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By-
Dr. Jesmin Akhter
Associate Professor
Institute of Information Technology
Jahangirnagar University
Wireless and Mobile Communication
ICT-4203
Characteristics of Wireless Channel
• The wireless channel is different and much more unpredictable than the
wireline channel because of factors such as
• multipath and shadow fading,
• Doppler shift,
• and time dispersion or delay spread.
• These factors are all related to variability introduced by mobility of the
user and the wide range of environmental conditions.
• Multipath delays occur as a transmitted signal is reflected by objects in the environment
between a transmitter and a receiver. These objects can be buildings, trees, hills, or even trucks
and cars.
• In the figure, the transmitter transmits a single signal. This signal is propagated along different
paths (A, B and C), and eventually reaching the receiver at multiple time instants, and therefore
with multiple "replication” that is multiple copies of the signal are received at the receiver at
different moments.
• The signal on the shortest path(typically LOS) reaches first than those on longer paths. The
direct effect of this different arrivals of signal causes the spread of the original signal in time
domain. This spread is called the DELAY SPREAD
• The total elapsed time between the first and last is determined by the environment (including
the structures, how close they are, etc..). For example, in an urban environment, where the
reflection is high (many buildings, many vehicles parked and moving), this delay has a typical
value of 5-10 microseconds.
DELAY SPREAD
DELAY SPREAD
• The time delay is the difference in travel time between multipath arrivals and can
be used to extract certain channel's parameters such as the delay spread. So Delay
spread is a measure of the multipath profile of a mobile communications channel.
channel.
• It is generally defined as the difference between the time of arrival of the earliest
component (the line-of-sight wave if there exists) and the time of arrival of the last
multipath component. That is the time between the reception of the first version of
the signal and the last echoed signal is called delay spread.
• The delay spread is mostly used in the characterization of wireless channels, but it
also applies to any other multipath channel (e.g. multipath in optical fibers).
Impulse
Response
τ2 τ3
g1
g4
g3
g2
Maximum Delay Spread=Delay between
first and last arriving component.
τ0=0 µs τ1 Delay time
DELAY SPREAD
How to characterize the delay spread?
• If First arriving component is τ0 and last arriving component is τL-1 then
Maximum Delay Spread=στ(Max)= τL-1 -τ0
• Example Consider a multipath channel with L=4 components where First
arriving component τ0=0 microseconds and Last arriving component τL-1=
5 microseconds
Maximum Delay Spread=στ(Max)= τL-1 -τ0=5-0=5 microseconds.
Example (Power delay profile)
-30 dB
-20 dB
-10 dB
0 dB
0 1 2 5
Pr()
(µs)










 s

 38
.
4
]
1
1
.
0
1
.
0
01
.
0
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)
0
)(
01
.
0
(
)
2
)(
1
.
0
(
)
1
)(
1
.
0
(
)
5
)(
1
(
_









 2
2
2
2
2
_
2
07
.
21
]
1
1
.
0
1
.
0
01
.
0
[
)
0
)(
01
.
0
(
)
2
)(
1
.
0
(
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1
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.
0
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)
5
)(
1
(
s


