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Gilbertson_ms_m_2010

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Gilbertson_ms_m_2010

  1. 1. Introduction to Chemistry Dates of Teaching: March 8th , 2010 – April 2nd , 2010 For ML Authorization Level Winter/Spring 2010 George Fox University Master of Arts in Teaching Program
  2. 2. Table of Contents Section 1: Contextual Information ……………………...Page 3 Section 2: Mapping, Standards, and Assessment …….....Page 12 Section 3: Lesson Plans and Reflections………………...Page 30 Section 4: Learning Gains Data……………………..…...Page 73 Section 5: Final Unit Reflection…………………..……...Page 106 Appendix………………………………………………....Page 114 2
  3. 3. Section One: Contextual Information Community Environment The City of Newberg is located approximately twenty three miles outside of Portland Oregon. It is nestled between the Chehalem Mountains and the Willamette River giving it a diverse landscape. The city of Newberg became an official city in 1889 and draws its name from the cities first postmaster Sebastian Brutscher who named the city after his Bavarian home of Neuburg in Germany. Notable landmarks in the city are George Fox University and the Hoover-Minthorn house which was once home to a young Herbert Hoover, the 31st president of the United States. Today Newberg is home to the growing wine industry in the Willamette Valley. Newberg lies upon pacific highway 99W which makes it a main thoroughfare for tourists on their way to the coast. This tourism has led to the city’s growth over the past several decades and has fueled the development of The Alison Inn & Spa, Newberg’s first and only resort-style lodging. Newberg’s location also makes it very accessible. Newberg is within an hour drive of nearly all of Portland and its major metropolitan areas, and less than two hours to the coast, Mt. Hood, and other major cities such as Salem, Corvallis, and Eugene. Even though Newberg is relatively close to all of these locations it retains a small town atmosphere and a quiet demeanor. Newberg is home to a population of nearly twenty three thousand people within its five square mile area, 85% of them being Caucasian, 11% Hispanic, and the final 4% being of African American, Asian, or Native American descent. Young adults (ages twenty to thirty) make up Newberg’s largest age demographic of 18%, followed by children and adolescents (ages ten through twenty) at 16%. The average household income in Newberg is $55,007 as of 2008, which is above Oregon’s average of $50, 169. The majority of people in Newberg are married with a spouse, about 53%, nearly 70% of people have graduated high school, and 87% have their own transportation to their place of employment. School Environment The Newberg school district is home to approximately five thousand two hundred students, Mt. View middle School accounting for around five to six hundred 6th through 8th grade students, given the year. Mt. View’s student body has around 40% who qualify for the free or reduced lunch program while the state of Oregon has an average of 42%. The school supports a staff of thirty three teachers including three counselors, two physical education teachers, an orchestra teacher, a choir director, and a band teacher, a librarian, a technology librarian, seven teacher assistants, and ten other staff (janitors/office assistants/etc.). The student to teacher ratio is around 19:1 and nearly 94% of all teachers here have a masters degree and are highly qualified to teach. Mountain View has a somewhat diverse student body with around 16% of the student body being Hispanic (Oregon’s average, 14%), 2% being of Asian descent (Oregon’s average, 5%), and 2% African American (Oregon’s average, 3%). The rest of the student body is Caucasian; around 80% (Oregon’s average, 73%). Mt. View supports 3
  4. 4. around 8% of its students with English Language Development (ELD) classes and has assistants that move throughout the school during the course of the day. Mt. View’s mission statement is “Mountain View Middle School students are learners, citizens, and individuals drawing support from parents, teachers, and the community”. Classroom Environment Mr. C’s classroom is one that is optimal for a science classroom. The room itself is rather large because it was an old shop room equipped with ventilation fans and many large work tables and counters. However this is only half of the classroom. When one enters the room they enter a normal looking classroom with four rows of tables that can support around thirty students per class period. The other half of the class is the shop area where labs and experiments are conducted. Mr. C also has a television with a dvd/vcr combo, a document camera, a computer (pc), and a projector that is connected to all three. He also has an overhead projector which is primarily used for class notes. The shop area itself is substantial in size and space. Mr. C can have an entire class working comfortably in this area just as easily as he could have them in their seats. The shop area has a wide array of tools including most basic hand tools (hammers, saws, screw drivers, etc.) as well as many power tools including multiple power drills, electric saws, and a powerful fan. The shop area also contains a large closet filled with materials for the year’s experiments and labs. Students are expected to use this equipment with the utmost caring and respect while operating all of this equipment with the proper safety measures in place. The climate of Mr. C’s classroom is one of business interspersed with a good amount of humor and excitement. Mr. C has a high level of respect that he has earned and developed throughout his twenty nine years of teaching and it is shown while he teaches. The class has a vibe of exploration mixed with foundational science, which spans across all five periods that are taught. There are a few classroom systems in place, but not nearly as many as a grade school classroom would have. The most prominent class system is the classroom folder that each student receives and keeps throughout the year. Students keep their work and class notes within these folders and turn them in periodically for credit. The notebooks are kept in a shelf system that arranges they by class and by row of seats that they are in. Another class system is the daily warm up. This is usually a question that ties the previous day’s lesson with the current lesson of the day. What this contextual information means to my teaching… The contextual information that I have obtained on the city of Newberg as well as Mt. View Middle School helps me understand the community and people that I am serving to a new extent. I understand their social context of being a growing suburban city outside of Portland, their makeup of mostly Caucasian and Hispanic families, and their routines which help me organize how to effectively design curriculum and class time to better reach and teach the students. This information will also provide me with the basic knowledge of the families within the city. Being able to know where a family stands will help me conduct myself accordingly, given different situations. For example, if certain families cannot communicate as well because of a language barrier then I will 4
  5. 5. be able to find resources or friends to help bridge that gap. This information also shows me the wide amount of resources available to my teaching. Being able to utilize many of the different materials that Mr. C has collected and purchased over the years will be a great benefit for the different kinds of students that I will encounter in my classes and be a great advantage when considering multiple intelligences. MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNITY Developmentally - Who are my students? Socially An adolescent’s social development is characterized by a stronger sense of self awareness, a greater understanding of ones surrounding environment and an increases concern of ones own body image. Social relationships are also more valuable to adolescents than any time before in their lives. With all of these changes there are many aspects of social development that make this a dynamic time in a student’s life. In adolescence the self concept of a person emerges. Students gather the different parts of themselves through relationships with their peers, parents, and their own thoughts associated with both. With the rise of the self concept also comes the rise of heightened self consciousness. Eighth grade students are constantly concerned with what their peers think about their appearance, thoughts, and behaviors. Peer groups also become more important at this stage in development, often taking a major portion of the students social influence if not the majority of it. Their peer groups allow them to have their own identity while remaining part of a larger picture (school or a class) and students tend to rely on that peer group for support and friendship. Utilizing students peer groups in the class will be critical for success. Since students are at varied levels of development and have different peer groups, mixing of students for assignments will have to be delicate so as to not alienate any one student. Also providing activities where female students as well as male students to flourish and interact with one another, hopefully between different peer groups, will be something to constantly keep in mind when designing activities and labs. Emotionally While students change in their social lives, they change as much emotionally. Since students are developing a strong self concept there are many emotional ties that have shape students in major ways. However, by adolescence most students have control over their emotional regulation which makes it somewhat difficult to get a bearing on where a student is in relation to a problem or where they stand on an issue. In adolescence students begin to develop emotional scripts. These scripts are a set of expectations about how people will act towards different emotional displays. Students at this point will regulate their script to elicit different emotional responses from others. Self awareness and self consciousness, similarly to social development, play major factors in emotional development. Students, especially by eighth grade, begin to 5
  6. 6. realize that their emotional responses to situations can have social ramifications to them. At this stage, social interactions can become a balancing act on how to express oneself. Gender also plays a role in emotional development. Males are less likely to disclose emotional distress while females are more likely to convey feelings of anger, frustration, and sadness in times of distress. Knowing where my students lie emotionally helps me explain things to them in a way they understand. To be more specific, it helps me realize that students at the 8th grade level will not always display emotion to things I say or teach to them even though they may care deep down. Knowing the emotional spectrum of my students will also assist me in reading my students emotions better when they are confused or when they are having a difficult day. Physically Eight grade students are undergoing dramatic physical changes. Their bodies are midway through the bodily process of puberty which for many adolescents is a time of awkwardness and strange feelings. Most students in eighth grade are thirteen or fourteen years old and have mastered their fine and gross motor skills as well as having most of their bodily senses fined tuned. Puberty affects male and female students differently. In male students puberty generally begins around age ten, starting with the growth of testicles and the growth of pubic hair. Generally after the age of twelve, males have a growth spurt in height, growth in their penis, and begin developing facial hair. This period is also notorious for voice changes in males as their voices begin to get deeper. In females puberty generally begins earlier. Females can begin their bodily changes as early as the age of eight but in general most do not begin their adolescent changes until around age ten. In females puberty is characterized by growth in breasts, growth of pubic hair, and changes in physical growth, usually shown in height. By the time females are fourteen many of them are as tall as they will grow for the rest of their lives. The greatest factor in adolescence for females is menarche. This is when a females menstrual cycle begins. This is generally one of the last physical changes that occurs in women. Knowing where students lie upon the physical spectrum can help me plan physical activities that the entire class can participate in more equally, so as to not alienate any students that are not at the same physical level as their peers. This information also helps me understand what physical activities my students might enjoy participating in. Knowing that information can be a good tool for analogies and helping tie in information to a student who is struggling. Cognitively Adolescents in eighth grade typically have a higher level of reasoning abilities. These new abilities help adolescents view and experiment with different options with each new scenario and unlike most of their younger peers, they are able to use reason and abstract thought to get to their conclusions. Student’s thought process in adolescence begins to shift from concrete to more abstract thought. An example of this would be a student beginning to question 6
