Drugs Affecting Respiratory System


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Drugs Affecting Respiratory System

  2. 2. COMMON COLD  Most cold are caused by viral infections  Rhinovirus  Influenza
  4. 4. COMMON COLD  Virus invade the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, nose, pharynx and larynx which leads to the upper respiratory system.  Signs and symptoms: excessive mucous production leads to sore throat, coughing, upset stomach.  Treatment: reduce symptoms  Note: antibiotics do not help viral infections
  5. 5. ECHINACEA  Herbal Therapy  Has been shown in clinical trials to reduce cold symptoms and recovery time when taken early in the illness.  Adverse effects: dermatitis, upset stomach, dizziness, headache, and unpleasant taste.
  6. 6. ANTIHISTAMINES  Action: act directly on histamine receptor sites H1 blockers.  Used as an inflammatory mediator for allergic disorders, allergic rhinitis (hay fever and mold, and dust allergies), anaphylaxis, angioedema, insect bites and urticaria (itching).
  7. 7. ANTIHISTAMINES  Antihistamines associated with sedation (CNS)  Non-sedating antihistamines
  8. 8. ANTIHISTAMINES: SEDATING  Classification: H1 antihistamine  chlorphenramine (Chlor-Trimeton)  dephenhydramine (Benadryl)
  9. 9. DIPHENHYDRAMINE  Trade name: Benadryl  One of the oldest anti-histamines  Action: Antagonizes the effects of histamine at the H1 receptor sites.  Adverse Effects: Significant CNS depressant: drowsiness, dizziness, hypotension, dry mouth.  Onset: immediate to 60 minutes  Peak: 1-4 hours  Duration: 4-8 hours
  10. 10. NON-SEDATING ANTIHISTAMINE  The drugs were developed to eliminate the unwanted adverse effects; mainly sedation.  Action: Works peripherally (do not cross the blood brain barrier) to block the actions of histamine.
  11. 11. LORATADINE  Generic name: loratadine  Trade name: Claritin  Action: blocks peripheral effects of histamine released during allergic reactions.  Therapeutic Effects: decreased symptoms of allergic reactions (nasal stuffiness, red swollen eyes)  Onset within 1-3 hours  Peak within 8-12 hours  Duration: > 24 hours
  12. 12. CETIRIZINE  Trade name: Zyrtec  Therapeutic classification: allergy, cold, and cough remedies, antihistamine  Action: Antagonizes the effects of histamine at H1-receptor sites; anticholinergic effects are minimal.  Onset: 30 minutes  Peak: 4-8 hours  Duration: 24 hours
  13. 13. DECONGESTANTS  Nasal congestion is due to excessive nasal secretions and inflamed and swollen nasal mucosa.  Three types of decongestants  adrenergic  anticholinergic  corticosteroids
  14. 14. ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION  Orally to produce systemic effect  Inhaled: directly to lungs with some systemic effects  Nasally: local with some systemic effects
  15. 15. NASAL DRUGS  Adrenergic Drugs: topical application directly into the nares provides a very potent decongestive effect.  Main side effect: rebound effect (after a few days of use if discontinued can have rebound congestion).
  16. 16. ADRENERGIC NASAL DRUGS  Afrin  Neo-Synephrine  Sinex
  17. 17. INTRANASAL STEROIDS  Often used prophylactically to prevent nasal congestion in patients with chronic upper respiratory tract infections.  Action: aimed at the anti-inflammatory response  Trade names  Nasacort  Flonase  Nasalide
  18. 18. DRUGS TO TREAT COUGHS  Antitussives  Opioid  Non-opioid  Expectorants
  19. 19. ANTITUSSIVE DRUGS  Opioid drugs all have antitussive effects  Codeine is the only opioid used as a cough medicine  Action: suppress the cough reflex through direct action on the cough center in the CNS (medulla).  Adverse effects: CNS and respiratory depression and addictive potential
  20. 20. ANTITUSSIVE DRUGS  Non opioid  Generic: dextromethorphan  Trade names:  Vicks Formula 44  Robitussin DM  Safe, non-addicting and does not cause CNS or respiratory depression.
