Exploring the elements of music

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Exploring the elements of music

  1. 1. Exploring the Elements of Music <ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Tonality </li></ul><ul><li>Melody </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Performing Media </li></ul><ul><li>Tone Colour </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul>
  2. 2. Rhythm <ul><li>Rhythm defines how sounds in a piece are grouped and placed in time, often in relation to a pulse. </li></ul><ul><li>Notes of different durations are organised into patterns – these are known as rhythm. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Words <ul><li>Beat </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Bar </li></ul><ul><li>Bar line </li></ul><ul><li>Metre – duple, triple or quadruple </li></ul><ul><li>Simple time – A metre in which the beats subdivide into two. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound time – A metre in which the beats subdivide into three. </li></ul><ul><li>Tempo </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Syncopation – The use of accents on weak beats or between beats, creating tension between the accents of the pulse and the accents of the rhythm. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cross rhythm – A rhythmic arrangement which contradicts expected metrical accents by introducing a different pattern of groupings. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Hemiola – A specific form of syncopation, often used in Baroque music, particularly at important cadences. The most usual form occurs when a piece in triple time places accents on alternate beats, giving a temporary duple feel to the music. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Anacrusis – An unaccented note or a group of notes which precede the first strong beat in a phrase of music. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Free rhythm – Rhythm which is determined by the text, breathing or other factors. This kind of music does not have a pulse, or beat. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Suite – In the Baroque period, dances were grouped together to form a suite. The dances were unified by being in the same key, but differentiated by their different metres and rhythms. These are the basic four dances of the suite, with their metres, and characteristic rhythms. Other dances could be added between the sarabande and gigue. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Allemande </li></ul><ul><li>Courante </li></ul><ul><li>Sarabande </li></ul><ul><li>Gigue </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Swing – In jazz music of the thirties, a tradition developed of playing in triplets, even when the music was written in four-four time. This means that a piece marked ‘with swing’ should be played in twelve-eight time thus: </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Western Art Music </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval – Free, fluid rhythms for sacred music; dance rhythms used for secular music. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – A new rhythm figure is introduced for each new section, either an imitation point, a new line of text, or a new variation. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque – Unity of rhythm over a whole movement so that each is governed by one rhythmic motive. Strong feeling of pulse. A hemiola often used to mark important cadence points at endings of sections. Movements of suites are defined by certain rhythmic patterns in particular metres. </li></ul>Main Styles and Traditions
  13. 13. <ul><li>Classical – Variety of rhythm in a single movement. Different rhythmic motives for each section of a movement. Strong feeling of pulse. </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic – Use of speed fluctuations and cross rhythm tend to weaken the barline, resulting in a ‘softer’ pulse. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern –Rhythmic complexity, fluidity, or hypnotic repetition. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>World Music </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese – Flexible, free rhythm in shakuhachi (flute) music; a very slow pulse in gagaku (court music or ‘elegant’ music) – approximately three seconds between beats. </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian – Gamelan orchestras use rhythmic ostinatos. Each layer of texture has its own rhythmic sphere: higher instruments might play quavers, lower instruments might play crotchets, lowest instruments might play semibreves. This relationship of rhythm to layers of pitch is known as colotomic structure. The pulse of gamelan music speeds up and slows down from section to section. </li></ul><ul><li>Baltic (Greece, Turkey) – Features unusual metres, including combinations of dotted and undotted beats to the ‘bar’, as in the following examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic (Ireland, Scotland, Brittany) – Strong pulse, repetitive dance rhythms, use of dotted beat. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz – Extensive use of syncopation over a strong pulse. </li></ul><ul><li>Pop – A heavy repetitive beat is common, because of the association of this music with dancing. An accent on the second and fourth beat in four-four time gives pop a syncopated feel, known as ‘back beat’. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tonality <ul><li>Tonality is the overall relationship, melodic and harmonic, between the pitches used in a piece of music. </li></ul><ul><li>The pitches can be ordered into a scale or scales with different scales creating different tonal colours </li></ul>