  7. 7. societal norms and beliefs. As time passes students begin to form stronger opinions on their beliefs and begin to see things in a more linear nature, meaning that they see past events and can begin to predict future events better than they could at a younger age. Ethics and future goals are also emerging into an adolescent’s mind at this age. Students begin to solidify their beliefs and begin to plan for a future that they envision in their own mind. As students move through this process, differentiated instruction and activities that engage multiple intelligences will be great tools to help foster the students growing minds. What have these students studied previously about the topic of my work sample unit? The students in my eighth grade science class have very little previous knowledge on the subject of chemistry. There are some basic elements such as atomic structure that they have learned in other units throughout this year but in their sixth and seventh grade science classes they have only covered the topics of earth science and biology thus far. Brief explanation of Cooperating Teacher’s teaching philosophy: Mr. C’s teaching philosophy is very much a philosophy of practicality. When asked the question of what his own philosophy is he responded by saying “You have to provide the students with something worthwhile to them. Something that will get their attention and captivate them, while making it applicable to their lives. If students are engaged in the lesson then your behavioral issues will disappear and you will have students who want to be there and who are ready to get work accomplished”. Tying lessons into students lives while getting students tied in with a hook each day is what Mr. C is known for and how he has become such a well known and reputable teacher in the Newberg School district. Strengths and previous experiences of student teacher going into this experience: In the spring of 2007 (April-June) I co-taught a preschool classroom in Corvallis, OR with five other classmates, for a practicum at Oregon State University. Our classroom was run by a head teacher and her assistant who graded our assignments and helped us progress along throughout the months. Each of the co-teachers had a focused week where they assumed the role of head teacher in the classroom, directing the other co-teachers and activities for a five day period. This included prep work, a parent teacher conference, and an at home visit with parents. My unit was interesting because the activities I spent the most time preparing and organizing were the ones the students were least interested in. My final activity was a chemistry experiment that had two clear liquids that when mixed turned dark purple. The students absolutely loved this and it was a good experience to end my head teaching week on. Another experience that I have teaching comes from the spring of 2002. My chemistry teacher in high school offered me a position to be a science mentor for students at Mabel Rush Grade School. Myself, along with two other peers created a six week plan that touched on six different scientific topics and implemented them throughout the 7
  8. 8. spring. Two of the lessons lied within the topic of chemistry which my partners and I utilized to the fullest extent, being in a high school chemistry lab. Even though this is somewhat minor, I feel like I have a firm grasp on chemistry, at least in lab demonstrations, that I can utilize in the classroom. My final teaching experience that relates to this practicum was my experience in my last practicum. In my first placement I was stationed in a fourth grade classroom in Dayton, Oregon and taught a mathematics unit on data, statistics, and graphing. Even though the students, as well as the school atmosphere, were very different in my last placement, I learned a lot about students and how they function in and out of the classroom. Even more importantly, I learned a lot about how school days actually function. There will inevitably be days where you won’t be able to get everything you want done but there will also be days where you get more than you expect accomplished. Bringing this aspect of “classroom reality” into this practicum will help me in my organization of lessons and ultimately when I become a teacher, will help me reflect on where the class is heading as a whole and how to lead them to my desired goals effectively. Specific goals for student teacher’s growth during this unit: I have three goals for this student teaching practicum. I) To learn how to manage multiple classes of students – Meaning, how to learn each class well enough that I can adjust my management strategies to accommodate their behaviors. II) To learn how to have and utilize back up plans while teaching III) Learn to have a more professional demeanor in front of students What does this information mean to me as I plan and teach the work sample? This information about my students shows me more in depth where they are developmentally, how they’re growing, and where they could and should be moving throughout the school year. Knowing where students fall on the developmental spectrum makes it easier to understand why students do the things they do and hopefully shed some light on how I can prepare lessons that will expand their understanding and get them thinking about the subject more deeply. Utilizing their developing social and cognitive minds, I can design lesson plans that get them interacting with their peers while getting them to think about science more abstractly, meaning thinking about science as more than just vocabulary and experiments. Knowing where students fall physically will help me know when the students need to get up and move around to prevent boredom and stagnation. Finally, knowing students emotionally helps me read the students and see their confusion or frustration levels. This will help me better focus on what I need to explain more clearly to the class. Knowing what the students have previously learned also ties into that. Teachers, to be effective, need to keep their classes progressing forward, and by knowing what your students already have in their skill sets, one can continue to build upon them, as opposed to reiterating the same information over and over. 8
  9. 9. Knowing my co-teachers philosophy is similar to coming into a company and understanding how the boss runs the operation. Once you understand how things run in the classroom then you can place yourself in positions that make you valuable and very useful. Becoming a respected addition to the classroom is something I strive for. Finally, remembering my previous strengths also brings up weaknesses in my mind. Realizing your strong and weak points helps you create goals for the future. By having goals and knowing where I stand while realizing where students are developmentally I will be able to design lessons that are relevant and interesting for the students while making them challenging and fun as well. Student Information Name Information about this student IEP / 504 / Other Alternative Learning Plans Student 1 Quiet but very kind. Enjoys the company of student 3. Bright and positive Student 2 Quirky and nice. Often off task and sometimes disruptive. Means well but has trouble managing his emotions when excited. Enjoys cartoons and childrens television shows (Sesame Street). Possibly use analogies to games and videos when dealing with this student. 504 – Sitting in front of class / check in & check out of school / travel sheet for behavior Student 3 Smart and good natured. Gives good constructive feedback when called upon. Enjoys science. Enjoys pop music. Listening to current music might be beneficial. Student 4 Smart yet can be distracting to others. Only child. Often replies with sarcasm to be funny but actually knows material well which is shown in his test scores. Have discussed video game systems with this student and student 17. A tie into those might help with attention issues that might arise. Student 5 Very bright and science minded. Often thinks of answers that other students wouldn’t. Reliable to help in the class when he finishes early. Kind to entire class. Generally gets full credit on all assignments. Might be a good resource if I ever forget a concept. Student 6 Quiet and non assuming. When in groups, he lets others take charge. Liked by peers but rarely offers his opinion or stance on things. Enjoys projects. Student 7 Normal student. Well behaved. Often tired. Nice to all peers. Student enjoys hands on activities. Possibly partner him with other students who don’t thrive as much in hands on lessons. 9
  10. 10. Student 8 Often late to class. Good sense of humor. Turns in many assignments in late but generally with good work. Enjoys sports. Favorite sport is basketball. Also likes slang. Being well versed in this lingo could help me understand him when he’s trying to fly under the radar. Student 9 Very fashionable. Bright and positive. Friends with student 19. Good student to call on if no one knows the answer. Another pop music fan. Student 10 Shy and quiet but very bright. Friends with student 3 and 21. Good sense of humor. Student 11 Interesting sense of humor. Average student but well liked by the class. Handwriting that is sometimes illegible. Hunter Student 12 Athletic and good natured. Well liked by peers. Enjoys science. Also likes video games. IEP – Language arts & reading Student 13 Generally quiet but very bright. Often helps his peers with questions. Good sense of humor and very nice. Student 14 Enjoys a good laugh. Susceptible to getting pulled off task by student 4 and 17 but is very smart. Enjoys football and basketball. Sports analogies might be useful. Student 15 A morning person. Great sense of humor and enjoys giving feedback to teachers. Struggles with tests but enjoys the subject of science. Likes animals and being social. Student 16 Enjoys anime television shows. Close to his friends. Good sense of humor. Has some anger issues with other students in the class. Managing who this student works with will be important. IEP – Behavioral issues Student 17 Athletic but often disruptive. Enjoys science but talks when he should be listening. Enjoys video games and sports, which seems to be the trend of the males in this class. Student 18 Good natured. Fun to be around. Gives good feedback when called on. Struggles with tests but completes all of his work with good effort. Student likes University of Oregon athletics. Student 19 Quiet but very kind. Extremely bright and fun to talk to. Gets along with all of her peers. Pop music fan. (Will not be shown in assessments / transferred classes) Student 20 Average student but has good participation. Funny and well liked by the class. This student generally flies under the radar so getting her voice heard is something I want to achieve in my few weeks teaching. Student 21 Talented artist. Very smart and nice. Friends with student 10 and 3. Seems to be interested in the opposite sex more 10
