Tsinghua university jrm#8888

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Tsinghua university jrm#8888

  1. 1. 创 业 者 是 Entrepreneurs are the Future of来 经 Economic Development 济 发 Jerry R. Mitchell 展 President 的 Jerry R. Mitchell and Associates Inc 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 1
  2. 2. 创 业 者 是 I would like to talk about my life,来 经 entrepreneurship, and globalization 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 2
  3. 3. 创 业 者 是 You may wonder how one is connected to the other, but I来 经 promise that, as there is truth in 济 advertising, the connection will 发 come. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 3
  4. 4. 创 业 者 是 This was one lesson I picked up when I was a very young child. It has been my来 经 guiding principle ever since. And I have 济 had 60 years to practice self- 发 determination. When I wanted something, 展 the best person to depend on was myself. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 4
  5. 5. 创 业 者 From my experience in helping to create technology 是 companies, the right attitude, people, and actions make a bigger contribution than a novel idea to the来 经 success of these endeavors. Never underestimate the 济 role of passion, the importance of management 发 talent, and the significance of teaming with the right 展 investors. Second, bringing innovative ideas to market requires a series of actions, from securing 的 patents to moving a high-quality product to market quickly. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 5
  6. 6. 创 业 者 是 “I had no ambition to make a fortune. Mere money-making has never been my来 经 goal, I had an ambition to build.” 济 发 John D. Rockefeller 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 6
  7. 7. 创 业 者 是 The person who starts out simply with the idea of getting rich won’t succeed; you来 经 must have a larger ambition. There is no 济 mystery in business success. 发 If your only goal is to become rich, you will 展 never achieve it. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 7
  8. 8. 创 业 者 是 To succeed, a technology-based entrepreneur needs more than an innovative来 经 product. How one organizes a start-up 济 company often proves more important than 发 the product in determining whether the 展 venture succeeds or fails. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 8
  9. 9. 创 业 者 Too many innovators underestimate the 是 need for excellent management. 经 Investors always say that they would rather来 济 have a first-rate management team with 发 average technology than have a first-rate 展 technology with a second-rate management team because the strong management team 的 Is more likely to succeed. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 9
  10. 10. 创 业 者 是 There is no I in team!来 经 One false impression about 济 entrepreneurship is that it is an 发 individual 展 behavior. What I have found is that entrepreneurial behavior succeeds more 的 often when performed by teams. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 10
  11. 11. 创 业 者 是 In my research about entrepreneurship in China I have identified three different来 经 forms at three different times. 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 11
  12. 12. 创 业 者 是 The first occurred before reform and through the 80’s, consisting of very来 经 small-scale activities in retail and 济 services such as street vendors. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 12
  13. 13. 创 业 者 是 Perhaps more accurately referred to as ‘self-employed’ rather than ‘entrepreneurs’,来 经 those involved were of low social status, 济 and illegal migrants, and low education. 发 They started out on their own because they 展 were excluded from the state system. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 13
  14. 14. 创 业 者 是 Some achieved success beyond their expectations. But for most, business来 经 was a means of subsistence. 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 14
  15. 15. 创 业 者 是 The second group emerged in the late 1980s, with more highly educated来 经 individuals, often engineers or SOE 济 (State-owned enterprises) managers, 发 operating on a larger scale out of choice 展 rather than necessity. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 15
  16. 16. 创 业 者 是 These businesses, operated in all sectors, ranging from restaurants to来 经 transportation to manufacturing, 济 especially the production of inputs for 发 SOEs. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 16
  17. 17. 创 业 者 是 The third type is the foreign educated or trained Chinese returning to China to start来 经 businesses. 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 17
  18. 18. 创 业 者 是 This type of entrepreneurship has been evident recently in the flourishing来 经 Internet sector. Each of these types of 济 entrepreneurs operates in a somewhat 发 different environment, under different 展 constraints and has distinctive characteristics. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 18
