I want to make a distinction... drawing on language that they use in journalism to describe the kinds of changes they are dealing with...and apply it to academia. In journalism, they talk of “legacy” news organizations -- such as The Philadelphia Inquirer (now defunct) ~ which was based on print publication and newsstand purchase or home delivery option for economic viabililty. “Legacy” journalism. We have our own “legacy” model of academia with distinct characteristics...
Selecting a Journal Finding the Journal'sRanking & Impact Factor - I mpact Factor is how powerful a journal is in terms of audience, measured (roughly) in terms of citations over time. The impact factor (IF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to rec ent artic les published in the journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative im porta nce of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield , the founder o f the Institute for Scientific Information . Impact factors are calculated yearly for th ose journals that are indexed in the Journal Citation Reports . (from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_factor ) Fro m Hunter Library Website Library >> Databases Science Cit ation Index (SCI) >>Select a Database >> Journal Citation Reports >> JCR Social Sciences Edition >> Search for a specific journal image source: http://kb.lib.hku.hk/wiki/DOW
Get to know the journal, what they publish, who the key people are.... sign up to be a reviewer, sit on the editorial board. If there is a conference that the journal holds, attend it.
A tenure portfolio is meant to showcase your accomplishments in three key areas: research, teaching and service (both to your department, to larger institution, and to communities outside academia). Research includes publishing, grants and conference presentations. The case you want to make with the portfolio is that you are a nationally recognized expert in your field. Good advice: SAVE EVERYTHING. Organizing your tenure portfolio As you prepare your tenure portfolio, focus attention to the table of contents. Mark each area clearly with tabs labeled for each respective area. Also, your table of contents should be detailed to reflect what is presented in each area. Table of contents for tenure materials: research, teaching, and service. Typically, you still need printable versions of all your work. Criteria for tenure at the rank of associate professor. Image source and further info: http://www.ccc-aaup.org/forms/tenure.htm
(Describe...then) I would argue that this is mostly going away, but in piecemeal fashion. What did this look like?
NYPL Image from here: http://www.flickr.com/photos/eyefruit/792178/
Image from here: http://www.toledoblade.com/Opinion/2006/08/15/As-changes-in-technology-speed-up-what-will-workplace-of-2056-be-like.html
Image from here: http://farm7.static.flickr.com/6237/6209984672_61af9b2c7f.jpg
Image from here: http://cms.colum.edu/demo/Backstory-1983.jpg
NYPL Rose Reading Room Image from here: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebeuselinck/122394082/
Lovely, but mostly gone now. Card Catalog Image from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/prettydaisies/869135605/
Periodicals room - mostly off limits. Image from here: http://www.flickr.com/photos/iamthebestartist/6861258876/
Social Sciences Citation Index tracks the number of times a particular work by an individual author is cited by others in the peer-reviewed literature.
People would take rulers, literally, to measure a scholar’s entry in the SSCI. Please write your own Freudian joke here...
There is definitely change coming in higher ed / academia ~ it’s a great time if you can be fluid, learn new things, adapt. I predict it may be less fun for you if this you are attached to old ways of doing things. Image from here: http://pandodaily.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/change-ahead.jpg?w=584&h=438
There has been an expansion of digital technologies. For some, this has been ‘transformative’ because it is so different than the analog. For others who were “born digital” these are simply the way things are. Whichever group you fall into, these digital technologies have already begun transforming scholarly communication.
Simply put, the shift from analog to digital is about code.... coding information into binary code of 1’s and 0’s. When this happens, information - data - is easier to move around, edit, analyze. Image from here: https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/D83AI8LmcuyqyfnvS6qk1Q
The shift from analog to digital & the explosion of different sorts of technologies are already affecting how we do our jobs as sociologists.
HIgher education is being transformed in the digital era, including sociology and what we might call public sociology.
Rather than comb through a card catalog, we look things up on Google Scholar.
The whole notion of a “library” is now one that’s digital, distributed..... a real game-changer when it comes to libraries in the digital era. http://dp.la /
It’s important to have the physical building which we still use.....
...but as scholars, we *expect* ~ even demand ~ that there are digital tools within those libraries that we can use from any location.
Digital technologies have changed how we keep track of citations, bibliographies......and, with tools like Zotero, we can create bibliographies, keep track of citations, and share them with others who have similar interests.
It’s changed how we write.... this is Commentpress....
..which several people in the digital humanities have used.... to compile entire books, including a colleague...
Matthew K. Gold’s “Debates in the Digital Humanities,” an experiment in academic publishing.... and peer-to-peer review. (Read stats.)
Part of what’s changing about publishing has to do with changing views of copyright. Beyond my scope here to fully explore copyright, but Larry Lessig explains this. Do watch this talk if you haven’t seen it: http://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lessig_says_the_law_is_strangling_creativity.html
There is a lot wrong with academic publishing.... and lots of people are seeing that now. What’s wrong with it? http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/31858/title/Opinion--Academic-Publishing-Is-Broken-/
Graphic content by Jill Cirasella. Graphic designed by Les Larue: http://www.leslarue.com /
Academics stash their research in places, like JSTOR, that most people can’t access. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/01/locked-in-the-ivory-tower-why-jstor-imprisons-academic-research/251649/
Some even argue it’s immoral... Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2013/jan/17/open-access-publishing-science-paywall-immoral
Another resource about this.... http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/open-access
all these changes in scholarship, pedagogy + publishing means that there are ways that the ways we measure success is changing, too.