  11. 11. than her peers. Student 22 Athletic, very nice, good sense of humor, and intelligent. A joy to teach. This would be a good student to throw into a group of students that are having difficulty getting along. Student 23 This student is no longer present in the class because of behavior issues (will be removed for assessments). Student 24 (Aide) Very kind and helpful. Enjoys offering assistance to teachers and peers. Nice to have around. Is also a regular student in period four. Is a good resource to have around when a student might be able to understand a concept better from a peer. IEP – Communication disorder How did you gather this information? • Observation • Interview • Information from teachers • Observation from student work What is useful and dangerous about the information above? The information above is useful because it helps me get a better understanding on how to teach my students individually. I not only get to see their strengths but also their weaknesses and abilities. Being able to understand where my students are coming from when they give an answer or feedback helps me aide them in reaching a high level of understanding and comprehension. This information also plays a part in classroom management practices. Knowing which students work well together and which students become off task together will help me organize group activities more effectively and will also help me avoid unneeded confrontation between students. Finally this information is useful because it helps you realize when there is something off with your students behavior. Understanding the class’ normal demeanor helps pinpoint out any sudden changes for the worse. Being able to target which student is causing the change will help me remedy the problem faster and more efficiently. What makes this information dangerous is the same things that makes it useful. Knowing each student individually can make it easier to cut a student slack or give leniency to a student just because you enjoy their presence in the classroom. This isn’t right in any way but it is a normal reaction to treat people who comply with your requests better than those who don’t. Another reason that this information is dangerous is when it comes to classroom work. Giving too much help to students in areas where they struggle instead of challenging them and helping them build up their abilities doesn’t help students in the long run. Getting to know the students needs to be as fair and balanced as possible and is a continual fine tuning process; however, it is not always easy. If favoritism towards one or more students is shown things can get problematic with the rest of the class and in extreme cases the faculty of the school. Finding the right balance of fairness and control is crucial and necessary to run a successful classroom. 11
  12. 12. Section 2 Mapping, Standards, and Assessment: Elements, Compounds, Mixtures, Solutions, Chemical vs. Physical Change, and Phases of matter 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Chemistry: The Building Blocks of Life Subject: Chemistry Grade Level: 8th Grade Established Goal(s): From the State of Oregon • Students will be able to understand and explain the difference between an element and a compound • Students will be able to determine if a substance is an element, mixture, or a solution. • Students will be able to identify the difference between a physical vs. a chemical change • Students will be able to explain the three phases of matter State Standards (8th Grade Science) • 8.1P.1 Describe the atomic model and explain how the types and arrangements of atoms determine the physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds. • 8.1P.2 Explain how the Periodic Table is an organization of elements based on their physical and chemical properties. • 8.2P.1 Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes and describe how the law of conservation of mass applies to these changes. Enduring Understanding(s): Chemicals make up the living world around us. Their interactions and mankind’s ability to harness these reactions has greatly affected the course of human history. While the use of chemicals can and has changed mankind for the good, chemicals can also be extremely dangerous. Respect for chemicals and their reactivity must be had to properly utilize chemicals to their full potential. Essential Question(s): • Is it possible to change a chemical’s appearance without changing its chemical structure? • Is there a difference between a solution, a compound, and a mixture? • How can atomic structure be manipulated? Knowledge Knowledge of atomic structure, including protons, neutrons, and electrons. Knowledge of elements, compounds, solutions, and homogeneous & heterogeneous mixtures. Basic understanding of the periodic table of the elements Knowledge of physical & chemical changes and the three stages of matter. Skills Determining an element’s atomic mass, atomic number, and elemental symbol. Being able to identify elements and count atoms within a compound. Dispositions A positive attitude Ability to work well with others Responsive to instruction Accepting of constructive criticism. 14
  15. 15. Daily Assessment of progress toward learning objective / Evidence of Learning Pre- Assessment Science - 8.1P.1 Science - 8.1P.2 Science - 8.2P.1 Pre Assessment Questionnaire – Students will participate in a six question questionnaire about the different subjects of this work sample. Elements, compounds, mixtures, solutions, the phases of matter, and physical vs. chemical change will all be covered. Day Learning Objectives / State Standards Daily Activities & Assessment (Assessments will be bold and italicized) 1 Students will be able to identify what an element is. Students will be able to explain the three major parts of an atom’s structure. Science - 8.1P.1 Pre Assessment Questionnaire (5 to 10 min) - Students will be administered a six questionnaire that focuses on the goals of the unit. Topics covered in the questionnaire will be: elements, compounds, mixtures, solutions, the periodic table of the elements, the phases of matter, and physical vs. chemical change. Students will use their previous knowledge to complete these questions and this pre assessment will help me modify my future lessons. Introduction to chemistry – What is Chemistry? (warm up) Intro to the terms chemistry and chemicals (overhead projector)– 5 min History of the atom mini lesson – Students will go through the history of the atom from its conception to the modern model. This lesson will take place with a lecture style presentation accompanied with drawings that the student and teacher complete together (of the multiple atomic models). (5 to 10 min) Size of the atom guess & check – Students will take a few minuets to come up with a comparison of the size of an atom. Students will be told that a hypothetical nucleus is the size of a marble. Their task is to determine how big of a space the electrons would be orbiting around it (Cowboy Stadium).Students will then be shown an example of an atoms size by learning how many atoms are 15
  16. 16. in each breath of air they breathe in. (5 to 10 min) What is an element – The examination of what an element really is, getting down to atomic structure (its proton/electron balance and its neutrons) Students will be shown an example of a hydrogen atom and how it differs from a helium atom (if another proton is present). Emphasis will be stressed that the number of protons determines the element. Students will also learn what a molecule is (more than one atom of a substance) Another thing that will be briefly mentioned will be isotopes (number of neutrons) (5 to 10 min) Can an element change form? – Brief lecture on how there are ninety two naturally occurring elements, however, there are one hundred ten elements on the periodic table. Students will be asked how that is possible. ( 5 to 10 min) What is a compound? – Students will be asked if one naturally occurring element can be changed into another naturally occurring element by adding the elements together (an example Hydrogen + Helium = Lithium, not possible). Once students have their answers they will be shown how when different elements when added together don’t make other elements, but instead compounds. Multiple examples of compounds will be given (water & methane) and students will be shown how to determine which atoms are in the compound as well as the amount of each atom in the compound. (5 to 10 min) History of Chemistry (BBC): A Volatile History – Discovering the Elements [Time Permitting] – Youtube video (Part I and possibly II) – (10 to 20 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25lprEvoFJ8 2 Students will be able to find and identify multiple elements using the periodic table of the elements. Review of the Atomic Model warm up – Students will review how atomic structure (amount of protons/electrons) has a direct cause to what kind of element a substance is. Students will also be asked about what an isotope of an element is (number of neutrons) – 5 min. 16
  17. 17. Students will also analyze the periodic table for patterns. Science - 8.1P.2 The Elements – This portion of the lecture is about the elements as a group. Discussion on element symbols and their origins (some derived from the name of the element, others stemming from the person who discovered it) as well as a discussion on atomic mass (mass of protons and neutrons combined) and atomic number (number of protons in an atom) will make up this section. – 10 to 15 min The Periodic Table – Students will be given a copy of the periodic table that is in black and white. Students will then be asked a synthesis question that ties into the pre assessment (which elements do you know & name their symbols if you know them). Students will star the element symbols that they know. After the starring is complete, students will be given another brief lecture on the history of the periodic table (overhead or document camera might be used); how it began to be arranged by patterns that scientists saw within the elements. Students will then be asked to see if they can find any patterns within the periodic table. After a few min of that students will then be asked what their patterns were. Once student’s thoughts are presented the teacher will explain how columns and rows in the periodic table are set up (periods and groups) (10 to 15 min) Elemental Flash Cards – In this activity students will create flash cards for thirty three selected elements. Cards will include atomic mass, atomic number, and element symbol on one side, and element name on the other. Students will create and color these cards as creatively as they would like, and if they complete this process early, then they will begin practice memorizing the elements on their cards – 20 to 30 min. 3 Students will be able to find and analyze multiple Elemental Flash Cards Cont. – In this activity, students will create flash cards for thirty three selected elements. Cards will include atomic 17
  18. 18. elements using the periodic table of the elements and identify them through memorization. Science - 8.1P.2 mass, atomic number, and element symbol on one side, and element name on the other. Students will create and color these cards as creatively as they would like and when they complete this process they will begin practice memorizing the elements on their cards – 20 to 25 min. Flash Card Memorization Drills – When students are done with their flash cards they will partner up and begin memorizing the elements and their symbols. Students who are finding this to easy can attempt to memorize the given elements atomic number and atomic mass - 10 to 15 min. History of Chemistry (BBC): A Volatile History – Discovering the Elements [Time Permitting] – Youtube video (Parts I, II, or III depending if any have been shown yet) – (10 to 20 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25lprEvoFJ8 Quiz the teacher– I am going to memorize these elements with the students (so I can easily check in with students during their work time). At the end of the class period I will have students quiz me but with a wager. For example a student could wager 5, meaning that they can quiz me on five random elements, but in return I get to quiz them on five random elements themselves. At different intervals there will be prize incentives (candy) as well as if the teacher gets stumped. (5 min to 10 min) 4 Students will be able to search and discover elements using the periodic table of the elements as well as separating compounds to their separate elements. Science - 8.1P.1 Science - 8.1P.2 Element vs. Compound warm up – Students will identify elements vs. compounds. Students will also practice identifying different atoms and their amounts within compounds. – 5 to 10 min Periodic Table/Element Report Part I – Students will be assigned a random element from the periodic table by a random drawing from a hat and will be given a lab handout. This handout will have some essential questions about the student’s element which they will complete by the end of the period. Students will be taken to the library 18