  16. 16. Scales <ul><li>Major Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Minor Scale – Harmonic and Melodic </li></ul><ul><li>Modes – A family of seven-note scales which originated in early church music, with the two semitone intervals in different places, according to the mode. There are five commonly used modes: Aeolian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian. The Aeolian mode became the minor scale, and the Ionian mode, used originally for dancing, later became known as the major scale. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Pentatonic Scale – A scale of five notes grouped in twos and threes, with a note omitted between the two groups. Some pentatonic scales are entirely based on whole tones while others include semitones, resulting in a ‘minor’ effect. In some pentatonic music a sense of keynote is suggested – but this is not always the case. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Blues Scale – A scale of six notes. While this scale is notated as below, a characteristic sound is created by ‘bending’ the pitch, especially on the notes written as accidentals. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Chromatic scale – A scale of twelve notes which includes all naturals and accidentals. There is no key note. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatic music – Music which includes notes outside the major or minor scale on which the piece is based. For example, a chromatic piece in C major could include use of G sharp, D flat or C sharp. These notes are not essential to the key and have an ornamental function. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Whole tone scale – A scale consisting of six whole tones (every second note in a chromatic scale). Because all the intervals are equal there is no feeling of key note. </li></ul><ul><li>Gypsy scale – A seven-note scale which includes two augmented seconds, found in music of Eastern Europe and Klezmer music. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Pitch – The ‘highness’ or ‘lowness’ of a note, depending on the frequency of the sound wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Tonal centre – Used to describe a certain note or several notes which are favoured as more important than others in music which does not have a key note. </li></ul><ul><li>Atonal music – Music which has no keynote. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Twelve tone – A term used to describe music based on an arrangement of all the notes of a chromatic scale. The twelve notes must all be used before any note can be repeated. Thus each note is used equally, ensuring that no note predominated. The following melody uses each of the twelve notes in turn. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Modulation - A change of key within a musical composition. This example starts in C major, but modulates to G major. </li></ul><ul><li>Diatonic – Using the notes of one particular scale, with no chromatic ‘extras’. This term is usually applied to music in a major key. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Enharmonic – Having the same pitch but written in different notation. For example, E flat can be written enharmonically as D sharp. </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental – A sign placed before a note to raise of lower the pitch. The most common reasons for using accidentals are as follows: </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>1. The piece is in a minor key, and the sixth and/or seventh intervals are raised or lowered. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The piece modulates to another key. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Chromatic notes outside the key are introduced for colour. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>4. The piece is in a tonality which requires accidentals: whole tone, twelve tone, blues or gypsy. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Medieval – Modes established by the church and used for sacred music. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – Modes continue to be used, but with increased chromaticism. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque – The major and minor scale supersede the church modes. The use of modulation becomes an important structural device. </li></ul>Main Styles and Traditions
  28. 28. <ul><li>Classical – The major and minor key system continues to be used, with extensive use of modulation (sonata form, for example, relies on modulation). </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic – The major and minor key system continues, with increased use of modulation to distant keys, and enharmonic relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern – Atonal and twelve-tone music were pioneered in the early twentieth century. Composers today use many tonalities – modal, major and minor, pentatonic and so on. There is no longer an accepted tonality to which composers conform. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>World Music </li></ul><ul><li>Music of Asia (for example China, Japan, Indonesia) – Frequent us of a pentatonic scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe – The gypsy scale used for Klezmer and folk music. The gypsy scale also used by Western Europe composers to create a ‘folk’ flavour in their music (for example, Liszt and Brahms). </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic music – Based on the church modes, with the Dorian, Aeolian and Mixolydian predominating. </li></ul><ul><li>American Blues and Jazz – Use of the blues scale. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Melody is a sequence of single notes; the main, most prominent line or voice in a piece of music, the line that the listener follows most closely. When accompanied, the melody is often the highest line in the piece (voice, violin, flute) and thus stands out clearly. </li></ul><ul><li>Melody is often the most memorable aspect of a piece. </li></ul>Melody
  31. 31. <ul><li>Contour – the shape of a melody: Melodies can have smooth contours; </li></ul><ul><li>or they can have angular contours; </li></ul>Key Words
