2011) – Results published June 2012 Aims: – Establish an indicator to measure progress towards the 2002 Barcelona conclusions, to “improve the mastery of basic skills, in particular by teaching at least two foreign languages from a very early age” Instruments – Language tests (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish) – Contextual questionnaires (addressing 13 language policy issues; for students, teachers, principals and countries)
  9. 9. Interpretation: the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) Proficient User C C2 C1 Independent User B B2 B1 Basic User A A2 A1 Levels tested in ESLC
  10. 10. © UCLES 2013 Writing: a B1 task DE - Familienmitglied EN - Favourite family member Von einem deutschen Brieffreund bekommst du eine E-Mail. Darin schreibt er: … Bitte schreibe mir in deiner nächsten E-Mail, wen du in deiner Familie besonders gern magst. Was macht ihr gemeinsam? Warum versteht ihr euch gut? … Schreib eine E-Mail an deinen Freund und antworte auf seine Fragen. Schreib 80–100 Wörter This is part of an email you receive from an English pen friend: In your next email, tell me about someone in your family that you like a lot. What sorts of things do you do together? Why do you get on well with each other? Write an email to your friend, answering your friend's questions. Write 80–100 words. ES - Miembro de la familia IT – Familiare preferito Aquí tienes parte de un e-mail que has recibido de un amigo español. En tu próximo e-mail, háblame de alguien de tu familia que te guste mucho. ¿Qué tipo de cosas hacéis juntos? ¿Por qué os lleváis bien? Escribe un e-mail a tu amigo en el que contestes las preguntas que te hace. Escribe 80–100 palabras. Questa è una parte di un'email che hai ricevuto da un amico italiano. Quando mi scriverai la prossima email, parlami di una persona della tua famiglia che ti piace molto. Che tipo di cose fate insieme? Perché andate così d’accordo? Scrivi un'email al tuo amico e rispondi alle sue domande. Scrivi 80–100 parole.
  11. 11. © UCLES 2013 A performance at CEFR B1 Dear John,
Thanks for your email.
In my family I like a lot Marie.
 It’s my sister.
 I have 3 sisters but I’m going to talk you about Sophie.
Sometimes we go shopping together and we kocht a lot of clothes.
 Marie is very friendly.
 We talk a lot together about our personnal life: about boys friends,
 school.
.
 It’s funny.
 Last week I wend in her flat in Brussel.
 She’s a student in chemistery,
 The day we went shopping for find a dress for her.
 We finded it and she’s very beautiful.
See you soon Isabelle
  12. 12. CEFR levels First language (Skills averaged) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% UK- ENG (FR) FR (EN) BE nl (FR) PL (EN) ES (EN) PT (EN) BE fr (EN) BG (EN) BE de (FR) EL (EN) HR (EN) SI (EN) EE (EN) NL (EN) MT (EN) SE (EN) Percentage B2 B1 A2 A1 Pre-A1 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% First target language (Skills averaged)
  13. 13.  The Threats of EMI (2) ◦ The limitedness of classroom discourse (students will only learn certain skills, tasks, topics, and with a certain purpose) ◦ The ‘context-reduced’ nature of classroom communication: BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) vs. CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency). Sometimes students lack the CALP, but teachers lack the BICS.
  14. 14.  Some issues in EMI at University ◦ Submersion vs. Transitional Bilingual Education ◦ Bridging programs ◦ Full or partial EMI ◦ Scope  Courses: not appropriate for ‘culture-specific’ courses or ‘reflective’ courses like philosophy or art (?)  Task difficulty (cognitively demanding, Cummins)  Timing: earlier or later stages at University? ◦ Code-switching? ◦ Pedagogical (methodological problems). ◦ Specific problems in bilingual communities (English as a third language). ◦ Political implications: Language as a symbol of ethnic, cultural or national identity. “Language ecology” and English as a “language predator”.