  19. 19. for a day of research on their element while they use their worksheet to guide their search. – 40 to 45 min. (5 to 10 min explaining the first step of the project, 30 to 40 min in the library) Lab Handout Observation/Check – Students will each show me their completed lab handout before they leave the library 5 Students will be able to search and discover elements using the periodic table of the elements as well as separating compounds to their separate elements Science - 8.1P.1 Science - 8.1P.2 Compound Breakdown warm up – warm up involving breaking down compounds into their separate atoms. Students will also be introduced to the concept of multiple molecules – 5 min Periodic Table/Element Report Part II – This portion of the assignment is when students use their lab handout from the day before to create a mini poster (a piece of 8” by 11.5” printer paper) for their element. Students will Draw the chemicals symbol, its atomic mass, and its atomic number on the one side of the paper (just like their flash cards) but this time they will get creative and have time to draw and decorate their poster with information that is relevant to their element (ex. Calcium – Ca, atomic #20, atomic mass 40, and drawings of a glass of milk and a skeleton – showing where this element if located and used). On the other side of their poster the students will write the full name of their element and transfer their information from the questions on their lab handout and write each as a sentence. Students will be given most of a period to work on their report of their element in the classroom. Some craft materials will be given for students to create their mini poster. – 40 min. (History of Chemistry (BBC): A Volatile History – Discovering the Elements – Youtube video Part III or IV if needed – 10 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25lprEvoFJ8 6 Students will be able to search and discover elements using the periodic table of the Element Symbol Recognition warm up – Students will be given ten random elements from their flash card list and be asked what their names are. The teacher might also turn some into molecules and have students identify those 19
  20. 20. elements and will be able to recognize multiple elements that they have previously learned. Science - 8.1P.1 Science - 8.1P.2 separately as well – 5 min Periodic Table/Element Report Part III. Students will bring and briefly present their element to the class. This won’t be a formal speech but instead will be a 2 minute summary of what they found about their element and an explanation of their mini poster. – Time will depend on the period – 30 min at least Creation of the Periodic Table – The students and the teacher will come together to create a large version of the periodic table on the wall. The periodic table will be comprised of the student’s mini posters and will be displayed for the rest of the chemistry unit – 15 min. (History of Chemistry (BBC): A Volatile History – Discovering the Elements – Youtube video Part III, IV, or V if needed – 10 min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25lprEvoFJ8 7 Students will be able to identify the different types of mixtures as well as classify each individual part along with its weight, within the mixture. Science - 8.2P.1 Mixing It Up warm up – Students will be asked a question from the pre assessment about the different types of mixtures (homogeneous or heterogeneous) – 5 min Blender Magic – Mixture Demo/mini lesson – A demonstration on the different kinds of mixtures (homogeneous and heterogeneous) using a blender to create a new kind of mixture. An example will be a piece of pizza (heterogeneous) that when cooked becomes more homogeneous. Students will be taking notes on the vocabulary for both kinds of mixtures – 15 min Hit the Trail Lab Part I– Mixtures – Students, in groups of 2 to 4, depending on the amount of scales, will examine a bag of trail mix and determine whether it is a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture, weigh the total weight of the bag + its contents, then separate the contents of the bag into like parts. Once this is complete students will weigh each component individually and then calculate each components percentage of 20
  21. 21. the mixture. 8 Students will be able to identify a solvent and a solute in a solution by comparing and contrasting the different components of the solution. Students will be able to discriminate whether a substance is an element/compound/ solution/or mixture. (optional) Science - 8.2P.1 Solution warm up / intro – Students will be given time to think of a definition for a solution. After the allotted time students will share their answer with a table mate then a class discussion will take place about what the definition of a solution is. I will then ask students to distinguish solutions that I show them, either in person, or on an online format. The vocabulary that will be discussed is solvent, solute, and solution – 10 min Hit the Trail Lab Part II – Students, in their same groups from the mixture lab, will be given three M&M candies each and then asked to find a spot in the lab area to settle in. Students will then dissolve the candy shell of one M&M at a time in their mouth and record the time, each time changing the way the candy is consumed (once with just melting, one using the tongue to assist melting, and one using tongue and teeth). Students will record their melting time trials and then complete the lab handout which consists of multiple practice problems that have to deal with solutions - 30 to 35 min Element/Compound/Mixture/Solution Worksheet (Time Permitting) – This worksheet has multiple substances that need to be identified as one or multiple category options. 9 Students will be able to classify and explain the three phases of matter including what substance molecules are doing in each state. Science - 8.2P.1 Phases of matter warm up / mini lesson - Students will identify whether a substance is a liquid, gas, or solid. The teacher will then explain each state of matter, breaking them down to their molecular level – 5 to 10 min Bill Nye the Science Guy – Students will watch an episode of Bill Nye the Science Guy about the phases of matter – 20 min. Phases of Matter Writing / Drawing Assignment – This assignment is about a fictional character named Cubert who is an ice cube. Cubert wishes to travel far away and learns that he must change shape to do so. This writing 21
  22. 22. assignment will have students drawing this story first then while using vocabulary on the phases of matter and a given template, or creating their own story, students will write a story about Cubert and his adventures – 10 to 15 min 10 Students will be able to distinguish between a physical change and a chemical change by connecting their knowledge of changes to what they see. Science - 8.2P.1 Phases of Matter review warm up – Students will identify the different stages of matter by completing a filling in the blank warm up question. The vocabulary word sublimation will also be introduced (when a solid turns directly into a gas) – 5 min Chemical vs. Physical Change mini lesson – Students will be shown the example of a chemical vs. a physical change with paper being crumpled (physical) and then burnt (chemical) as well as being introduced to the vocabulary and explanation of what each kind of change is and does. Students will then be shown a power point presentation (or possibly overhead slides depending on resources and time) on whether changes in the pictures are chemical or physical. Students will each write down what they think on a piece of paper, then with their table row, decide whether to cast a vote towards chemical or physical change – 10 to 15 min. Chemical vs. Physical change lab – This lab has students using four substances (sugar, baking soda, baking powder, and corn starch) and mixing them with four, technically three, different liquid substances (vinegar, water, and iodine) each sample will be observed and recorded in a pre made table. After the lab is complete the students will fill out the back of their lab which will have another table that will ask for whether a physical or chemical change occurred. Post Assessment Science - 8.1P.1 Science - 8.1P.2 Science - 8.2P.1 Modified Quiz from Mr. C’s Class – This Quiz will be an assessment of what my students know two weeks into the unit. There will be questions regarding element identification, compound breakdown, the difference between the kinds of solutions, classifying the different phases of matter, and identifying physical vs. chemical 22
  23. 23. change. However, this quiz might be given a day or two after this work sample is complete. Pre-requisite Skills: Students should be familiar how to read English, take notes, use a computer for research, abide by rules of the classroom and safe laboratory procedure, and use basic addition and subtraction for equation balancing. Students will also need to understand the expectations of the classroom including how to work in pairs and small groups, raising of hand for responses or questions, and completing class work in a timely manner. Plan for Literacy Inclusion: A number of the science activities and labs the students will be given will have written instruction on them in case a student has forgotten what their task is. Students will filter out unneeded information while organizing pertinent data. To do this they will use strategies such as T-tables, a table where students can separate information into two categories, highlighting, and simple notation to help organize and filter information. While students search for information on their element in the element report, I can give a brief lesson in how to search for specific information using a search engine. This should help students who do not know how to do elaborate searches come up with useful information for their project specifically where their element exists in nature and for what the element is used for in every day life. Environmental Set-Up and Changes During Unit: The changes that could occur while I teach are minimal. Students would use the shop area in the classroom for labs and the classroom section of the class to complete assignments and other paper based assignments. The rows of the desks that the students sit in will most likely not change at all unless there are issues with them for an assignment. If students need more personal space then that can be accommodated for simply by having a student move location. Plan for Differentiation Differentiation in my lessons will come in the form of the activities. They span the multiple intelligences of bodily-kinesthetic, visual-spatial, interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, and some intrapersonal communication as well. Very few students in my sample class have IEP’s or 504 plans but the ones who do have them more for behavioral issues than learning disabilities. For students who have a language barrier I have the resource of a mobile teaching assistant who can translate information if it isn’t clear to those students. Plan for Family and Community Involvement: 23