  32. 32. <ul><li>Phrasing – The dividing of a melody into sections separated by a tiny break or breath. In notated music, melodies often fall into four-bar phrases, and sometimes into two- , three- or five- bar phrases. (A piece of music can often be phrased in more than one way.) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of phrasing </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Phrasing has a close connection with the lengths of the human breath, and in much music, whether vocal or instrumental, the phrases usually correspond to the human breath. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Melisma – A group of ornamental notes sung to one syllable. The term comes from vocal music in the Medieval period. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence – The repetition of a phrase at a higher or lower pitch. The rhythm and melodic pattern are the same in each phrase. The starting note is changed. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Sequence – The repetition of a phrase at a higher or lower pitch. The rhythm and melodic pattern are the same in each phrase. The starting note is changed. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Aria – An old Italian term meaning ‘song’. It is used particularly for the songs in opera and oratorio, and as a general term for melody of a song-like character, whether vocal or instrumental. </li></ul><ul><li>Motive – A term used for a melodic fragment or idea, rather than a finished melody. </li></ul><ul><li>Anacrusis – Melodies which begin with an anacrusis, or upbeat, should generally follow that pattern throughout, with each new phrase beginning on an anacrusis. The most common anacrusis pattern is dominant to tonic (fifth to first degree of the scale). </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Passing note – A term given to a note (or notes) which fill in gaps between the main notes of the melody; making a smoother contour. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Cadence – A sequence of notes, usually the last two, at the end of a phrase or section. The last note of a phrase is often longer than the others, and is an important point of arrival in the design of the melody. Cadences are important in establishing key, as they often emhasise important degrees of the scale (keynote, fourth and fifth degrees). In this example each phrase ends with a semibreve. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Extended phrase – a phrase which is longer than the previous phrases in a piece and is therefore unexpected to the ear. Often produced by doubling expected note values in a cadence. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Medieval – Tends to use stepwise movement and small interval leaps. Secular music uses clear melodic phrases. Phrasing in sacred music is often long and fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – Polyphonic music often uses motives (or motifs) rather than melodies. Renaissance dance music, or music based on dances, uses melodic phrases that balance each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque – In homophonic music use is made of four-bar melodies, especially in the suite and vocal music. Motives are also used in music which involves imitation. </li></ul>Main Styles and Traditions
  41. 41. <ul><li>Classical – Classical music makes much use of melodies based on four-bar phrases, Symmetrical phrasing with strong cadence points is a characteristic of this style. </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic – Melodies are often longer, less symmetrical, although the four-bar, song-like melody still continues in slow movements of instrumental works and vocal works. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Modern – Music of the twentieth century relies less on melody as a feature than do former periods. However, melodies and motives are often more angular, less symmetrical and often less ‘singable’ than in previous periods. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>World Music </li></ul><ul><li>African – Often uses a small (pentatonic) range, with the melody moving up and down in that limited register. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese – Melody uses pitch variation (microtones) as an ornamental feature. </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian – Uses a limited (pentatonic) scale and repeated, small phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian – Based on scale melodies (ragas) and uses microtonal variation as an important ornamental device. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek – Uses repeated notes in the melody. </li></ul><ul><li>Irish – Characterised by large octave leaps and running scale passages. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz – Uses four-bar balanced phrases, and repeated phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Pop – Makes use of a small range, and repeated phrases. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Texture describes the relationship of lines, known as ‘voices’,within a piece. These lines form layers of sound. </li></ul>Texture
  45. 45. <ul><li>Monophonic – Describes a piece in which there is only one line. The line may be a solo instrument or voice, or it may consist of more than one voice in unison. A piece written in this texture is sometimes called monody. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel – Describes music where one line doubles another, moving in the same direction, a fixed interval apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Homophonic – Describes music in harmony with a chordal texture. Often the parts have the same rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphonic – Describes music with independent lines that are sung or played simultaneously. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Counterpoint – Music in which the lines or parts, each with its own melody, move independently. ‘Contrapuntal’ describes this style of music. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterophonic – Describes music in which one part closely doubles another, but with ornamentation and embellishments in the main part. </li></ul><ul><li>Fugue – A piece of polyphonic music in which each line states the main theme in turn, then accompanies other lines. A fugue is usually based on one melodic motive. ‘Fugal’ describes this kind of composition. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Canon – A piece of music in which the parts all have the same melody though starting at different times. Harmony is created out of independent melodic lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation – The musical feature where the parts imitate each other’s material. This occurs in the fugue and the canon. </li></ul><ul><li>Tone Cluster – a chord built on adjacent notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Unison – The singing or playing by a number of voices or instruments of the same note, or notes at the same time; may be at the same pitch or in a different octave. </li></ul><ul><li>Doubling – A term used when different instruments and/or voices play the same line, at the one pitch or at the octave. This is close in meaning to the term ‘unison’. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Medieval – Monody, parallelism, and heterophony are the most common textures. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – Polyphony is the most common texture. Each voice has its own melody and rhythm. Music is written in three, four, five or six parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque – Homophonic music develops and becomes widespread. Four-part writing, accompanied by figured bass, whether for voices, strings, or other instruments, becomes usual, and three-part writing is maintained as a special effect in the trio sonata and the trio section of the minuet. </li></ul>Main Styles and Traditions
  49. 49. <ul><li>Classical – Homophonic music in four parts is the main texture. In symphonic works, three-part writing survives in the trio section of the minuet (the third movement of the symphony). </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic – Textures are often thicker and more complex, within the homophonic framework, with more orchestral doubling, and thicker piano writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern – Textures often become clearer and more sparse; independent lines (polyphony) become popular again. Blocks of sound (chord clusters) are also used. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>World music </li></ul><ul><li>African music – Uses monody as well as harmonised sections. </li></ul><ul><li>China and Japan – Much traditional music is monophonic or heterophonic. </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian gamelan music – There are many layers of sound. The harmony built up by the pentatonic melodies is static: it is an elaboration of one chord based on the pentatonic scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian music – Brilliantly expressive monody with a drone pedal accompaniment. </li></ul><ul><li>Irish Music – Uses monody as well as harmonic accompaniment on guitar, accordian, or harp. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz and pop music – Mostly homophonic, with guitars providing the harmony, and the voice or solo wind instruments providing the melody. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Harmony is the succession of chords, or chordal progressions made by two or more parts, or voices, playing or singing together. </li></ul>Harmony
  52. 52. <ul><li>Chord – The simultaneous sounding of two or more notes. The term covers a wide variety of sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Triad – A chord of three notes based on alternate notes of the scale. The triad is named by its lowest note, or root. Whether it is major or minor is determined by the third of the chord. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary triads (or primary chords) </li></ul><ul><li>Cadences – Perfect, Plagal, Imperfect, Interrupted. </li></ul><ul><li>Root position chords </li></ul><ul><li>Inversions of chords </li></ul>What you should understand.
  53. 53. <ul><li>Harmonic Rhythm – The speed at which a chord changes </li></ul><ul><li>Voicing, or voice leading – terms describing the movement of parts or ‘voices’ within a musical passage. </li></ul><ul><li>Spacing – The distance between the voices in a chord, viewed vertically. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedal note – A sustained note used in the bass while the harmony changes above it. Most common are tonic or dominant pedals. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatic harmony – The use of notes outside the main key. One commonly used chromatic chord is the diminished seventh. </li></ul><ul><li>Tone Clusters – Chords built on adjacent notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chords built on fourths – Used in twentieth century music as an alternative to the triad, built on thirds. </li></ul><ul><li>Chorale – A piece of music in ‘block’ harmony. All voices have a similar rhythm. </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Medieval – Since much medieval music is monodic or heterophonic, harmony (use of chords) is not an important feature of the style. Use of a pedal note as an accompaniment in dance music is a common device. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – Because most Renaissance music is polyphonic, harmony is a result of the texture, rather than a feature of the style. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque – Homophonic style, starting in Italy, becomes widespread. The rise of figured bass, which was the early equivalent of the modern chord chart, clearly demonstrates the popularity if chordal music. While polyphonic style continues, it tends to fall into chordal patterns. </li></ul>Main Styles and Traditions