  19. 19. 创 业 者 是 I will focus primarily on the second type, which I believe is the most interesting来 经 group. After all, for those who have no 济 other choice, starting a business carries 发 no risk, while for others the risk can be 展 tremendous. The problem, becomes the accessibility 的 of foreign sources. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 19
  20. 20. 创 业 者 The average Chinese person has never 是 travelled outside of China, let alone 经 accumulated foreign business contacts. The来 result is that most high tech ventures are 济 发 started and controlled by foreign-educated Chinese who have spent several years in the 展 West, have the contacts, and have received 的 funding commitments before returning to China. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 20
  21. 21. 创 业 者 是 While funding is perhaps less of a problem for Internet entrepreneurs, access来 经 to labor is more of one. The labor issues 济 are also problems Internet entrepreneurs 发 must deal with. However, in addition to 展 those, a ‘brain drain’ reduces the speed in technological advancement. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 21
  22. 22. 创 业 者 是 International demand for technical graduates means an inadequate supply in来 经 China, especially given the number of 济 technically skilled students who move 发 abroad and never return. Finally, the 展 potential value of stock options, a key incentive of Internet start-ups, is not always 的 understood in China. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 22
  23. 23. 创 业 者 是 While the phenomenon of foreign-educated Chinese returning to their home country to来 经 start businesses alleviates the ‘brain drain’ 济 problem, at the same time, many of these 发 returning Chinese entrepreneurs have 展 “back-up plans.” 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 23
  24. 24. 创 业 者 是 Many of these entrepreneurs create ‘safety nets’ independent of the success or failure来 经 of their businesses. Examples of such safety 济 nets include dual citizenship, green cards, 发 and even going so far as leaving one’s wife 展 or husband and children in North America while spending months away from them to 的 work in China. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 24
  25. 25. 创 业 者 是 In such circumstances it is profit rather than pure patriotism which draws them back. If来 经 environmental instability were to increase, 济 it is possible China could again see a 发 worsening of the brain drain problem. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 25
  26. 26. 创 业 者 是 An alternative “back-up” plan indigenous Chinese entrepreneurs employ is having each foot on来 经 different boats; in a working couple, the wife or 济 husband will continue on at his or her SOE job while the husband or wife ventures into 发 entrepreneurship. In this way, the family’s risk is 展 reduced because they can continue to enjoy state benefits of housing and health plans while they 的 also reap the profits of a private business. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 26
  27. 27. 创 业 者 是 In my experience one big difference between American and other countries来 经 companies is that U.S. companies are much 济 more generous in giving stock options to 发 their employees. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 27
  28. 28. 创 业 者 是 Americans have learned that when you distribute ownership to the employees, the来 经 employees behave differently. They no 济 longer behave like employees but like 发 owners. Wide shareholder ownership is 展 one of the best ways to stimulate 的 passionate behavior. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 28
  29. 29. 创 业 者 是 Here is a great example of an 经 American success story.来 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 29
  30. 30. 创 业 者 是 In 1954, a fifty-two-year-old milk-shake 经 machine salesman saw a hamburger stand来 in San Bernardino, California, and 济 envisioned a massive new industry: fast 发 food. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 30
  31. 31. 创 业 者 是 In what should have been his golden 经 years, Raymond Kroc, the founder and来 济 builder of McDonalds Corporation, 发 proved himself an industrial pioneer no 展 less capable than Henry Ford. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 31
  32. 32. 创 业 者 是 He revolutionized the American restaurant industry by imposing discipline on the来 经 production of hamburgers, French fries, and 济 milk shakes. By developing a sophisticated 发 operating and delivery system, he insured 展 that the French fries customers bought in Topeka would be the same as the ones 的 purchased in New York City. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 32