  24. 24. I have written a letter to the parents of my students to explain who I am, a brief background of myself, my purpose for being at the school, and the unit I am teaching. I have also included a summary of my action research project which is a blog. This summary includes what the blog will cover, how my blog will be used, and a permission slip requesting the parent’s permission to use the blog. My school is a normal sized middle school which utilizes the many community volunteers and the small support staff, who are paid assistants who travel around the school helping teachers where they are needed. Meeting and collaborating with them will also be a high priority of mine. The parent letter can be found at the end of this section. March , 2010 Dear Parents, Hello, my name is Jesse Gilbertson and I have been given the opportunity to be your son or daughter’s student teacher in Mr. Canaday’s 8th grade science course. I currently attend George Fox University and am enrolled in their Masters of Arts in Teaching program. I feel very fortunate to work with Mr. Canaday, as he was once my own 8th grade science teacher and I have enjoyed the short time I have spent with your children thus far. I officially started my time in the classroom on January 4th , 2010 and will be finishing on April 23rd , 2010. I was born and raised in Newberg and progressed through the public school system here beginning at Edwards Elementary, followed by Mountain View Middle School, and Newberg High School. After I completed high school I enrolled at Oregon State University where I finished with a degree in Human Development and Family Sciences in 2007. I resumed my studies at George Fox University in 2009. This week I have begun my student teaching full time duties in Mr. Canaday’s class. And he has given me the task of teaching the first half of the chemistry unit. I will be introducing your son or daughter to the topics of the periodic table of the elements, compounds, atomic structure of chemicals, mixtures, solutions, the phases of matter (liquid, solid, gas), and last but not least physical and chemical change. These topics stem from the state of Oregon’s state standards for eighth grade science (Oregon Science State Standards: 8.1P.1, 8.1P.2, 8.2P.1) and they have influenced my goals for your students while I teach them. To be specific I have four goals that I intend to get your son or daughter to accomplish; they are as follows: • Students will be able to understand and explain the difference between an element and a compound • Students will be able to determine if a substance is an element, mixture, or a solution. • Students will be able to identify the difference between a physical vs. a chemical change • Students will be able to explain the three phases of matter Through this unit I will also be providing external resources on my classroom blog which I started earlier this year. This blog will be a resourse to help further your students learning and will also be a source for extra credit as well. To extend my hand to you as an educator I will provide a blog post for you, the parent, to ask questions, present concerns, or just comment however you wish. I intend for this blog to be a line of open communication between you and myself and I hope that you utilize it. As well as the blog, I will be open and available for 24
  25. 25. conferences, phone calls, and any other means of communication that you use with Mr. Canaday. Pleas feel free to contact me. I am really looking forward to working with your son or daughter and Mr. Canaday this winter and spring and I hope to meet as many of you as possible. Thank you for taking the time to read this and have a great day. Sincerely, Jesse Gilbertson 25
  26. 26. Chemistry Unit Pre-Assessment Name___________________ Period_____ 1) What is an element? What is a compound? How are they different? 2) There are two different kinds of mixtures in regards to chemistry. The first is homogeneous and the second is heterogeneous. Describe the differences between the two. 3) There are two components to a solution. What are they? 4) What kind of mixture is a solution classified as? (circle one) heterogeneous / homogeneous 5) A person crumpling a piece of paper would be a __________________ change. A person lighting a piece of paper would be called a __________________ change. 6) There are three phases (forms) of matter. What are they? 26
  27. 27. Pre Assessment Grading Criteria Oregon state standards for this questionnaire • 8.1P.1 Describe the atomic model and explain how the types and arrangements of atoms determine the physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds. • 8.1P.2 Explain how the Periodic Table is an organization of elements based on their physical and chemical properties. • 8.2P.1 Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes and describe how the law of conservation of mass applies to these changes. • Unit goals for work sample 1) Students will be able to understand and explain the difference between an element and a compound 2) Students will be able to determine if a substance is an element, mixture, or a solution. 3) Students will be able to identify the difference between a physical vs. a chemical change 4) Students will be able to explain the three phases of matter 5) Grading Rubric Test Question Points State Standard Unit Goal What is an element? What is a compound? How are they different? 5 points 8.1P.1 8.1P.2 1 & 2 There are two different kinds of mixtures in regards to chemistry. The first is homogeneous and the second is heterogeneous. Describe the differences between the two. 2 points 8.1P.1 8.2P.1 2 There are two components to a solution. What are they? 2 points 8.2P.1 2 What kind of mixture is a solution classified as? (circle one) heterogeneous / homogeneous 1 point 8.2P.1 2 A person crumpling a piece of paper would be a __________________ change. A person lighting a piece of paper would be called a __________________ change. 2 points 8.2P.1 3 There are three phases (forms) of matter. What are they? 3 points 8.1P.1 8.2P.1 4 27
  28. 28. Chemistry Unit Quiz (Mr G’s Version) Name___________________ Period________ Choose the best answer. Mark the letter on the answer sheet provided. Part I – Symbols and Elements. Match the element or symbol with its symbol or element. 1) Hydrogen a) Hi b) H c) Hy d) Hn e) Hg 2) Silver a) Si b) Sr c) Sv d) Ag e) Au 3) Helium a) He b) Hi c) H d) Hm e) Pb 4) Potassium a) S b) K c) Po d) P e) Pb 5) Aluminum a) A b) An c) Al d) Am e) Pb 6) Sodium a) Na b) So c) S d) Sn e) Sd 7) Uranium a) Ur b) U c) Un d) Pb e) Sn 8) Copper a) C b) Cu c) Co d) Pb e) Na 9) Tin a) T b) Tn c) Sn d) Ti e) Au 10) Lead a) Pb b) Ld c) Le d) L e) Ag 11) Fe a) Tin b) Iron c) Copper d) Fluorine e) Fezium 12) Ne a) Neon b) Nitrogen c) Nickel d) Hydrogen e) Oxygen 28
  29. 29. 13) Fl a) Silicon b) Fluorine c) Nickel d) Fluoride e) Nitrogen 14) Li a) Lead b) Iodine c) Lithium d) Calcium e) Oxygen 15) S a) Silicon b) Sodium c) Sulfur d) Zinc e) Platinum 16) C a) Carbon b) Chlorine c) Chromium d) Calcium e) Oxygen 17) Au a) Tin b) Lead c) Gold d) Silicon e) Radon 18) N a) Nickel b) Mercury c) Silver d) Nitrogen e) Sodium 19) Rn a) Plutonium b) Nickel c) Radon d) Helium e) Carbon 20) Mg a) Manganese b) Aluminum c) Chromium d) Gold e) Magnesium Atom and Element Counting – Multiple choice. Determine how many elements or how many atoms are in these common compounds. 21) NaCO3 – How many elements make up this compound? a) 2 b) 4 c) 3 d) 5 e) 1 22) H2O – How many elements are in a molecule of water? a) 3 b) 2 c) 4 d) 0 e) 1 23) NaCl – How many elements are present in a molecule of table salt? a) 1 b) 3 c) 4 d) 2 e) 0 24) C12H22O11 – How many atoms are in a molecule of table sugar? a) 39 b) 45 c) 3 d) 22 e) 11 25) Fe3O2 – How many elements make up this compound (rust)? a) 2 b) 3 c) 5 d) 7 e) 2,010 26) How many elements are in the compound Methane (CH4)? a) 3 b) 2 c) 5 d) 1 29
  30. 30. 27) How many atoms of oxygen are in a molecule of water (H2O)? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 0 Multiple choice– Compounds, mixtures & solutions, phases of matter, physical & chemical change 28) A smoothie from Jamba Juice would be considered what kind of mixture? a) Homogeneous b) Heterogeneous 29) A big fat hamburger with cheese, pickles, tomato, lettuce, ketchup on the top but and mustard on the bottom bun would be considered what kind of mixture? a) Homogeneous b) Heterogeneous 30) When making a pitcher of Kool-Aide, Mr. Canaday uses 8 cups of water, 2 packs of tropical punch Kool-Aide, and 1 cup of sugar. In this solution what ingredient would be considered the solvent? a) sugar b) Kool-Aide c) water d) none of the above 31) When making a pitcher of Kool-Aide, Mr. Canaday uses 8 cups of water, 2 packs of tropical punch Kool-Aide, and 1 cup of sugar. In this solution what ingredient would be considered the solute? a) sugar b) Kool-Aide c) water d) A and B 32) Mr. Canaday creates iron toys for his sons so they will have a hard time breaking them. However, one toy gets left out in the rain and begins to rust. Is this an example of a physical or a chemical change? a) physical b) chemical 33) Mr. Gilbertson fills a cup up with ice but gets distracted by his new Xbox and forgets to fill it with Mt. Dew. The ice melting in the cup would be an example of a… a) physical change b) chemical change 34) Water evaporating into the air would be an example of what change in the phase of matter a) solid to gas b) liquid to solid c) liquid to gas d) solid to liquid 35) Chemicals like iodine and dry ice (frozen CO2) turn directly from solid to gas. This process is called a) stupefaction b) sublimation c) Canadaycation d) saponofication 30
  31. 31. * Each question is worth one point. Section 3: Lesson Plans & Reflections 31
  32. 32. Lesson 1 Teacher Name(s): Jesse Gilbertson Lesson Title: Chemistry: Chemicals, elements, compounds, and atoms Unit Title/Topic: Chemistry – The Building Blocks of Our World Target Grade Level: 8th grade Science Estimated Time for Lesson: 55 minutes Standards: Oregon Science - 8.1P.1 Describe the atomic model and explain how the types and arrangements of atoms determine the physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds. Materials: A pencil or pen Notebook paper Lesson Objectives and Plan for Assessment: • Students will be able to identify what an element is and the three major parts of an atom’s structure. • Assessment for this lesson will be The Pre-Assessment Questionnaire. Anticipatory Set: Pre Assessment Questionnaire (5 to 10 min) - Students will be administered a six questionnaire that focuses on the goals of the unit. Topics covered in the questionnaire will be: elements, compounds, mixtures, solutions, the periodic table of the elements, the phases of matter, and physical vs. chemical change. Students will use their previous knowledge to complete these questions and this pre assessment will help me modify my future lessons. Lesson Sequence: • Intro to Chemistry (5 to 10 min) : Students will be asked to write down what they think the words chemical chemistry mean. Students will then discuss what they think the words means with their table mate followed by the teacher administering the vocabulary for chemical and chemistry. • History of the atom mini lesson (5 to 10 min)– Students will go through the history of the atom from its conception to the modern model. This lesson will take place with a lecture style presentation accompanied with drawings that the student and teacher complete together (of the multiple atomic models). Terms that will be discussed : Nucleus, proton, electron, neutron (and their charges) 32
