Training and Development
Human Resource Management, training and development is the field which is concerned with
organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups
in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including human resource
development, and learning and development.
Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of
Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000.
"Employee Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship
between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or
"associates" to feel comfortable with. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by
academics, who objected to the idea that people were "resources" &m dash; an idea that they
felt to be demeaning to the individual. Eventually, the CIPD settled upon "Learning and
Development", although that was itself not free from problems, "learning" being an
overgeneral and ambiguous name. Moreover, the field is still widely known by the other
Training and development (T&D) encompasses three main activities: training, education, and
development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the International Institute of Market Research
and Analytics, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to
practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities:
Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an
individual currently holds.
Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in
the future, and is evaluated against those jobs.
Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing
the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost
impossible to evaluate.
The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes.
The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and
development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources,
and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes.
The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in
the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict
with the agendas and motivations of the others.
The conflicts that are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between
employees and their bosses. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with
their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and executive coach, Dr.
John Hoover points out, "Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making
the boss look stupid."aining an employee to get along well with authority and with people who
entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent,
knowledge, and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or
Employers must train employees if they want to get the right results from them. There are things the
employee needs to know so that the job is done right according to the company’s purpose. There are many
reasons why employers need to take the time to train employees.
Reasons Employees should be Trained
Safety- The first and most important reasons that employees need to be trained is for their safety and the
safety of others. If the environment is someplace where your employees can get hurt, you have to make sure
they know your safety procedures to ensure that everyone will be okay at the end of the day.
Procedures- If you want your employees to know your procedures, you have to train them to know the
procedures. Although many workplaces go by the same basic rules and procedures, they vary slightly and
can make all the difference to day to day operations. If you want your employees to give you the best of
what they have, you have to train them.
Errors- The only way to make sure your employees are as error free as possible is to train them in the proper
way. If they don’t know what you want or what the end result should be, they can’t do the job right. Training
your employees helps to keep errors to a minimum which makes the work day go more smoothly for
everyone in the company.
What they should never do- Employees need to know what they should never do in your place of
employment. They can’t know unless you train them. If you don’t train them, don’t expect them to know that
they can’t do certain things.
Knowledge- The more your employees know about the company, the better their work will be. It is a proven
fact that employees who know more about the place they work do better work. The better the work, the
better your company. That is the bottom line.
If you want the smoothest possible work day for everyone, you will train your employees on the job and in
your policies and procedures. This leaves little room for error in thinking when it comes to what goes on in
the workplace. The less error, the more production and that is what you want from your employees. Don’t
just throw your employees into a new work environment without training them. It just doesn’t make good
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When you hire a new employee, they obviously need to be trained to do the job you have given them. This training matters a
lot because they won’t be able to fulfill their responsibilities without proper training.
There are often times when an employee has experience in the work you have hired them for and that’s often why they’re
offered the position. BUT, the key is that no matter how much they do know, they won’t know how your business works
without your training. Every company has their own way of doing things.
Your company may use different computer systems compared to what the employee has used in the past. In-house
systems are usually unique to a specific company. If you want the employee to perform at their best, you need to invest
time and money into proper training so they can handle all the requirements of the role they have been hired to fill.
Part of training any new employee should be a detailed introduction to the company, what benefits they’re entitled to, what
facilities are available for their use, who to see if they have questions and all the extras that impact on their employment but
may not actually be considered a part of their actual training.
In bigger organizations, an experienced staff member is assigned to help mentor a new employee. They’re the first point of
contact for basic questions. That person may show the new person around the building, introduce them to other staff so
they feel welcome and show them all the facilities such as where to make tea or coffee, the lunch room, the toilets and any
other facilities that the employee has access to while at work.
It’s vital to make the employee feel welcome. If they don’t feel they belong, it’s quite possible they’ll leave within a short
period of time and that means all the time and money spent on training has been for nothing.
It’s essential you don’t overwhelm a new employee. It’s very easy to bombard them with information and assume they can
absorb it as fast as your current employees. While some people learn faster than others, there will always be some
employees that feel the training goes over the top of there head, which it often does. A training manual is handy for them to
use as a reference point.
It’s essential that new employees be given some latitude as they learn the job. They’ll usually be much slower at first,
regardless of the job difficulty, and that shouldn’t be seen as a negative point. It’s better to move slowly but learn the work
thoroughly than to rush and make mistakes.
Don’t rush through training any new employee because, in the long run, the time saved at the start could cost you a great
deal more down the track if the employee makes mistakes or decides to leave because of lack of training.
Management study guide
Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place. Training is the process of enhancing
the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. Training process moulds
the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. It is continuous and never
ending in nature.
Importance of Training
Training is crucial for organizational development and success. It is fruitful to both employers and
employees of an organization. An employee will become more efficient and productive if he is trained
Training is given on four basic grounds:
New candidates who join an organization are given training. This training familiarize them with the organizational
mission, vision, rules and regulations and the working conditions.
The existing employees are trained to refresh and enhance their knowledge.
If any updations and amendments take place in technology, training is given to cope up with those changes. For
instance, purchasing a new equipment, changes in technique of production, computer implantment. The employees
are trained about use of new equipments and work methods.
When promotion and career growth becomes important. Training is given so that employees are prepared to share
the responsibilities of the higher level job.
The benefits of training can be summed up as:
Improves morale of employees- Training helps the employee to get job security and job satisfaction. The more
satisfied the employee is and the greater is his morale, the more he will contribute to organizational success and the
lesser will be employee absenteeism and turnover.
Less supervision- A well trained employee will be well acquainted with the job and will need less of supervision.
Thus, there will be less wastage of time and efforts.
Fewer accidents- Errors are likely to occur if the employees lack knowledge and skills required for doing a
particular job. The more trained an employee is, the less are the chances of committing accidents in job and the
more proficient the employee becomes.
Chances of promotion- Employees acquire skills and efficiency during training. They become more eligible for
promotion. They become an asset for the organization.
Increased productivity- Training improves efficiency and productivity of employees. Well trained employees show
both quantity and quality performance. There is less wastage of time, money and resources if employees are
Ways/Methods of Training
Training is generally imparted in two ways:
On the job training- On the job training methods are those which are given to the employees within the everyday
working of a concern. It is a simple and cost-effective training method. The inproficient as well as semi- proficient
employees can be well trained by using such training method. The employees are trained in actual working
scenario. The motto of such training is “learning by doing.” Instances of such on-job training methods are jobrotation, coaching, temporary promotions, etc.
Off the job training- Off the job training methods are those in which training is provided away from the actual
working condition. It is generally used in case of new employees. Instances of off the job training methods are
workshops, seminars, conferences, etc. Such method is costly and is effective if and only if large number of
employees have to be trained within a short time period. Off the job training is also called as vestibule training,i.e.,
the employees are trained in a separate area( may be a hall, entrance, reception area,etc. known as a vestibule)
where the actual working conditions are duplicated.