We’re shifting from ‘metrics’ to ‘altmetrics.’
So, for example, Jeff Jarvis (CUNY colleague) has 120,003 Twitter followers. That’s a kind of “altmetric” - a measure of his reach and influence. Increasingly, book publishers - even some employers - look for evidence of your reach on particular platforms before awarding book contracts, even some jobs. Less so in academia, but on its way.
The good news for you folks about the way academia is changing is that you can also count aspects of “knowledge streams” – number of downloads, unique visitors to your blog, number of Twitter followers. Some people are calling these new ways of measuring scholarly production “altmetrics.”
These new kinds of knowledge streams (and measurement) don’t replace the “knowledge products” of traditional academia they augment those. For example, when you write submit a paper to traditional, peer-reviewed journal you want to think about optimizing the title of that paper for search engines. As another example, a peer-reviewed article that gets Tweeted will get more citations in the traditional academic literature. http://www.biggerbrains.com/optimize-your-article-for-SEO
But, this is not a complete transition from a “legacy” past that is behind us, and a “digital” present or future. The legacy and the digital are imbricated and overlap in the here and now.
We are also living in a global (certainly US, UK + Western Europe) context of ‘austerity’ - which is the lie that we’re out of money but reflects the reality of economic inequality and that the rich and super-rich will not invest in public goods and services. Image from here: http://thinkprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/gty-154440996-4_3_r560.jpg
The politics of austerity mean that the funding landscape of higher ed is changing.
Political attacks on higher ed in the US are changing the landscape of funding... Screenshot from here: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/04/20134265610113939.html
“ Smith is attempting a version of the strategy used successfully by Oklahoma Republican Sen. Tom Coburn last month. By amending the continuing resolution that’s funding the government this year, Coburn managed to prohibit any funds for NSF-funded political science unless it was somehow “promoting national security or the economic interests of the United States.” He’d tried to put the ax to NSF’s political science funds before, and failed. But that tighter definition allowed him to argue that the funds could exist, as long as they weren’t squandered.” Source: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/politics/2013/04/national_science_foundation_and_tom_coburn_the_republican_effort_to_cut.html
A different landscape in the UK, where there is an overall committment to funding higher ed. Still REF means that the funding is tied to demonstrated “research excellence,” part of which relies on evidence of “impact” on wider publics. Lots of good information on this effort, at the LSE Impact Blog: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/
No longer any broad commitment to funding state-funded public institutions of higher ed, at least when you look at data from state budgets, like this one from GA.... Image from here: http://likethedew.com/2011/05/05/georgia-falling-behind-funding-higher-education/
....and a very similar downward trend in funding from Washington State. Every state in the US is following a similar pattern. This means that faculty have to be more entrpreneurial in securing their own funding for research. Image from here: http://budgetandpolicy.org/schmudget/cuts-to-higher-education-dimming-future-prosperity
And, of course, there’s very bad news in academia regarding the way we hire (or don’t hire) faculty. 73% of all instructional workforce in higher ed = adjunct faculty. Image from here: http://www.schoolleadership20.com/forum/topics/25-telling-facts-about-adjunct-faculty-today
Given the grim prospects for legacy tenure-track jobs in the academy, a lot of people w/ PhDs are going to do other things with those skills. Image from here: http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/02/how-many-phds-actually-get-to-become-college-professors/273434/
In academia, as elsewhere, we’re faced with competing forces of commercialization vs. democratization (as Robert Darnton, DPLA noted in a recent talk at the GC). The political economy of austerity - up to and including slashes in funding to public institutions of higher ed, the adjunctification of the academic workforce, and the attacks on funding such as the Coburn amendment - point to this broad conflict between forces of commercialization and forces of democratization. I think that we, as academics, sometimes conflate the “commerce v. democracy “ struggle with the transformation from “legacy” to “digital” forms of scholarly communication.
What are academics to do in this context to resist? I argue that owning the content of your own professional identity is key to this...
Academics (at that handful with tenure) can also say “no” to publishing in places that don’t allow you to own your own work.
Through blogging, sociologists can also open up a space between research and journalism in ways that are creative, interesting, and contribute to an engaged citizenry.
This is part of how I moved back into academia from the dotcom world. When I started the RR blog, I was a marginally employed academic, teaching as an adjunct, and trying to get published in “legacy” journals. At the same time, I was blogging regularly. Today, I’m tenured, full with a host of ‘legacy’ publications in traditional venues. But the reality is most people know me through my blog and Twitter presence, not my books or articles.
Increasingly, given the grim political economy of “austerity” and the many, many under-employed PhDs, I think that the affordances of digital technologies will create more and more entities like this one: http://thebrooklyninstitute.com / Started by a handful of Columbia U, PhD’s who now run this which is basically fee-based classes in things like “Visceral Theory: Affect and Embodiment,” 5 weeks, cost $300.