  33. 33. • Size of the atom guess & check (5 to 10 min) –– Students will take a few minuets to come up with a comparison of the size of an atom. Students will be told that a hypothetical nucleus is the size of a marble. Their task is to determine how big of a space the electrons would be orbiting around it (relatively the size of the Dallas Cowboy Stadium). Students will estimate how many atoms are in each breath of air that they breathe out. After the estimate is made and shared with the class the real answer will be revealed. • What is an Element? (5 to 10 min) – The examination of what an element really is, getting down to atomic structure (its proton/electron balance and its neutrons) Students will be shown an example of a hydrogen atom and how it differs from a helium atom (if another proton is present). Emphasis will be stressed that the number of protons determines the element. Students will also learn what a molecule is (more than one atom of a substance) Another thing that will be briefly mentioned will be isotopes (number of neutrons) Students will be shown that an element is a substance that is made up entirely of one kind of atom. • Can an element change form? (5 to 10 min) – Brief lecture on how there are ninety two naturally occurring elements, however, there are one hundred ten elements on the periodic table. Students will be asked how that is possible • What is a Compound? (5 to 10 min) – Students will be asked if one naturally occurring element can be changed into another naturally occurring element by adding the elements together (an example Hydrogen + Helium = Lithium, not possible). Once students have their answers they will be shown how when different elements when added together don’t make other elements, but instead compounds. Multiple examples of compounds will be given (water & methane) and students will be shown how to determine which atoms are in the compound as well as the amount of each atom in the compound Closure: • History of Chemistry (BBC): A Volatile History ( 10 to 20 min) – Discovering the Elements: Youtube video (Part I and II – Time Permitting) • Students will write down on a scrap piece of paper 1 interesting fact that they learned from the video and one thing that they already knew Differentiation: Meeting needs of individual learners Differentiation for this lesson will take the form of pictures and diagrams within the lecture. Students who need additional time can set up a time at lunch or after class to meet with me about their inquiries. Lesson Reflection Lesson 1 – 3/8/2010 Lesson Title: Intro to Chemistry 33
  34. 34. Synopsis of what happened: Today was my first day taking over the entire day of 8th grade chemistry by myself. It was somewhat daunting but at the same time exciting and I think it went relatively well for what I had planned. The one problem I have, at least in this level of students is that I have five periods of the same class, meaning the events of each get blurred together. Even so, my first period class, which is my sample class, stood out above the rest in my mind. When I started my lesson I was very nervous, meaning my actual body temp started rising and then falling when I would speak and when I would let the students write their notes. It annoyed me, but by the end of the day that wasn’t an issue. I began the lesson with an anticipatory set of the students writing down what they thought the word chemical meant. A lot of them didn’t give me ank answer when they were called on. Some said “I don’t know” and others just shrugged. This class is first period and the students are thirteen, so at this time in the morning I wasn’t sure what to expect as a response from them. Someone finally ventured out and said “a substance?” to which I responded “Yes!” I then elaborated and gave definitions of a chemical and chemistry to them. After these terms were written down I moved my lesson to the history of the atomic model. I had pictures of many of the contributing scientists dating back to around 500BC. For each scientist I drew a picture of them, a crude cartoon character, the date that they made their discovery or finding, and their contribution to the atomic model. The students seemed to like this portion of the lesson because they got to draw while taking notes. I enjoyed this section of the lesson because if used up around twenty min of my time. In first and third period I re-drew the characters each time, but realized that my hands were getting stained blue and green from the overhead projector so after third period I used the same drawings I had already completed. From this I did an activity to get the students thinking about the actual size scale of an atom. I asked them if a nucleus of an atom was as big as a marble how big the electron cloud around it would be. I received many answers, some on the small side (golf ball, bowling ball) to some that were even larger than expected (the moon, the state of Texas). The real answer was “as big as the Dallas Cowboy stadium” and the students were baffled. I explained that a nucleus is so small, even with so much empty space between the electrons that it still makes up all mater in the world. I then asked them to then guess how many atoms that 34
  35. 35. a person breathes in each breath they take. The answers were large (ten trillion, seventy billion) but the answer was much larger (25 with twenty one zeros). The students thought that was very interesting. At the end of the class we went over some vocabulary terms. The terms Element, Compound, Molecule, and Isotope were introduced and explained. Students took notes on how compounds were comprised of different elements and the difference between a compound and a molecule. At the very end of class I had around five minuets to spare so I showed a video that I had found on youtube about the history of chemistry from BBC. The video is excellent and the students enjoyed watching it, especially when the host of the video placed a steel bolt in a beaker of mercury and it floated on the top. What I learned about teaching/ learning/ students/ self Today I learned that my students were more patient that I expected. I wasn’t sure if the students would be respectful and on task the entire period if it was all note taking, but the size comparison activities and the picture notes helped alleviate some of that tension. I learned that teaching doesn’t need to be super stressful. In first period I was sweating because I didn’t think I knew the material but I really just needed to relax and let the students see that I’m really just a young man who’s trying to learn how to teach. When I started loosening up and relaxing more with the later periods I was a much better response in their demeanor and their responses. I learned that I need to be more comfortable with the students. Acting tense makes them nervous and unsure if they want to care or not, so being ready, alert and awake, as well as knowing my material well will benefit the entire clas in the end. What I may have missed: In this lesson I think that I missed some more interactive learning activities. However when I told my CT what my lecture was about and how I was conducting it but he thought that the activities and drawings were a good change up and that the students would respond well. What I anticipate about student response tomorrow: I think that tomorrow will be great as long as there is more than just note taking, which there is. The element flash card activity isn’t the most exciting activity but it will get eh students used to seeing the elements and their symbols. Progress toward The lesson objective was met. The students were able 35
  36. 36. objectives: to name the different parts of an atom and how to distinguish what an element is. Adaptations for tomorrow: More activities, less notes, and a more relaxed mental state on my part. 36
  37. 37. Lesson 2 Teacher Name(s): Jesse Gilbertson Lesson Title: Periodic Table & Element Flash Cards Unit Title/Topic: Elements and their labels Target Grade Level: 8th grade Science Estimated Time for Lesson: 55 minutes Standards: • Oregon Science : 8.1P.2 Explain how the Periodic Table is an organization of elements based on their physical and chemical properties. Materials: • Pencil or Pen • Paper • Markers Lesson Objectives and Plan for Assessment: • Students will be able to find and analyze multiple elements using the periodic table of the elements and identify them through memorization. • Assessment in this lesson will be in the form of an exit slip drill where students will have to answer which element is derived from a symbol or in vice versa order. Anticipatory Set: • Review of the Atomic Model warm up (5 min) – Students will review how atomic structure (amount of protons/electrons) has a direct cause to what kind of element a substance is. Students will also be asked about what an isotope of an element is (number of neutrons) Lesson Sequence: The Elements • The Elements (10 to 15 min) – This portion of the lecture is about the elements as a group. Discussion on element symbols and their origins (some derived from the name of the element, others stemming from the person who discovered it) as well as a discussion on atomic mass (mass of protons and neutrons combined) and atomic number (number of protons in an atom) will make up this section 37
  38. 38. • Periodic Table (10 to 15 min) – Students will be given a copy of the periodic table that is in black and white. Students will then be asked a synthesis question that ties into the pre assessment (which elements do you know & name their symbols if you know them). Students will star the element symbols that they know. After the starring is complete, students will be given another brief lecture on the history of the periodic table (overhead or document camera might be used); how it began to be arranged by patterns that scientists saw within the elements. Students will then be asked to see if they can find any patterns within the periodic table. After a few min of that students will then be asked what their patterns were. Once student’s thoughts are presented the teacher will explain how columns and rows in the periodic table are set up (periods and groups). Element Flash Cards • Element Flash Cards (25 to 30 min) – In this activity, students will create flash cards for thirty three selected elements. Cards will include atomic mass, atomic number, and element symbol on one side, and element name on the other. Students will create and color these cards as creatively as they would like, and if they complete this process early, then they will begin practice memorizing the elements on their cards. Closure: • Element Exit Slip – Students will line up at the door and have to answer an element name that the teacher asks them to leave. This will hold the students accountable for staying on task the entire period Differentiation: Meeting needs of individual learners Differentiation will be in the modification of the Flash Card activity. Students will be given a modified list of elements. One that is more pertinent to the chemistry quiz and test. Lesson Reflection Lesson 2 – 3/10/2010 Lesson Title: The Periodic Table of the Elements Synopsis of what happened: Today was a much better day as far as nervousness went, at least until my supervisor came and completely revised my lesson. In first period my lesson was much different because of it too. I had my students guess where the elements got their names from and gave them a few minutes to think it over. They came up with peoples names, states and planets which were all technically correct. I broadened the categories to places, people, and Greek or Latin origin, which I had them take notes on. Next we discussed the origin of the elemental symbols, the atomic number (new term), and the atomic 38
  39. 39. mass (another new term). To explain this I had an overhead slide that displayed the elemental symbol for neon (Ne) the atomic number (10) located above the symbol, and the atomic mass (20) located below the symbol. I had the students tell me where they thought the symbols came from and they responded that they symbols were just letters in the element. So I asked them about gold. Once they found gold on the periodic table on the wall they said they had no clue how it got its name. I then explained that a lot of the elements had the first letter of the element in its symbol, but there were also a lot hat had origins in Greek or Latin as well. Au, standing for aurum, the Latin word for gold, represented gold on the table. From there I explained what atomic number was (# of protons in an element) and what atomic mass was (proton plus neutron weight). One student inquired why electrons were not added in, to which I answered by explaining that electrons were even smaller than protons and neutrons, making their weight so small that it wasn’t even counted. After out discussion on how to read individual elements we discussed how to read the periodic table. I explained how periods and rows worked, but Im not sure it stuck. It also didn’t help that I confused the two. Two students who had been looking at a chemistry book corrected me, which was embarrassing, and we proceeded on. I then assigned them their element flash card project. There were to use a list of 33 common elements and create flash cards for them so that they can quiz each other. This was easy to explain and proceeded without any distractions. What I learned about teaching/ learning/ students/ self Today I learned that my students are really funny. Today their conversations and interactions with me made me laugh a lot. It was good to see their humorous side and to interact with them on their own playing field. Not every class I have in the day is like my sample class so it is good to have them first thing in the day to try my lesson on and work the kinks out. I learned that teaching is easier when ones supervisor isn’t watching. The entire time I was teaching I would see my advisor writing notes and when I was corrected by my own students I was needless to say, phased. I learned that when I am calm my students respond better to me. Remaining in that mentally controlled state even if it is not authentic is just another means of classroom management. I need to be able to have myself in this calm 39