  15. 15. English as the language of research: “The role of English in scientific communication: Lingua franca or Tyrannosaurus Rex?” Reasons? History, Economics, Linguistic? 2nd Half of the 20th century (1st half, not bigger importance than German or French) Increasing Trend: The Language of (Future) Scientific Communication Unfair?
  16. 16. Some solutions (Karen Lauridsen): ◦ Screening of students’ and lecturers’ levels of English: rigorous assessment ◦ Additional training in English for students and lecturers ◦ Extra incentives for students (Supplements to the Degree) and lecturers (reduce teaching load, preference in training and international mobility) ◦ Bilingual Degrees ◦ Teaching methodology: Our project: GONZÁLEZ and BARBERO: “Building Bridges Between Different Levels of Education”, Language Value 5:1, 2013
  17. 17. Impact on Language Skills Aguilar and Muñoz 2014 ◦ 60-hour course Engineering students ◦ Measuring instrument: Oxford Placement Test ◦ Very small improvement ◦ More on listening than in gramar ◦ More in students with a lower level Jiménez Muñoz 2014 ◦ 60-hour course, Economics students ◦ Self-assessment based on CEFR descriptors (adapted by EAQUALS) ◦ Improvement in all skills
  18. 18. Some examples in Spain: ◦ Universidad Carlos III ◦ Universidad de Oviedo ◦ Universidad de Cantabria
  19. 19. LANGUAGE POLICY PLANLANGUAGE POLICY PLAN (PLAN DE CAPACITACIÓN LINGÜÍSTICA)(PLAN DE CAPACITACIÓN LINGÜÍSTICA)
  20. 20. B2?B2? Skills B2 Listening I can understand extended speech and lectures and follow even complex lines of argument provided the topic is reasonably familiar. I can understand most TV news and current affairs programmes. I can understand the majority of films in standard dialect. Reading I can read articles and reports concerned with contemporary problems in which the writers adopt particular attitudes or viewpoints. I can understand contemporary literary prose. Spoken Interaction I can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible. I can take an active part in discussion in familiar contexts, accounting for and sustaining my views. Spoken Production I can present clear, detailed descriptions on a wide range of subjects related to my field of interest. I can explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options. Writing I can write clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects related to my interests. I can write an essay or report, passing on information or giving reasons in support of or against a particular point of view. I can write letters highlighting the personal significance of events and experiences.
  21. 21. The Common European Framework (Council of Europe) - Action-oriented approach: user as social agent performing tasks in society - Teaching and Learning through communicative activities: - Reading - Listening - Writing - Speaking - Interaction - Mediation - Long-life learning - Autonomous learning
  22. 22. The Common European Framework Levels (Council of Europe)  A. Basic User: A1-A2 A1 (Access): The most basic level which can be defined. Very simple interaction. In a few months. A2 (Waystage): Intermediate step towards the threshold level. Social functions.  B. Independent User: B1-B2 B1 (Threshold level): User who crosses the metaphoric threshold and is able to travel to a foreign country and behave independently in daily situations (public transport, travel agency). 375 hours for English. Nivel Intermedio EOI, PET B2 (Vantage Level): User who is able to argue and manage in social exchanges without imposing tension. Also able to correct mistakes. First Certificate, Nivel Avanzado EOI  C. Competent User: C1-C2 C1 (Effective Proficiency): Not just independent, but competent too. Wide range of vocabulary and grammar. Able to use the language with flexibility and efficiency for social, academic and professional purposes. Advanced (Cambridge). C2 (Mastery): brilliant user, able to transmit subtle shades of meanings and to use idioms and colloquial language. Not a native. Proficiency (Cambridge)
  23. 23. A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2  Basic user  Independent user  Competent user
  24. 24. Any help? Dialang TestAny help? Dialang Test
  25. 25. Self-AssessmentSelf-Assessment
  26. 26. Only B2?Only B2? B2 or…. ◦ B1 in English + B1 in another European language ◦ B1 + Erasmus/Diploma in English (30 credits) ◦ B1 + 12 credits in Additional Classes (Formación complementaria)
  27. 27. How to show what you knowHow to show what you know External Certificate: ◦ Escuela Oficial de Idiomas ◦ University of Cambridge ◦ CIUC ◦ Trinity College (ISE only) ◦ British Council ◦ International Baccalaureate Exams organized by the UC (Department of Philology and Language Centre (CIUC), coordinated by the Vicerectorate for Internationalisation)
  28. 28. What do students need to show?What do students need to show? Action-oriented approach - Teaching and Learning through communicative activities: - Reading - Listening - Writing - Speaking - Interaction - Assessment based on these activities (“the 4 skills”)
  29. 29. How much do students know?How much do students know? (2014-2015)(2014-2015) A1 7% A2: 38% B1: 20 % B2: 32% C1: 3 % C2
  30. 30. Solutions?Solutions?