  55. 55. <ul><li>Classical – Music continues to be based on chords, with the primary chords taking precedence. </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic – While still homophonic and based on triads, Romantic composers extend the triad, adding thirds to create sevenths, ninths, elevenths and thirteenths, giving a richer harmonic style, and also make increasing use of chromatic chords. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern – Harmonic style widens to include chords built on fourths rather than thirds, tone clusters, and dissonant chords based on sevenths, ninths and so on. </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>World Music </li></ul><ul><li>Much folk music is harmonically static, and is melodically based around one chord or drone. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese, African and Indonesian – In the pentatonic music, the melody outlines the same pentatonic chord, so there is no harmonic movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Irish – Often based around the open strings of the fiddle and can be harmonised or played over a tonic drone (pedal). </li></ul><ul><li>Rock – Mostly uses primary chords. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz – As in the Romantic period, the use of chords becomes progressively more complex. Jazz harmony uses primary chords, but extends the triad by adding notes (for example, sevenths, ninths, and elevenths). </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Dynamics are the graduations in the volume of sound, from loud to soft, in a piece of music. </li></ul><ul><li>Terraced Dynamics – Blocks of loud and soft sound, without graduations in between. They are often associated with Baroque music. </li></ul>Dynamics
  58. 58. <ul><li>Medieval – Instruments divided into ‘haute’ and ‘bas’ or loud and soft. The instruments used did not have a wide dynamic range so it is assumed that dynamic variation within a piece was not part of medieval style. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – No use of dynamic markings and probably dynamic variation was restricted to bringing out the main part in a texture and for other expressive purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque – Uses terraced dynamics. This tradition grew up with the style of music in which a large group of instruments or singers were alternated with a small group, creating a loud – soft contrast in dynamics. </li></ul>Main Styles and Traditions
  59. 59. <ul><li>Classical – Classical music pioneered the crescendo and diminuendo, which the classical orchestra was equipped to perform. The two new instruments which featured in the period were the clarinet and piano, both of which had a large dynamic range. </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic – Used an increased range of dynamics (ppp-fff) to highlight the dramatic character of the style. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern – A wide range of dynamics is used in modern music also. The sound world we live in today is a noisy one and the instruments we use are constantly being developed to make a bigger sound with greater projection. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>World Music </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese – Often creates dynamic contrast by varying the instrumentation; fewer instruments create a softer sound (terraced dynamics). </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian – Gamelan music often relates the dynamics to the tempo, with faster sections being louder with fuller instrumentation, and slower sections being quieter. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Classical – Played on sitar, tambura and tabla, often begins quietly and works up to a loud ending as the rhythm becomes more complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz – Often creates dynamic contrast by quiet solo sections alternating with the full band or ensemble. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>The term ‘performing media’ is used to describe the sound sources of a piece of music, whether they are instrumental, vocal, or synthesised sounds. </li></ul>Performing Media
  62. 62. <ul><li>Range – The range of an instrument or voice is the span of pitched sounds it produces from low to high. </li></ul><ul><li>Tessitura – The area within the range of a voice or instrument where a piece mainly lies. A piece is said to have a high tessitura if its average pitch is towards the top of the range. </li></ul><ul><li>Technique – The skill used by the player or singer in performance. It is also used to describe the manipulative skill used to create special effects, such as pizzicato and double tonguing. </li></ul>Key Words
  63. 63. <ul><li>Idiomatic – When referring to instrumental music, this term means; written in such a way as to maximise the natural capabilities of the instrument. Violins, for example, can easily play large leaps by crossing to the next string. Trumpets can play arpeggios easily. Flutes can easily play loudly at the top of their register but it is difficult to get a pianissimo at the top. Writing which is effective and comes naturally to the instrument is called idiomatic. </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring – The division of music between instruments or its arrangement for instruments. </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Tutti – An Italian term meaning ‘all’, or ‘everyone’. This term is used in orchestral or ensemble music to refer to sections in which every member of the orchestra or ensemble plays or sings. </li></ul><ul><li>Solo – An individual performance; in an orchestral composition, a certain instrument may have a solo, or an entire piece may be a solo. </li></ul><ul><li>Concert pitch – An internationally accepted standard of pitch: the frequency of 440 vibrations per second (or hertz) assigned to the A above middle C. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Medieval – Instruments of mixed families were used together. Thus a high double reed instrument, an alto brass instrument, a stringed instrument and bells could form an ensemble, and the contrast of tone colour was a feature. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – The ‘consort principle’ was an important innovation in this period. Instruments of the same type and family, but in different ranges, were used together in consorts, creating a blended sound. Consorts of viols, recorders, voices, sackbutts and so on were common. Often the music of the Renaissance was written with a choice of consorts in mind – spt for voices or viols was an English performance indication of the time. </li></ul>Main Styles and Traditions