  40. 40. state throughout the period regardless of who may be watching me. What I may have missed: After I consulted my supervisor I realized that having the students reading a periodic table to search through would be a better tool to use when having students just guessing blindly about element names. Handing out a table in the beginning of the lesson would give the lesson a lot more depth and flexibility to move in different directions. What I anticipate about student response tomorrow: I think that student response will be normal tomorrow. We will just be working on the flash cards and playing a game for candy involving memorization of the elements, so things should be great. Progress toward objectives: The goal of analyzing the elements and being able to identifying them by their name and symbols was met. Adaptations for tomorrow: I don’t think anything will needed to be modified for tomorrow. 40
  41. 41. Lesson 3 Teacher Name(s): Jesse Gilbertson Lesson Title: Flash Card Memorization Unit Title/Topic: Learning the Elements Target Grade Level: 8th grade Science Estimated Time for Lesson: 55 minutes Standards: • Oregon Science : 8.1P.2 Explain how the Periodic Table is an organization of elements based on their physical and chemical properties. Materials: • Paper or Pen • Markers • Other decorative materials Lesson Objectives and Plan for Assessment: • Students will be able to find and analyze multiple elements using the periodic table of the elements and identify them through memorization. • Assessment in this lesson will be in the form of an exit slip drill where students will challenge the teacher in a contest of element memorization, however, some students might not be assessed because of time. Anticipatory Set: • Element Symbol Recognition warm up (5 min) – Students will be given ten random elements from their flash card list and be asked what their names are. The teacher might also turn some into molecules and have students identify those separately as well Lesson Sequence: • Elemental Flash Cards Cont. (25 to 30 min) – In this activity, which began yesterday, students will create flash cards for thirty three selected elements. 41
  42. 42. Cards will include atomic mass, atomic number, and element symbol on one side, and element name on the other. Students will create and color these cards as creatively as they would like and when they complete this process they will begin practice memorizing the elements on their cards • Element Flash Card Practice/Drills (25 to 30 min)– When students are done with their flash cards they will partner up and begin memorizing the elements and their symbols. Students who are finding this to easy can attempt to memorize the given elements atomic number and atomic mass Closure: • Quiz the teacher (5 min to 10 min) – I am going to memorize these elements with the students (so I can easily check in with students during their work time). At the end of the class period I will have students quiz me but with a wager. For example a student could wager 5, meaning that they can quiz me on five random elements, but in return I get to quiz them on five random elements themselves. At different intervals there will be prize incentives (candy) as well as if the teacher gets stumped. Differentiation: Meeting needs of individual learners • Differentiation in this lesson will take the place of a modified drilling activity. I will have the students who are struggling with the concept of the assignment and have them only learn the element and its symbol. Once to this point, then a student can progress towards learning atomic number then atomic mass. Lesson Reflection Lesson 3 – 3/11/2010 Lesson Title: Element Flash Cards Synopsis of what happened: Today’s lesson was pretty simple. After an anticipapatory set of recognizing element symbols I had the students continue creating and practicing their elemental flash cards. There was a little bit of confusion with what needed to be on the flash cards, mainly the symbol and the element name being on opposite sides of the cards but other than that today’s lesson went very smoothly. There was one part of the lesson that went really well. It was a game that I created where students could try to stump me in naming elements or their symbols. Each round they were able to quiz me on five at a time. Each time I was stumped, they earned a piece of candy. After they had their chance to stump me, I got to quiz them on three of their symbol/element combos. If they got all of them right, then they earned a piece of candy. A lot of students participated in this during first period and a few even stumped me! 42
  43. 43. What I learned about teaching/ learning/ students/ self To be honest, I don’t think I really learned anything about teaching today. Its not that I didn’t teach, but today was just a continuation of yesterday. I was more of a facilitator than a teacher today but that is another part of being a teacher that is important to master as well so it was a good experience. Today I learned that learning is fun when a game is involved. Today I was stumped by a student twice in a row and I immediately made a very conscious effort to remember those elements so that I wouldn’t get stumped later in the day… and I didn’t. Sometimes getting beaten is even more effective than winning. Today learned that my students, at least in first period, are pretty self motivated. I just gave them instructions and they took to their assignment. As the facilitator I had to occasionally lead them back on task when they were straying, but for the most part they were great. Today I saw myself really opening up and getting to know my students as a real teacher as opposed to a guy who just participates in the back of the room. It was really a great experience to feel like a real teacher. What I may have missed: Today I think that having every student required to play the game I created would have been beneficial. It would be a good formative assessment to see where the students lied in their knowledge of the elements What I anticipate about student response tomorrow: The student response should be alright tomorrow, however we have a strange schedule and we will be in the library using laptops so the dynamic will be completely different. Progress toward objectives: The objective for this lesson was met and the students really began showing that they knew the symbols for the elements. Adaptations for tomorrow: Tomorrow’s lesson will be very different so being flexible will have to be my biggest adaptation. 43
  44. 44. Lesson 4 Teacher Name(s): Jesse Gilbertson Lesson Title: Adopt an Element / Research Day Unit Title/Topic: Research on the Elements of the Periodic Table. Target Grade Level: 8th grade Science Estimated Time for Lesson: 55 minutes Standards: • Oregon Science: 8.1P.1 Describe the atomic model and explain how the types and arrangements of atoms determine the physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds. • Oregon Science: 8.1P.2 Explain how the Periodic Table is an organization of elements based on their physical and chemical properties. Materials: • Pen or Pencil • Paper • Laptop computer for research (provided via library) • Element Report Handout (provided) Lesson Objectives and Plan for Assessment: • Students will be able to search and discover elements using the periodic table of the elements as well as separating compounds to their separate elements. • Assessment in this lesson will be done by a quick check of the lab handout at the end of the period to make sure students have utilized their time well. Anticipatory Set: 44
  45. 45. • Elements in the Compound Warm Up (5 min) – Students will identify elements vs. compounds. Students will also practice identifying different atoms and their amounts within compounds. Lesson Sequence: • Periodic Table/Element Report Part I (40 to 45 min. (5 to 10 min explaining the first step of the project, 30 to 40 min in the library) – Students will be assigned a random element from the periodic table by a random drawing from a hat and will be given a lab handout. This handout will have some essential questions about the student’s element which they will complete by the end of the period. Students will be taken to the library for a day of research on their element while they use their worksheet to guide their search. Closure: • Lab Handout Check (5 min)– Students will each show me their completed lab handout before they leave the library showing that they have researched their element and used their time wisely. Differentiation: Meeting needs of individual learners • Differentiation in this lesson will come in the form of individual help while students are working on their element project. Lesson Reflection Lesson 3 – 3/11/2010 Lesson Title: Element Flash Cards Synopsis of what happened: Today’s lesson was pretty simple. After an anticipapatory set of recognizing element symbols I had the students continue creating and practicing their elemental flash cards. There was a little bit of confusion with what needed to be on the flash cards, mainly the symbol and the element name being on opposite sides of the cards but other than that today’s lesson went very smoothly. There was one part of the lesson that went really well. It was a game that I created where students could try to stump me in naming elements or their symbols. Each round they were able to quiz me on five at a time. Each time I was stumped, they earned a piece of candy. After they had their chance to stump me, I got to quiz them on three of their symbol/element combos. If they got all of them right, then they earned a piece of candy. A lot of students participated in this during first period and a few even stumped me! What I learned about teaching/ learning/ To be honest, I don’t think I really learned anything about teaching today. Its not that I didn’t teach, but today 45
  46. 46. students/ self was just a continuation of yesterday. I was more of a facilitator than a teacher today but that is another part of being a teacher that is important to master as well so it was a good experience. Today I learned that learning is fun when a game is involved. Today I was stumped by a student twice in a row and I immediately made a very conscious effort to remember those elements so that I wouldn’t get stumped later in the day… and I didn’t. Sometimes getting beaten is even more effective than winning. Today learned that my students, at least in first period, are pretty self motivated. I just gave them instructions and they took to their assignment. As the facilitator I had to occasionally lead them back on task when they were straying, but for the most part they were great. Today I saw myself really opening up and getting to know my students as a real teacher as opposed to a guy who just participates in the back of the room. It was really a great experience to feel like a real teacher. What I may have missed: Today I think that having every student required to play the game I created would have been beneficial. It would be a good formative assessment to see where the students lied in their knowledge of the elements What I anticipate about student response tomorrow: The student response should be alright tomorrow, however we have a strange schedule and we will be in the library using laptops so the dynamic will be completely different. Progress toward objectives: The objective for this lesson was met and the students really began showing that they knew the symbols for the elements. Adaptations for tomorrow: Tomorrow’s lesson will be very different so being flexible will have to be my biggest adaptation. 46