  21. 21. EXPECTORANTS  Aid in the coughing up and spitting out of the excess mucous that has accumulated in the respiratory tract by breaking down and thinning the secretions.  Action:  Loosening and thinning the respiratory tract secretions  Direct stimulation of the secretory glands in the respiratory tract.
  22. 22. EXPECTORANTS  Guaifenesin is the only drug currently available.  Trade names: Robitussin, Humibid, Guiatuss  Therapeutic effect: relief of respiratory congestion and cough suppression
  24. 24. LUNGS  Right side has 3 lobes  Left side 2 lobes  Contains the lower respiratory structures
  25. 25. BRONCHI  Definition: The bronchi are small air passages, composed of hyaline cartilage, that extend from the trachea to the bronchioles. There are two bronchi in the human body that branch off from the trachea. The bronchi are lined with mucous membranes that secrete mucus and cilia that sweep the mucus and particles up and out of the airways.
  26. 26. ALVEOLI  Have a very thin membrane that allows rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between capillary blood and alveolar air spaces.  Lined with surfactant to prevent alveolar collapse.
  27. 27. SURFACTANT  Essential fluid that lines the alveoli and smallest bronchioles.  Reduces surface tension of the lung allowing the oxygen and carbon dioxide across the membrane.
  29. 29. NERVOUS SYSTEM ROLE  Nervous system regulates the rate and depth of respirations.  Medulla oblongata is the respiratory control system of the brain.  Cough reflex is stimulated by nervous system.
  30. 30. DISEASES OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  Upper respiratory tract: colds, rhinitis, hay fever  Lower respiratory tract: asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis  All involve obstruction of airflow through the airways.
  31. 31. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA  Recurrent and reversible shortness of breath that occurs when the bronchi and bronchioles become narrow as a result of bronchospasm, inflammation, and edema of the bronchial mucosa, and the production of viscid (sticky) mucous.
  32. 32. ALLERGIC ASTHMA  Caused by hypersensitivity to an allergen or allergens in the environment.  Allergen is substance that elicits an allergic reaction.  Antigen: Substance (usually a protein) that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts with the antibody.  Antibody: Immunoglobulins produced by Lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigen substances. (IgE)
  33. 33. STEPWISE THERAPY FOR MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA  Step 1: mild intermittent
  34. 34. TREATMENT OF MILD INTERMITTENT ASTHMA  Quick relief:  Short-acting inhaled B2 agonists  Albuterol or Proventil
  35. 35. ALBUTEROL (SHORT ACTING BRONCHODILATOR)  Therapeutic classification: bronchodilators  Pharmacologic classification: adrenergic  Indications: Used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airway obstruction.  Action: Binds to beta 2-adrenergic receptors in airway smooth muscle.  Therapeutic effects: bronchodilator
  36. 36. ALBUTEROL  Adverse effects:  Nervousness, restlessness, tremor, headache, insomnia  Cardiovascular: chest pain, palpitations, angina, hypertension, tachycardia
  37. 37. ALBUTEROL  Inhaled:  Onset 15 to 30 minutes  Peak: 2-3 hours  Duration: 8 hours
  38. 38. INHALER
  40. 40. TEACHING  May give up to 3 treatments at 20 minute intervals  If taking more than one inhaled medications take 5 minutes apart  Encourage fluid intake  Signs and symptoms of respiratory distress  If no relief need to call PMD or go to ED
  41. 41. MILD PERSISTENT ASTHMA  Step 2:  Short acting inhaled B2 agonist prn  Proventil (albuterol)  Xopenex (levoalbuterol)  Low dose inhaled corticosteroids (beclomethasone, fluticasone, triamcinolone  Pulmicort, Flovent, Azmacort  Cromolyn (particularly in children)
  42. 42. CROMOLYN  Classification: Mast cell stabilizer  Trade name: Intal, NasalCrom  Indications: adjunct in the prophylaxis (long- term control) of allergic disorders including rhinitis and asthma  Action: prevents the release of histamine and slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS- A) from sensitized mast cells.  Route: inhalation, solution for nebulization or nasal solution.