  33. 33. 创 业 者 是 Such consistency made McDonalds the brand name that defined American fast food.来 经 By 1960, there were more than 200 济 McDonalds outlets across the country, a 发 rapid expansion fueled by low franchising 展 fees. Ray Kroc had created one of the most compelling brands of all time. But he was 的 barely turning a profit. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 33
  34. 34. 创 业 者 是 Ultimately, it was his decision to use real estate as a financial lever that made来 经 McDonalds a viable operation. In 1956, Kroc 济 set up the Franchise Realty Corporation, 发 buying up tracts of land and acting as a 展 landlord to eager franchisees. With this step, McDonalds began to generate real income, 的 and the company took off. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 34
  35. 35. 创 业 者 是 Kroc then introduced national advertising programs to support the rapidly proliferating来 经 franchises, and when it appeared that growth 济 in the companys home territory was slowing 发 in the early 1970s, he started an energetic 展 and successful push to make McDonalds a 的 global presence. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 35
  36. 36. 创 业 者 是 Throughout the companys spectacular growth, Kroc maintained a delicate来 经 balancing act, imposing rigorous system- 济 wide standards while encouraging an 发 entrepreneurial spirit that welcomed ideas 展 from all levels. Many of these ideas 的 contributed to the companys astonishing success. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 36
  37. 37. 创 业 者 是 In amassing a $500-million fortune, the king of the hamburger transformed the来 经 nations cultural landscape and forged an 济 industry that is among Americas greatest 发 exports. The widely imitated success of 展 McDonalds offers an excellent example for todays managers and executives searching 的 for greater production efficiencies. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 37
  38. 38. 创 业 者 是 By putting the humble hamburger on the assembly line, Kroc showed the world how来 经 to apply sophisticated process management 济 to the most prosaic endeavors. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 38
  39. 39. 创 业 者 是 To succeed the McDonalds way,companies must define the basic premise of the service来 经 they offer, break the labor into constituent 济 parts, and then continually reassemble and 发 fine tune the many steps until the system 展 works without a hitch. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 39
  40. 40. 创 业 者 是 Today, companies engaged in delivering pizzas, processing insurance claims, or来 经 selling toys benefit from the kinds of 济 systems that Ray Kroc pioneered. To the 发 degree that such operations maintain 展 quality control, and cherish customer satisfaction, profits may flow. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 40
  41. 41. 创 业 者 是 In 1965 Krocs secretary, June Martino, who came to work during the cash-poor来 经 origins of the company, now held $5 济 million in stock. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 41
  42. 42. 创 业 者 是 Thus, when McDonald’s went public in 1965, Martino cashed in $300,000 of her来 经 holdings (equivalent to $1.7 million today) 济 and her remaining holdings were worth $5 发 million (or about $28 million in today’s 展 money). 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 42
  43. 43. 创 业 者 是 And when McDonald’s was listed on the prestigious New York Stock Exchange来 经 the following year, Martino became the 济 first women to be a guest in the all-male 发 NYSE director’s dining room since 展 Queen Elizabeth. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 43
  44. 44. 创 业 者 是 Same thing for the founders of Dell Computers, Apple, Walt Disney, Wal-来 经 Mart and Starbucks. They had a business 济 vision and to achieve it, they went out 发 and found the expertise they needed. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 44
  45. 45. 创 业 者 是 When comparing the U.S. economy to the economies of other countries Americans来 经 seem to be much more willing to become 济 entrepreneurs. Indeed, a recent survey 发 found that more than 70 percent of adult 展 Americans would prefer being an entrepreneur to working for someone else. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 45
  46. 46. 创 业 者 是 In contrast, the same survey showed that only 46 and 41 percent of adults in Western来 经 Europe and Asia, respectively, preferred 济 being an entrepreneur. One possible 发 explanation for this difference is that, 展 because the United States is an immigrant nation, we have inherited our dynamism 的 from past generations. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 46
  47. 47. 创 业 者 是 Many of those who came here had the courage to migrate half way around the来 经 world in search of a better life. Not only 济 were the distances long but also the travel 发 was often dangerous. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 47