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 s


37
.
1
)
38
.
4
(
07
.
21 2
1.37 µs
4.38 µs
Coherence Bandwidth
• The delay spread parameters are used to characterize the channel in the time domain.
• In the frequency domain the channel is characterized by the coherence bandwidth , Bc,
which is the range of frequencies over which the signal strength remains more or less
unchanged.
• It is a statistical measure of the range of frequencies over which the channel can be
considered "flat" (i.e., a channel which passes all spectral components with
approximately equal gain and linear phase);
• The coherence bandwidth (Bc) between two frequency envelopes is given as
• Where τd is the rms delay spread in multipath delay.
Channel
frequency
Response
H(f)
Bc
Frequency Separation
• In order to avoid channel-induced ISI distortion, the channel is required to be
flat fading by ensuring that Bc > Bw.
• Thus, the channel coherence bandwidth sets an upper limit on the
transmission rate that can be used without incorporating an equalizer in the
receiver.
Coherence Bandwidth
Coherence Bandwidth
Coherence Time
1 m=3.2808 ft,3X 108 m/sec=9.84X 108 ft/sec
=2100 microsec
Small scale fading
Multi path time delay
Doppler spread
Flat fading BC
BS
Frequency selective fadingBC
BS
TC
TS
Slow fading
Fast fading TC
TS
fading
Frequency selective fading
• If the bandwidth of the transmitted signal has a bandwidth(Bw) greater than
coherence bandwidth(Bc), then it undergoes frequency selective fading ie. a
channel is a frequency-selective channel if Bw > Bc .
• Frequency selective distortion occurs whenever a signal’s spectral components are
not all affected equally by the channel.
• Consequently, the received signal contains multiple versions of the transmitted
waveform which are attenuated and delayed in time and hence the received signal
is distorted.
• Thus, frequency selective fading is a result of the time dispersion of the transmitted
symbol within the channel.
• The symbol gets spread out in time resulting in Intersymbol Interference (ISI) .
• The energy from one symbol spills over into another symbol, thereby increasing
the bit-error-rate (BER).
• In the case of frequency selective fading, the delay spread exceeds the symbol
duration.
Frequency selective fading VS Flat fading
Flat fading
• when there is no dispersion and delay spread is less than the symbol
duration, the fading will be flat, thereby affecting all frequencies in the signal
equally.
• When the coherence bandwidth of the channel is larger than the bandwidth
of the signal and therefore, all frequency components of the signal will
experience the same magnitude of fading the fading will be flat.
• In flat fading there is no dispersion and
• Delay spread is less than the symbol duration
• Flat fading can lead to deep fades of more than 30 to 40 dB.
Doppler shift
• Doppler shift is the random changes in a channel introduced as a result of a
mobile user’s mobility.
• When a user (or reflectors in its environment) is moving, the user's velocity
causes a shift in the frequency of the signal transmitted along each signal path.
This phenomenon is known as the Doppler shift
• Since fading depends on whether signal components add constructively or
destructively, such channels have a very short coherence time.
• Doppler spread has the effect of shifting or spreading the frequency components
of a signal. This is described in terms of frequency dispersion.
Doppler shift
Doppler shift
Fast fading
• If the transmitted symbol interval, Ts , exceeds Tc , then the channel will
change during the symbol interval and symbol distortion will occur.
• In such cases, a matched filter is impossible without equalization and
correlator losses occur.
• If the signal symbol interval Ts » Tc , the channel changes or fades rapidly
compared to the symbol rate. This case is called fast fading and frequency
dispersion occurs, causing distortion.
Slow fading
• If Ts « Tc the channel does not change during the symbol
interval. This case is called slow fading.
• Thus, to avoid signal distortion caused by fast fading, the
channel must be made to exhibit slow fading by ensuring that
the signaling rate exceeds the channel fading rate Ts < Tc.
Thank You

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Wireless Channel Characteristics