  43. 43. INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS  Generic name: fluticasone  Trade name: Flovent  Action: potent locally acting anti-inflammatory and immune modifier.  Therapeutic effects:  Decrease frequency of asthma attacks  Prevention of pulmonary damage associated with chronic asthma.
  44. 44. INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS  Adverse reactions and side effects:  EENT: hoarseness, oropharyngeal fungal infections  Dry mouth, esophageal candidia.
  45. 45. CLIENT TEACHING  Take medication as directed.  Do not discontinue without consulting MD  When using corticosteroids and bronchodilators use bronchodilators first and follow 5 minutes later with corticosteroids.  Rinse and spit after inhalation therapy to prevent oral fungal infections.  Use a tight fitting mask in infant / small child
  46. 46. ORAL THRUSH
  47. 47. MODERATE PERSISTENT ASTHMA  Step 3:  Inhaled corticosteroids  Long-acting bronchodilator such as Salmeterol  Add anti-leukotriene drug: Singulair
  48. 48. ANTILEUKOTRIENE DRUGS  New class of asthma drugs called leukotriene receptor antagonists  Action: works on the immune system at the cellular level.  Trade name: Singulair  Onset: 30 minutes  Peak: 3-4 hours  Duration: 24 hours
  49. 49. SEVERE PERSISTENT ASTHMA  Step 4  High dose inhaled corticosteroids  PO prednisone or  If severe IV corticosteroids (Solu-Medrol)
  50. 50. CORTICOSTEROIDS  Methylprednisolone  Trade name: Solu-medrol  Action: suppress inflammation and the normal immune response.  Can be given IV, IM or PO  Intravenous systemic is used in acute asthma or status asthmatic attack that does not respond to inhaled medications.
  51. 51. CORTICOSTEROIDS  Side effects of long term use:  Peptic ulcer  Depression  Hypertension  Acne  Decreased wound healing  Cushingoid appearance: moon face, buffalo hump, increased susceptibility to infection.
  52. 52. PREDNISONE  Classification: corticosteroid  Given po after 3 doses of IV Methylprednisone  Dose: 5-60 mg per day for adults, dosing based on mg/kg.
  53. 53. EXERCISE INDUCED ASTHMA  Short acting B2 agonist  Take 15 to 20 minutes before activity  Increase fluid intake  Stay indoors when air quality is poor
  54. 54. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS  Continuous inflammation of the bronchi.  Inflammation of smaller bronchi.  One of the most common causes is smoking.  Predisposing factors of pulmonary infections during childhood.
  55. 55. COPD
  56. 56. MILD COPD  Short acting beta 2 agonist  Cessation of smoking  Immunization against flu
  57. 57. MODERATE COPD  Add one or more long-acting bronchodilators such as salmeterol  Inhaled Anticholinergic drugs such as Atrovent  PO Theophylline
  58. 58. TREATMENT OF COPD  Atrovent: long acting bronchodilator  Classification: anticholinergic  Uses: bronchodilator in maintenance therapy of airway obstruction due to COPD.  Action: inhibits cholinergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle.  Dosing: 2 puffs qid
  59. 59. SALMETEROL  Brand name: Serevent  Classification Pharmacologic: adrenergic  Classification Therapeutic: bronchodilator  Action: Produces accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at the beta 2- adrenergic receptors.  Use with caution: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, glaucoma
  60. 60. XANTHINE  Trade name: Theophyline, Slo-bid,  Action: increases level of cAMP (adenosine monophosphate) which aids in dilation of bronchioles.  Indication: long term control of COPD  Adverse reactions: tachycardia, arrhythmias, seizures, nausea and vomiting  How given: po or IV