Research method final

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Research method final

  1. 1. Types/Classifications of Research • The research can be classified from three perspectives: – Application • Basic and applied research – Objectives • Exploratory, Descriptive, or explanatory (causal, hypothesis testing) – Type of information • Qualitative and quantitativeModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  2. 2. Basic Research – Generating scientific knowledge for future use (Common use) – Undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice – May lead to discovery of new theory or refinement of an existing theory – Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge – Not directly involved in the solution to a practical problem – Commonly conducted at a UniversityModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  3. 3. Applied Research – Carried on to find solution to a real life problem and action oriented – Seeks an immediate and practical results – May indirectly contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to a discovery of new facts or testing of a theory or to conceptual clarity – Conducted when a decision must be made about a specific real-life problemModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  4. 4. Basic Differences Between Basic and Applied Research • Basic Research • Applied Research – Problem based on the – “what is the problem” is researcher interest to an important step in explain and resolving that problem. understanding of the – What problems to subject analysis may be outside – Selection of the problem the individual researcher is totally the choice of domain the researcher – Researcher role is – Some value judgment examine analytically and may be made, action is a course of action not recommended recommendedModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  5. 5. Exploratory Studies • To clarify ambiguous problems • To get better understanding of an issue • To provide information for further analysis • To identify information/data required • As a preliminary research • To exhaust inexpensive & time saving resourcesModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  6. 6. Descriptive Studies • To describe a characteristic of a population or phenomenon • Seeks answers to who, what, when, where and how questions • To gather accurate info • It is based on previous understanding of the problemModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  7. 7. Causal Studies • To identify cause-and-effect relationship among variables • To explain a relationship between variables/factors • Specific problem basedModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  8. 8. Quantitative vs. Qualitative research Quantitative Qualitative Objective Quantification In-depth under. Approach Structured Unstructured Sample size Large Small Represent. Yes (if random) No Interv. Skill Moderate to low High Basis Numbers Words Analysis Statistics ComparativeModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  9. 9. BM 040Research Chapter 6Methodology Research EthnicsBenjamin ChanBsc. Human Development (UPM)Msc. Human Development (UPM)PhD Candidate (UM) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Benjamin.chan@ucti.edu.my 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 9 9Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  10. 10. Ethical Example Explanation PrinciplesInvasion of Parker,2000 A study on CEO of a companyPrivacy Fail to protect individual anonymity Scott et.al Documented the company size, location, history, and company activities…made it clear to the public which company was involved in the studyHarm to Dalton’ 1959 counseling Potentially harmful to the femaleParticipant relationship with female secretary future employment secretary Milgram and Shortland’s Inducing subjects to against the (1973) steal experiment lawsLack of Haney, Banks, Zimbardo’s Do not give full information aboutinformed (1973) prison experiment the nature of the study and itsConsent possible implementation for themDeception Milgram’s (1963) electricity Physically shock experimentModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  11. 11. BM 040Research Chapter 7Methodology Measurement and Scaling Concepts, Questionnaire DesignBenjamin ChanBsc. Human Development (UPM)Msc. Human Development (UPM)PhD Candidate (UM) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Benjamin.chan@ucti.edu.my 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 11 11Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  12. 12. Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  13. 13. Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  14. 14. BM 040Research Chapter 8Methodology SamplingBenjamin ChanBsc. Human Development (UPM)Msc. Human Development (UPM)PhD Candidate (UM) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Benjamin.chan@ucti.edu.my 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 14Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  15. 15. Probability Sampling Non Probability Sampling S Q P P A A S SModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  16. 16. Qualitative Analysis  The process of interpreting data collected during the course of qualitative research  The analysis of data depends on its type.Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  17. 17. Quantitative Analysis  The process of presenting and interpreting numeric data collected during the course of quantitative research  Often contain descriptive statistic and inferential statistic.Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  18. 18. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Analysis An intelligent way of differentiating Qualitative research from Quantitative research is: that largely 1.Qualitative research is exploratory, while Quantitative research is descriptive, predictive and conclusive. 2.Quantitative data is measurable while Qualitative data can not be put into a context that can be graphed or displayed as a mathematical term.Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  19. 19. What factors determine the most appropriate statistical techniques? Research objectives / questions / purpose of your study Measurement scales you used in your research instrument Research design of your studies. Nature of your data –meeting normally and / or equality of variance assumptions for parametric tests.Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Research Methods for Degree Study
  20. 20. MSA-UCSIBM 040ResearchMethodology 08.10.2011 Chapter 15 Introduction toBenjamin Chan HarvardY.FBenjamin Y.F. ChanBsc. (UPM) (Human Development) B.S. (Human Development) Human Development Referencing M.S. (UPM)(UPM) PhD Candidate (UPM) (Institute of Gerontology)Msc. Human Development(UPM) Room No : A 2- 6PhD Candidate (UM) Department of Resource MGM & Consumer Studies Faculty of Human Ecology University Putra MalaysiaBenjamin.chan@ucti.edu.m Tel : 603 8946 7097 y
  21. 21. Why do we reference? Introduction to Research ‘By providing references, you: • Demonstrate the coverage of your research (from 1980 to 2000) • Allow the reader to consult and verify your sources of information • Avoid plagiarism’ Pears and Shields, 2005, p 1Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Data Analysis Research Methods for Degree Study
  22. 22. Why do we reference? Introduction to Research 1. To avoid plagiarism 2. To show you have read a piece of work and understood it 3. To show courtesy to the original author 4. To track your reading / note-taking 5. To back up an argument http://library.apiit.edu.my/harvard-referencingModule Code and Module Title Title of Slides Data Analysis Research Methods for Degree Study
  23. 23. Revision for Chi-square Analysis• A chi-square test of independence was conducted to assess whether the grade received by students (A, B+, B, C and below) is related to their gender (male and female) or not. Data collected from a randomly selected sample. Interpret the results based on Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3.
  24. 24. Table 1: Gender * Grade CrosstabulationCount Grade A B+ B C and Below TotalGender Male 4 7 35 22 68 Female 18 14 27 8 67Total 22 21 62 30 135 Table 2: Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)Pearson Chi-Square 18.802a 3 .000N of Valid Cases 135a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 10.42. Table 3: Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig.Nominal by Nominal Cramers V .373 .000
  25. 25. Answer1. A chi-square test of independence was conducted to assess whether the grade received by students (A, B+, B, C and below) is related to their gender (male and female)2. The finding of crosstabs analysis for grade and gender was found to be correlated or related [Pearson χ2 (3, N = 135) = 18.802, p≤ 0.01]3. A close inspection of Table 1 for pattern of relationship reveals that the majority (83.9%) of the male students obtained grades between “B” to “C and below”, while the majority (88.1%) of female students obtained grade between A to B4. This suggests that, in general, the female students performed better in the test compared to male5. The Cramer’s V value obtained (V = 0.373) indicates that the strength or magnitude relationship between grade and gender is at moderate level
  26. 26. Answer Gender * Grade Crosstabulation Grade A B+ B C and Below TotalGender Male Count 4 7 35 22 68 % within Gender 5.9% 10.3% 51.5% 32.4% 100.0% Female Count 18 14 27 8 67 % within Gender 26.9% 20.9% 40.3% 11.9% 100.0%Total Count 22 21 62 30 135 % within Gender 16.3% 15.6% 45.9% 22.2% 100.0%

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