How the Americas Change: The Long 19th Century By: Jessica Jefferson History 141 - 31136
The Americas in the 19th CenturyMost lands in the western hemisphere won their independence from Europeand had to deal with the legacy ofEnlightenment. The challenge tocreate societies ingrained withconstitutional government, freedom,and equality.America• The U.S. built the most powerful state and experienced a rush of immigrants from China, Europe, and Asia.• Westward expansion was met with resistance from indigenous peoples of the lands.• Populations doubled and disagreements over slavery and the individual rights of states led to civil war.• As a result of civil war, slavery was abolished and the federal state was strengthened.
The Americas in the 19th CenturyCanada• Canada established a federal state under British Canadian Leadership.• Differences between the British and French Canadians faded into the background as the external threat from the U.S. increased.• The first Prime Minister of Canada, John A. McDonald, strengthened the dominion and oversaw the construction of a transcontinental railroad.Latin America• Latin America established smaller morelocalized states due to conflict and instabilityfrom a number of factors including civil war,rebellion, and caudillo rule.• The peoples there lacked employment,political representation, and education.
Frontiers of the AmericasThe Louisiana Purchase• 828,000 miles were purchased fromFrance’s claim to Louisiana for 60 millionfrancs in 1803 doubling the size of the U.S.Haitian RevolutionConflict between 1791-1804 resulted in the elimination of slavery in Haiti and the foundation of the Haitian republic, influencing the U.S. by increasing the number of rebellions against slavery. For the French, the loss of the Saint-Domingues sugar plantations in Haiti made keeping the Louisiana territory too large of a burden, and acted as a catalyst to sell the territory to the U.S.Missouri River expedition• Prince Maximilian zu Wied and Swiss artist Karl Bodmer explored the newly acquired land from 1832-1834. These two provided excellent information on the inhabitants on the land and documented their travels with paintings and writings such as Reise in das Innere Nord-Amerikas; written upon thier return.
Frontiers of the AmericasFrontier Violence in South America• During the mid-nineteenth century civil wars plagued the borderland of Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul. Viloence here became symbolic and a way of life. For them the violence was a crucial part of their internal social structure.• Brazils violence was more confined to the poorest and most rual areas. Drought disrupted the normally storng family bonds and foced women into prostitution and men into baniting. Rebellions often insued.
Crossroads of FreedomA pivotal moment for American History was the battle of Antietam fought on September 17th, 1862. It was here union victory significantly arrested themomentum on the south, offering Lincoln the chance to issue the proclamation of emancipation. • This was the bloodiest day in American History. • More than 6,000 soldiers were killed.
Crossroads of FreedomJames M. McPherson describes the events leading upto this battle and how the result of this battle foreverchanged both America and the world.• Goals of the South included diplomatic recognition of the Confederacy as a nation. McPherson begins his story stating “the South needed only to defend what it already possessed by repelling enemy invasions and wearing out the will of the Northern people” after the Confederates’ seizure of Fort Summer. • The Confederacy had a functioning government made of 11 states. • 750,000 miles of national territory belonged to them.
Crossroads of Freedom Motivation for the North included freedom for the slaves. • The South used slaves in there armies as soldiers before drafting white men. Escaping slaves helped make the civil was a war for their freedom as well as the Union.• In Spring of 1862 Lincoln signed legislation to abolish slavery in the district of Columbia, prohibit it the territories and making it legal to confiscate slaves from Confederate owners. This geared up the Union for what was to come.
Crossroads of FreedomBattle of Antietam• The South was outnumbered, and committed their entire force to the battle, while the North saved reserves for later.• The significance of the amount of defeat the North had gained led Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation. • This dissuaded France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy. • McPherson’s position is that other pivotal moments later in the war, such as the Unions triumphs at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, would not have been possible without the defeat of the “triple Confederate offensives in Mississippi, Kentucky, and most of all Maryland” --- “during the fall of 1862.”