  47. 47. Lesson 5 (Original Lesson Plan) This lesson was not used in my work sample Teacher Name(s): Jesse Gilbertson Lesson Title: Element Report Cont. Unit Title/Topic: Continuation of the Element Report Target Grade Level: 8th grade Science Estimated Time for Lesson: 55 minutes Standards: • Oregon Science: 8.1P.1 Describe the atomic model and explain how the types and arrangements of atoms determine the physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds. • Oregon Science: 8.1P.2 Explain how the Periodic Table is an organization of elements based on their physical and chemical properties. Materials: • Pencil or pen • Paper • Any miscellanies supplies a student could use for a report such as books and outside resources. Lesson Objectives and Plan for Assessment: • Students will be able to search and discover elements using the periodic table of the elements as well as separating compounds to their separate elements 47
  48. 48. • Assessment in this lesson will be in the form of the students finished (or nearly finished) element mini poster (At this point it will be a progress check on how their project is looking and a check in to see where each student needs to go). Anticipatory Set: • Compound Breakdown warm up (5 min) – warm up involving breaking down compounds into their separate atoms. Students will also be introduced to the concept of multiple molecules (example – CO2, and 2 CO2, showing two molecules of CO2). Lesson Sequence: • Periodic Table/Element Report Part II (30 to 40 min) – This portion of the assignment is when students use their lab handout from the day before to create a mini poster (a piece of 8” by 11.5” printer paper) for their element. Students will Draw the chemicals symbol, its atomic mass, and its atomic number on the one side of the paper (just like their flash cards) but this time they will get creative and have time to draw and decorate their poster with information that is relevant to their element (ex. Calcium – Ca, atomic #20, atomic mass 40, and drawings of a glass of milk and a skeleton – showing where this element if located and used). On the other side of their poster the students will write the full name of their element and transfer their information from the questions on their lab handout and write each as a sentence. Students will be given most of a period to work on their report of their element in the classroom. Some craft materials will be given for students to create their mini poster • (History of Chemistry (BBC): A Volatile History – Discovering the Elements – Youtube video Part III or IV if needed – 10 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25lprEvoFJ8 Closure: • Students will prepare for their short presentation in the next day by practicing their speech with other students. Differentiation: Meeting needs of individual learners • Differentiation in this lesson will come in the form of individual help while students are working on their element project. Lesson 5 (Actual Lesson) Teacher Name(s): Jesse Gilbertson Lesson Title: Element Report / Periodic Table Creation Unit Title/Topic: The Periodic Table of the Elements 48
  49. 49. Target Grade Level: 8th grade Science Estimated Time for Lesson: 55 minutes Standards: • Oregon Science: 8.1P.1 Describe the atomic model and explain how the types and arrangements of atoms determine the physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds. • Oregon Science: 8.1P.2 Explain how the Periodic Table is an organization of elements based on their physical and chemical properties. Materials: • Pencil or a pen • Paper • Element Project handout Lesson Objectives and Plan for Assessment: • Students will be able to search and discover elements using the periodic table of the elements and will be able to recognize multiple elements that they have previously learned. • Assessment in this lesson will come in the form of the students brief presentations on their element. Anticipatory Set: • Element Symbol Recognition (5 to 10 min) – Students will be given element symbols or element names and then be asked to name the element or element symbol that each question represents. The teacher might also turn some into molecules and have students identify those separately as well Lesson Sequence: • Periodic Table/Element Report Part III (25 to 35 min) - Students will bring and briefly present their element to the class. This won’t be a formal speech but instead will be a 2 minute summary of what they found about their element and an explanation of their mini poster. – Time will depend on the period • Periodic Table Creation (10 to 15 min) – Students along with the teacher will find a large blank spot on the wall and begin construction of a giant periodic table. This will not only display students work but also serve as a Periodic table to look at for their final test. The periodic table will be comprised of the student’s mini posters and will be displayed for the rest of the chemistry unit • (History of Chemistry (BBC): A Volatile History – Discovering the Elements – Youtube video Part III, IV, or V if needed – 10 min + 49
  50. 50. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25lprEvoFJ8 Closure: • If you had the choice… (exit slip) – Students will write a brief statement about if they had gotten to choose the element that they did their report on, which element it would have been and why. Differentiation: Meeting needs of individual learners • Differentiation in this lesson will come in the form of a modified presentation. Students who do not wish to come to the front of the class can stay where they are and students with language barriers can either have a translator assist them or come in after school and complete it in private, if that makes them more comfortable. Lesson Reflection Lesson 5 – 3/15/2010 Lesson Title: Element Report Continued Synopsis of what happened: Today’s lesson was another day where I became more of a facilitator than an instructor. On Thursday of last week (because of a shortened week of school for grading), I took my students to the library to begin a research project where students were assigned a random element on the periodic table of the elements which they had to do some simple research on. Over the weekend I thought of how I could modify the activity so that the students could actually turn in quality work with the limited time they had to do research in the library. I decided to cut the activity a day short but extend the due date till the 19th , which is the Friday of this week. That would leave two class days for research but still give the students ample time to complete their work outside of class. My tenth day of my work sample will then be a review day on the Monday the students and teachers return from spring break which is the 29th of March. When I began class today I made the announcement, once again, that there would be a quiz when the students returned from spring break and then moved into the warm up. As usual this took place with no problems. From there I explained to the class what I was looking for on the second portion of the project and when it was due (Friday). I had created an example using the element sodium, showing a salt shaker pouring out the symbol and the atomic number from it. I also showed the elements name, and its atomic mass as well as a creative piece (the salt shaker) to show what this element really is and what it is used for in the lives of mankind. I told them at the very least, have the atomic mass and number, the elements symbol, and its name, along with a creative piece that explains where the element is 50
  51. 51. located, what it used for, or any other useful information about it. I then turned the student’s eyes towards the five classroom laptops that were on and connected to the internet. I told students if they were not complete in their lab sheet, a handout that explained the assignment and had questions about the element, to complete their research on the laptops. I did put out the disclaimer that students might want to work with another person on the laptop just so that more than one person could use the computer at a time and that their research could happen more quickly. I then had the students turn their attention to a pile of craft supplies that they were to use to create their mini poster. I told them to make sure that the materials were put back when it was over and also that the students needed to align their poster in a vertical format so as to make the whole table uniform. I then asked if the class had any questions and was surprised when no students had any inquiries. I then let the students work on their projects. Some students began to finish a lot earlier than I expected but I had them practice their element flash cards and work on other homework instead. Only a few students finished today so I’m hoping that I get the rest throughout the week and not all on Friday. What I learned about teaching/ learning/ students/ self Today I learned that my students in my sample class, if left alone and with their peers, can work well and cooperate without any major dissention amongst them. As long as the groupings of students who have issues with each other are separated, nothing eventful happens at all. No complaints here. I learned that learning can take a simple project and make it into a non linear learning experience. Some of the students had to stretch their minds to come up with ideas for their element posters. Some decided to use where their element was found on earth, while others used the elements practical uses as their inspiration. While doing this they had to come up with creative interpretations for these aspects of their elements and it was fun and interesting to see where their thought process was and then having me help it along if it was stuck. I learned later in the day that teaching is a lot of repetition, but in this case, better rehearsed repetition. While in 6th period, I was a lot better to call out potential hang-ups that students might have because I’d seen four other class periods complete the same assignment. There is just certain things that come with the experience of the day that my 51
  52. 52. sample class does not get to benefit from. I wonder what period gets the optimum amount of actual guidance in the assignments when I’m teaching because of the time frame I work in. Today I didn’t learn much about myself as a teacher. I didn’t feel today was a hard day but I did feel it was repetitious and sort of boring. I was thinking that if all my assignments were this dull, I bet I would complain about them more than the students. I really need to come up with creative and interesting assignments so that my students stay engaged and that I don’t bore myself as well. What I may have missed: What may have been missed today would be more structure or more substance. Today was just a work day for the project, but having something for early finishers besides practicing the element flash cards would have been great. What I anticipate about student response tomorrow: Tomorrow I think student response is going to be very high because of the demonstration and lab we are running. It should be very exciting and fun to see. Progress toward objectives: Students continued their research and their warm up consisted of breaking down compounds into their separate parts. I feel the objective was met. Adaptations for tomorrow: Tomorrow I will not be running my planned lesson 6. Lessons 7, 8, 9 and 10 will become lessons 6, 7, 8, and 9. 52
  53. 53. Lesson 6 Teacher Name(s): Jesse Gilbertson Lesson Title: In the Mix Unit Title/Topic: Mixtures & Solutions Target Grade Level: 8th grade Science Estimated Time for Lesson: 55 minutes Standards: • Oregon Science: 8.2P.1 Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes and describe how the law of conservation of mass applies to these changes. Materials: • Pencil or Pen • Paper • Lab handout • Scale • Plastic Bags • Home Made Trail Mix Lesson Objectives and Plan for Assessment: • Students will be able to identify the different types of mixtures as well as classify each individual part along with its weight, within the mixture. • Assessment in this lesson will come in the form of the lab handout form that each student will receive. Anticipatory Set: 53

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