  31. 31. 1. Basic Subject: English1. Basic Subject: English B1 level 4 skills Combination of General and Specific English Orientation for Self-Learning Example: B.A. in History
  32. 32. • History of the USA •“Does the USA have any history?” (Think in English) •Animated Atlas: “Growth of a nation” •Table of Historical Events • Test (Calvin and Hobbes) •Oral Interaction: History Trivial Pursuit • Writing Assignment: Blog
  33. 33. Content and languageContent and language History of the USA: ◦ general introduction ◦ geography ◦ the colonies ◦ growth of the territory… •Specific vocabulary related to history: action verbs, nouns, •Phrases related to history •Verb tenses to talk about the past: (Past simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect)
  34. 34. 2 Beginning of the Civil War 3 Declaration of Independence 6 The Mayflower arrives at Plymouth 8 Kennedy assassinated 20 Twin Towers Terrorist Attack 21 World War II begins in Europe 23 Beginning of the New Deal 24 Beginning of World War I 26 Stock Market Crash.
  35. 35. 2. Additional classes2. Additional classes Summer Courses (2 credits): ◦ Learn English Better! ◦ Learning English Through Culture ◦ Conversation courses (A2-B1) Cross-curricular subjects (transversales): ◦ Written and Spoken Communication (4 c) ◦ Tandem (Conversation Exchange) (2) ◦ Writing an Academic Paper (2) ◦ Keys to the Job Market (2) ◦ Culture of English Speaking Countries (2) English Day by Day (6 credits) Courses organized by the different Schools and Faculties
  36. 36. Subjects taught in EnglishSubjects taught in English Teachers’ Level of English: C1. ◦ How to show it:  C1 Certificate  Self-report + Interview ◦ How to reach it:  CIUC/EOI/research stays…  Classes organized by the Language Policy Division (Área de Capacitación Lingüística) ◦ 3-4 students ◦ Grouped by departments/faculties ◦ Simulation of teaching practice ◦ 30-40 participants  Travel grants for language-oriented stays
  37. 37. Subjects taught in EnglishSubjects taught in English Any experience? Problems? You are ready to enjoy the excellences of this stunning course!
  38. 38. REFERENCES Aguilar, M. and Muñoz, C. 2013. “The effect of proficiency on CLIL benefits in engineering students in Spain” Baker, C. 1996. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Cummins J. 1984. “Wanted: A theoretical framework for relating language proficiency to academic achievement among bilingual students.” Cummins, J. & Swain, M. 1986. Bilingual Education. Doiz, A. et al. 2013. English-Medium Instruction at Universities: Global Challenges  GONZÁLEZ and BARBERO: “Builiding Bridges Between Different Levels of Education”, Language Value 5:1, 2013 Ibrahim, J. 2001 “The Implementation of EMI in Indonesian Universities” Jiménez Muñoz, A. “Measuring the impact of CLIL on language skills: a CEFR-based approach for Higher Education”

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