Algae report


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Algae report

  1. 1. ALGAE
  2. 2. ALGAE <ul><li>are a large and diverse group of simple plant, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms,. </li></ul><ul><li>is now restricted to eukaryotic organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be referred to as plant-like organisms that are usually photosynthetic and aguatic, but do not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue and have simple reproductive structures. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Algae are found in the fossil record dating back to approximately 3 billion years in the Precambrian . </li></ul><ul><li>It have chlorophyll and can manufacture their own food through the process of photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all the algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane bound structure called chloroplasts, which contain DNA. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF ALGAE <ul><li>BACILLARIOPHYTA (diatoms) </li></ul><ul><li>CHAROPHYTA (stoneworts) </li></ul><ul><li>CHLOROPHYTA (green algae) </li></ul><ul><li>CHRYSOPHYTA (golden algae) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>CYANOBACTERIA (blue-green algae) </li></ul><ul><li>DINOPHYTA (dinoflagellates) </li></ul><ul><li>PHAEOPHYTA (brown algae) </li></ul><ul><li>RHODOPHYTA (red algae) </li></ul>
  7. 7. BACILLARIOPHYTA <ul><li>are the diatoms. </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually yellowish or brownish, and are found in fresh- and saltwater, in moist soil, and on the moist surface of plants. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Fresh-water and marine diatoms appear in greatest abundance early in the year as part of the phenomenon known as the spring bloom , which occurs as a result of the availability of both light and (winter-regenerated) nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>They reproduce asexually by cell division. </li></ul>
  10. 10. CHAROPHYTA <ul><li>are freshwater plants and generally grow anchored to the substratum by rhizoids with a shoot extending upward. </li></ul><ul><li>reproductive structures develop at these nodes and are, along with the biflagellate sperm produced in the male gametangium, quite similar to those of mosses. </li></ul>
  11. 11. CHAROPHYTA
  12. 12. CHLOROPHYTA <ul><li>division of the kingdom of protista consisting of the photosyntetic organism commonly known as green algae . </li></ul><ul><li>are largely aguatic or marine, a few types are terrestrial, occurring on moist soil, on the trunks of trees, on moist rocks and in snow banks. </li></ul><ul><li>Various species are highly specialized . </li></ul>
  13. 13. CHLOROPHYTA <ul><li>Need picture </li></ul>
  14. 14. CHRYSOPHYTA <ul><li>: large group of eukariotyes algae commonly called golden algae . </li></ul><ul><li>found mostly in freshwater. </li></ul><ul><li>the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. </li></ul><ul><li>they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll. </li></ul>
  15. 15. CHRYSOPHYTA <ul><li>Need picture </li></ul>
  16. 16. CYANOBACTERIA <ul><li>phylum of prokaryotic aguatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>They are often referred to as blue-green algae , even though it is now known that they are not related to any of the other algal groups, which are all eukaryotes. </li></ul><ul><li>may be single-celled or colonial. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanobacteria have no one habitat because you can find them almost anywhere in the world. </li></ul>
  17. 17. DINOPHYTA <ul><li>large group of flagellate protistis </li></ul><ul><li>Some species are heterotrophic, but many are photosynthetic organisms containing chlorophyll . </li></ul><ul><li>Other dinoflagellates are colorless predators on other protozoa, and a few forms are parasitic. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction for most dinoflagellates is asexual, through simple division of cells following mitosis. </li></ul><ul><li>The dinoflagellates are important constituents of plankton, and as such are primary food sources in warmer oceans. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Need picture </li></ul>
  19. 19. PHAEOPHYTA <ul><li>consisting of those organisms commonly called brown algae . </li></ul><ul><li>the chrysophytes brown algae derive their color from the presence, in the cell chloroplasts, of several brownish carotenoid pigments, as fucoxathin. </li></ul><ul><li>brown algae are marine, growing in the colder oceans of the world, many in the tidal zone, where they are subjected to great stress from wave action; others grow in deep water. </li></ul>
  20. 20. PHAEOPHYTA
  21. 21. <ul><li>NEED PICTURE </li></ul>
  22. 22. RHODOPHYTA <ul><li>consisting of the photosynthetic organisms commonly known as red algae . </li></ul><ul><li>are usually multicellular and grow attached to rocks or other algae, but there are some unicellular or colonial forms. </li></ul><ul><li>they are most common in warm-temperate and tropical climates. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Agar and carrageenin are two red algal mucilages that are widely used for gelling and thickening purposes in the food and pharmaceutical industries. </li></ul>