  66. 66. <ul><li>Baroque – The string orchestra, supported by a harpsichord doubling the bass line and filling in harmony, was the main new development. The reinforcement of the bass line by the combined forces of the harpsichord and cello or double bass was known as ‘continuo’, as these players held things together and helped the music continue. Wind and brass instruments are used as soloists in concertos and to accompany singers in choral or orchestral works, but not as part of the blended texture. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Classical – The Classical orchestra is the main innovation of this period. The string orchestra of the Baroque period was expanded by a woodwind choir in parts (two each of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons) and two French horns. For a larger effect, composers sometimes added two trumpets and kettledrums. An important change is that the woodwind and brass are used as part of the tutti, as well as having solos. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>Romantic – The Romantic composers increased orchestral size in three ways. </li></ul><ul><li>- They increased the number of players above the number in the Classical orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>- They added larger and smaller sizes of previous instruments, such as piccolo, cor anglais (which is an alto oboe), bass clarinet and contra-bassoon. </li></ul><ul><li>- They added new instruments such as harp, saxophone, trombone, tuba, and more and varied percussion. </li></ul><ul><li>To match the larger orchestral sound, voices were trained to produce bigger sound with greater projection. </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>Modern – The percussion family has become more important in twentieth century music. Instruments from folk traditions of Latin America are popular. Composers are writing for new combinations of ensembles rather than for previously accepted ensembles. Electronic technology had made a huge palette of sound available, which can be combined with traditional instruments. </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>World Music </li></ul><ul><li>Voice – The human voice is considered by many to be the most versatile and expressive of instruments. Different cultures have different ways of using the voice to produce a wide range of colours. Yodelling, wailing, shouting, calling or crooning may all be used in different ranges and tessituras. Whether the sound is nasal, reedy or hollow depends on the style of singing favoured by each culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments – Every country has its own instrumental traditions. While much study is needed to recognise specific instruments, it is often easy to tell whether the sounds are made by plucked strings, bowed strings, double reeds, flutes, hitting metal, hitting wood, drums or tambours. </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>Tone colour – also known as timbre, is the quality of a sound, or the ‘colour’ of a sound. Tone colour enables us to distinguish the sound of one instruments or voice from another. </li></ul>Tone Colour
  72. 72. <ul><li>Harmonics – The science of musical sound based on the fact that sound is caused by vibration. </li></ul><ul><li>The Harmonic series – This enables us to differentiate between tone colours and sounds. It is the full range of sounds (or overtones) produced when a single note is sounded. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonics as a special effect – By using different techniques on different instruments, a player can isolate a note in the harmonic series and bring it out to sound more strongly than the fundamental. </li></ul>Key Words
  73. 73. <ul><li>The Fundamental – The term often used for the bottom note of the harmonic series. </li></ul><ul><li>Partials – A term used interchangeably with the term ‘harmonics’. </li></ul><ul><li>Attack – The beginning of a sound. This is an important feature in the recognition of different tone colours. A trumpet note begins with a more explosive attack than a bowed violin note, which can begin with a smoother attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Decay – The dying away of a sound. A plucked stringed instrument such as the guitar or lute has a characteristically fast decay. </li></ul><ul><li>The envelope of sound – An expression used to describe the entire note or sound, from attack to decay. </li></ul><ul><li>Consort – A small group of instruments characteristic of renaissance music. Instruments of the same tone colour or family, but with different ranges were used together to create a certain blend. Early viol consorts, recorder consorts, and vocal consorts were popular ensembles. The tone colours in a consort blend because the harmonics and attack are similar in all the instruments. </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>Medieval – Combined contrasting tone colours within the same piece: a bowed string, wind instrument and bell, for example, might make up the ensemble. Voice production was reedy and nasal, according to current experts. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – Combined the same tone colours in consorts. Families of differing ranges such as viols, recorders and voices, made up ensembles. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque – Often used the string orchestra (a consort) and combined it with contrasting wind or brass soloists. Vocal production avoided vibrato, except as an ornament. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical – Use the string orchestra with added choirs of wind and sometimes brass to blend (in a tutti) or contrast, depending on the context. </li></ul>Main Styles and Traditions