  • 1. By- Dr. Jesmin Akhter Associate Professor Institute of Information Technology Jahangirnagar University Wireless and Mobile Communication ICT-4203
  • 2. Characteristics of Wireless Channel • The wireless channel is different and much more unpredictable than the wireline channel because of factors such as • multipath and shadow fading, • Doppler shift, • and time dispersion or delay spread. • These factors are all related to variability introduced by mobility of the user and the wide range of environmental conditions.
  • 3. • Multipath delays occur as a transmitted signal is reflected by objects in the environment between a transmitter and a receiver. These objects can be buildings, trees, hills, or even trucks and cars. • In the figure, the transmitter transmits a single signal. This signal is propagated along different paths (A, B and C), and eventually reaching the receiver at multiple time instants, and therefore with multiple "replication” that is multiple copies of the signal are received at the receiver at different moments. • The signal on the shortest path(typically LOS) reaches first than those on longer paths. The direct effect of this different arrivals of signal causes the spread of the original signal in time domain. This spread is called the DELAY SPREAD • The total elapsed time between the first and last is determined by the environment (including the structures, how close they are, etc..). For example, in an urban environment, where the reflection is high (many buildings, many vehicles parked and moving), this delay has a typical value of 5-10 microseconds. DELAY SPREAD
  • 5. • The time delay is the difference in travel time between multipath arrivals and can be used to extract certain channel's parameters such as the delay spread. So Delay spread is a measure of the multipath profile of a mobile communications channel. channel. • It is generally defined as the difference between the time of arrival of the earliest component (the line-of-sight wave if there exists) and the time of arrival of the last multipath component. That is the time between the reception of the first version of the signal and the last echoed signal is called delay spread. • The delay spread is mostly used in the characterization of wireless channels, but it also applies to any other multipath channel (e.g. multipath in optical fibers). Impulse Response τ2 τ3 g1 g4 g3 g2 Maximum Delay Spread=Delay between first and last arriving component. τ0=0 µs τ1 Delay time DELAY SPREAD
  • 6. How to characterize the delay spread? • If First arriving component is τ0 and last arriving component is τL-1 then Maximum Delay Spread=στ(Max)= τL-1 -τ0 • Example Consider a multipath channel with L=4 components where First arriving component τ0=0 microseconds and Last arriving component τL-1= 5 microseconds Maximum Delay Spread=στ(Max)= τL-1 -τ0=5-0=5 microseconds.
  • 7.
  • 8. Example (Power delay profile) -30 dB -20 dB -10 dB 0 dB 0 1 2 5 Pr() (µs)            s   38 . 4 ] 1 1 . 0 1 . 0 01 . 0 [ ) 0 )( 01 . 0 ( ) 2 )( 1 . 0 ( ) 1 )( 1 . 0 ( ) 5 )( 1 ( _           2 2 2 2 2 _ 2 07 . 21 ] 1 1 . 0 1 . 0 01 . 0 [ ) 0 )( 01 . 0 ( ) 2 )( 1 . 0 ( ) 1 )( 1 . 0 ( ) 5 )( 1 ( s        s   37 . 1 ) 38 . 4 ( 07 . 21 2 1.37 µs 4.38 µs
  • 9. Coherence Bandwidth • The delay spread parameters are used to characterize the channel in the time domain. • In the frequency domain the channel is characterized by the coherence bandwidth , Bc, which is the range of frequencies over which the signal strength remains more or less unchanged. • It is a statistical measure of the range of frequencies over which the channel can be considered "flat" (i.e., a channel which passes all spectral components with approximately equal gain and linear phase); • The coherence bandwidth (Bc) between two frequency envelopes is given as • Where τd is the rms delay spread in multipath delay. Channel frequency Response H(f) Bc Frequency Separation
  • 10. • In order to avoid channel-induced ISI distortion, the channel is required to be flat fading by ensuring that Bc > Bw. • Thus, the channel coherence bandwidth sets an upper limit on the transmission rate that can be used without incorporating an equalizer in the receiver. Coherence Bandwidth
  • 13. 1 m=3.2808 ft,3X 108 m/sec=9.84X 108 ft/sec =2100 microsec
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  • 15.
  • 16. Small scale fading Multi path time delay Doppler spread Flat fading BC BS Frequency selective fadingBC BS TC TS Slow fading Fast fading TC TS fading
  • 17. Frequency selective fading • If the bandwidth of the transmitted signal has a bandwidth(Bw) greater than coherence bandwidth(Bc), then it undergoes frequency selective fading ie. a channel is a frequency-selective channel if Bw > Bc . • Frequency selective distortion occurs whenever a signal’s spectral components are not all affected equally by the channel. • Consequently, the received signal contains multiple versions of the transmitted waveform which are attenuated and delayed in time and hence the received signal is distorted. • Thus, frequency selective fading is a result of the time dispersion of the transmitted symbol within the channel. • The symbol gets spread out in time resulting in Intersymbol Interference (ISI) . • The energy from one symbol spills over into another symbol, thereby increasing the bit-error-rate (BER). • In the case of frequency selective fading, the delay spread exceeds the symbol duration.
  • 18. Frequency selective fading VS Flat fading
  • 19. Flat fading • when there is no dispersion and delay spread is less than the symbol duration, the fading will be flat, thereby affecting all frequencies in the signal equally. • When the coherence bandwidth of the channel is larger than the bandwidth of the signal and therefore, all frequency components of the signal will experience the same magnitude of fading the fading will be flat. • In flat fading there is no dispersion and • Delay spread is less than the symbol duration • Flat fading can lead to deep fades of more than 30 to 40 dB.
  • 20. Doppler shift • Doppler shift is the random changes in a channel introduced as a result of a mobile user’s mobility. • When a user (or reflectors in its environment) is moving, the user's velocity causes a shift in the frequency of the signal transmitted along each signal path. This phenomenon is known as the Doppler shift • Since fading depends on whether signal components add constructively or destructively, such channels have a very short coherence time. • Doppler spread has the effect of shifting or spreading the frequency components of a signal. This is described in terms of frequency dispersion.
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  • 24. Fast fading • If the transmitted symbol interval, Ts , exceeds Tc , then the channel will change during the symbol interval and symbol distortion will occur. • In such cases, a matched filter is impossible without equalization and correlator losses occur. • If the signal symbol interval Ts » Tc , the channel changes or fades rapidly compared to the symbol rate. This case is called fast fading and frequency dispersion occurs, causing distortion.
  • 25. Slow fading • If Ts « Tc the channel does not change during the symbol interval. This case is called slow fading. • Thus, to avoid signal distortion caused by fast fading, the channel must be made to exhibit slow fading by ensuring that the signaling rate exceeds the channel fading rate Ts < Tc.

Editor's Notes

  1. A transmitted symbol can be received multiple times at the receiver, more or less as an "echo" effect. This echo is what we call "Delay Spread".
  2. smeared