  75. 75. <ul><li>Romantic – Enlarged the orchestra but gave prominence to unusual instrumental soloists (viola, double bass or timpani). Vocal production changed to fill large halls and opera houses. Large voices with vibrato became popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern – Often returns to the contrasting tone colours favoured by Medieval music. In addition, there are new electronically generated tones to add to the twentieth century palette, as well as new instruments, and use of folk instruments from other cultures. Vocal techniques include a wide variety of tone colours. </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>World Music </li></ul><ul><li>African – Singing favours throat vocal production, within a small range. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese – Bowed strings and singing favour a reedy sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese – In flute music, the shakuhachi is played with a breathy sound in complete contrast to Western flute technique where signs of breathing are eradicated as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian – Gamelan music favours instruments made of bronze which have a long envelope of sound and project well out-of-doors where the instruments are played. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian – Classical music favours maximum resonance, and a series of drones and sympathetic strings create a brilliant static backdrop for the sitar. </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>Structure or form is the term which describes the order of events in a piece of music. The term may define the number of sections, and their relationship to each other and to the whole. In Western music, pieces are often defined by repetition and contrast. A common way to analyse sections in a piece is to call the first section (and any repeats of the first section) A, and contrasting sections B, C and so on. </li></ul>Structure
  78. 78. <ul><li>Repetition – A section of music can repeat exactly (AA) or with a variation in dynamics or performing media, in which case it might be analysed AA1. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation form – There are many kinds of variation forms; what they have in common is that some element of the piece repeats, while another element is varied. </li></ul><ul><li>Binary – Having two sections. The first section usually modulates to a closely related key (dominant or relative major) and the second section returns to the key of the opening. Each section repeats, so in practice the piece can be analysed: AABB. </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>Ternary – Having three sections in which the third section is a repeat of the first: ABA. </li></ul><ul><li>Rondo – A piece in which the main theme comes back between contrasting themes (for example, ABACABA). </li></ul><ul><li>Ritornello form – Used in the Baroque concerto grosso; makes use of contrast between the string orchestra (ripieno) and a small solo group (concertino). Ritornello form resembles rondo form in that a main theme returns during a movement, but the episodes which come between statements of the theme are based on fragments of the theme. Also, the theme returns in different keys, and is developed throughout the movement. </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>Sonata form - An expansion of binary form. A first section (exposition) introduces two or more themes, the first in the tonic, the second in the dominant or a closely related key. The next section (the development section) develops the themes in new keys, and the final section (the recapitulation) restates the themes, but ends in the original key. Sonata form emerged in the Classical period, and was often used for the first movement of solo sonatas, symphonies, chamber music and concertos. </li></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>Minuet and Trio - The third movement of a symphony, which lasted in Classical music as one of the dances which made up the Baroque suite symphonies. The minuet is a binary dance in three-four time. It is followed by a trio, in which the texture is based on three voices, or three-part writing, rather than the usual four. The trio is also in binary form. Then the minuet is repeated. Because binary dances repeat each section, but when the minuet returns, repeats of sections are not observed, the structure works out like this: </li></ul><ul><li>Minuet: AA:BB; Trio: CC:DD; Minuet: AB. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many examples of this structure in Haydn and Mozart. </li></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><li>Ostinato </li></ul><ul><li>A short rhythmic or melodic figure which 'obstinately' repeats below or above other musical material (ostinato is an Italian term meaning 'obstinate'). </li></ul><ul><li>Strophic </li></ul><ul><li>This term comes from song writing. A strophe is a verse of poetry in metre. Strophic music repeats the same melody, usually to new verses of text. A ballad which tells a story~ for example, uses the same melody throughout, to new verses. </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>A form associated with Romantic music in which a group of songs or piano pieces are unified by ideas presented early in the piece which then return at the end. </li></ul><ul><li>Through-composed music </li></ul><ul><li>Music in which there are no repeats, and the ideas develop in a new way until the end. </li></ul><ul><li>Moment form </li></ul><ul><li>A twentieth century concept whereby a piece is made up of differing sections which have no relationship to each other, but exist for the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>Antiphonal music </li></ul><ul><li>Really a performance method rather than form, but included here for convenience. In antiphonal =sic one group or soloist answers another in a kind of musical dialogue. In sacred music the congregation may sing a response to the priest's phrase. In African music a leader sings a call and a chorus sings a response </li></ul>
  83. 83. <ul><li>Through-composed music </li></ul><ul><li>Music in which there are no repeats, and the ideas develop in a new way until the end. </li></ul><ul><li>Moment form </li></ul><ul><li>A twentieth century concept whereby a piece is made up of differing sections which have no relationship to each other, but exist for the moment. </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>Antiphonal music </li></ul><ul><li>Really a performance method rather than form, but included here for convenience. In antiphonal music one group or soloist answers another in a kind of musical dialogue. In sacred music the congregation may sing a response to the priest's phrase. In African music a leader sings a call and a chorus sings a response which is either a repetition of the call or a contrasting phrase. Antiphonal music implies a spatial separation – the diologue comes from two different directions. </li></ul>
  85. 85. <ul><li>Twelve-bar blues </li></ul><ul><li>A common structure in jazz. It involves a twelve-bar chord progression in four- </li></ul><ul><li>four time, made up of three four-bar phrases. The melody and text, if it is sung, are the same in the first two phrases, although the harmony changes, and the third phrase is different. The chord progression is usually something like this: </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>IV IV 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>v IV 1 1 </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>Medieval - Sacred music can be based on church chants which are decorated and elaborated. Secular music is often based on short sections. A popular song form consists of a 'burden' (which functions like a chorus), alternated with verses (see performance </li></ul><ul><li>piece at the end of this chapter). </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance - Variation form (especially division) is a common instrumental structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphonic vocal music is based on sections, with a new section for each imitation point. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque - The two main instrumental forms of this period are the suite and the concerto grosso. The suite is French in origin, and is made up of dances in contrasting metres, but in the same key The dances are usually binary in form. The concerto grosso is Italian in origin and has three movements-ritornello; slow (this form varies), and fast and imitative. The vocal forms include aria, which can be either binary or ternary </li></ul>
  87. 87. <ul><li>Classical - Instrumental music is often in three or four movements (the symphony, concerto, string quartet and other chamber forms, and the solo sonata). Usually the first </li></ul><ul><li>movement is in sonata form; the second movement is slow, in ternary or air-and- </li></ul><ul><li>variation form; the third movement is a dance (minuet and trio); and the finale is often in rondo or rondo-sonata form. If the piece has only three movements, the dance is omitted. In vocal music the ternary aria is popular. Opera is made up of ‘set pieces'-each chorus, duet or trio finishes clearly before the next item, rather like movements in instrumental music. </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>Romantic - The forms of instrumental Classical style are still used but movements are often longer and more discursive. Sometimes music in several movements is unified by the same theme recurring in different movements in a transformed way. Movements may be linked so that the piece runs continuously. In opera and symphonic works, the idea of linking sections together to create flow of music and action is developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern - it is difficult to generalise, as there is such a wide range of forms and styles used. Music of previous periods relies on theme, and thematic recognition. In contemporary music theme and pitch play a less important role; tone colour, dynamics and articulation have become more important. While some composers still use ternary and sonata form structures, much music is written in a more spontaneous way, without adhering to formal labels. </li></ul>
  89. 89. <ul><li>World Music </li></ul><ul><li>African - Call-and-response is a popular structure in Africa, and was carried into the work songs and gospel songs of Black American music. The call is sung by a leader--and the response by a chorus. The response may be a repeat of the call, or it may be a different phrase which remains the same despite variations in the call. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian - Variation form is widely used in Indian music, in which there is a large element of improvisation, and the main theme is expanded and elaborated through close collaboration between the sitar and tabla player. </li></ul><ul><li>British Isles - A popular folk song form is the ballad, which tells a story, usually with an important moral or message. Ballads are usually sung to a repeated melody, and are strophic, although they may also include a chorus. Folk dances are often binary. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz - Originally based on the variation principle, in which a theme and chord progression were presented, and then a series of improvisations explored the rhythmic, melodic, textural and dynamic possibilities of the material. Finally the piece was re-presented in its original form. Often the original piece had an AABA structure, with the B changing key. </li></ul>

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