  48. 48. 创 业 者 是 I will discuss the roles of entrepreneurial spirit and the policy environment in turn.来 经 Along the way, I will argue that the two are 济 interwoven and that policymakers should 发 keep in mind that the real key to 展 entrepreneurial success—entrepreneurial spirit—is already in abundance and that we 的 should be careful not to waste it. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 48
  49. 49. 创 业 者 是 SBIR来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 49
  50. 50. 创 业 者 是 Discussion of the role of government in 经 the entrepreneurial process should begin来 by recognizing the relative abundance of 济 发 entrepreneurial spirit in the world. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 50
  51. 51. 创 业 者 是 Generally speaking, the view in the United States is that owning a business is an来 经 inherent right and that the operation of the 济 business should be left to the entrepreneur. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 51
  52. 52. 创 业 者 是 China must also excel as entrepreneurs before the world. You must create来 经 Chinese brands for the global market 济 place. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 52
  53. 53. 创 业 者 是 Through the years, the market place has expanded: between cities, between来 经 countries, between continents. I want to 济 urge you all here to think bigger. When 发 you go back to your homes, think of 展 ways to sell and market your products 的 and services to the world. Create world- class 未 brands. 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 53
  54. 54. 创 业 者 是 So, the real entrepreneur is not the one who works in his company, but the one来 经 who works on his company. It is the one 济 who puts his body and soul into finding 发 new customers, developing his market, 展 forming strategic alliances, attracting the best talent. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 54
  55. 55. 创 业 者 是 Entrepreneurship is synonymous with life, 经 with spirit, with growth, with challenge,来 with risk, with empowerment and, of 济 course, with leadership. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 55
  56. 56. 创 业 者 Not all entrepreneurs are successful. In fact, 是 statistically, most entrepreneurs aren’t. But, 经 the good that is done by so many who step来 济 up and take risks, exercise their leadership, 发 generate commerce, create jobs is what the 展 American Dream is all about and has been critical to the growth and success of the 的 global economy 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 56
  57. 57. 创 业 者 是 As an entrepreneur you have a strong point of view. It is always the person with the来 经 strongest point of view who influences the 济 group – who wins the day. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 57
  58. 58. 创 业 者 是 My experience is that a powerful point of view is worth at least 80 IQ points.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 58
  59. 59. 创 业 者 是 Finally, entrepreneurs have candor. It has been reported that seven of ten people in来 经 organizations do not speak up if they think 济 their point of view will differ with the 发 conventional wisdom of their boss’s point 展 of view, even if they believe their boss is 的 going to make an error. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 59
  60. 60. 创 业 者 是 Great leaders always cultivate strong- minded associates with the wisdom and来 经 courage to make recommendations; in 济 fact, to say "no" when "no" is the right 发 answer. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 60
  61. 61. 创 业 者 是 For many startups, a core business requirement is the creation of custom来 经 software. This forces the entrepreneurs and 济 CEOs into the uncomfortable role of 发 defining the software, choosing the 展 platform and managing technical staff. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 61
  62. 62. 创 业 者 是 Unfortunately, for the entrepreneurial CEO, there are few resources dedicated to来 经 assisting small companies in navigating the 济 technology world of acronyms and 发 technicales. And even for experienced 展 technologists, the outlook is not bright. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 62
  63. 63. 创 业 者 是 Depending on the study, estimates on software development failures range from来 经 30 percent to 70 percent. These studies 济 are based on large companies with vast 发 resources. It would be arguable the failure 展 rate for startups would be even higher. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 63
  64. 64. 创 业 者 是 There are two components of software development that contribute to high failure来 经 rates. One is the companys capability to 济 managing the complexities of producing 发 quality software. The other is how the 展 company views software development in 的 general. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 64
  65. 65. 创 业 者 是 A discussion on adapting software development processes for the start-up is来 经 outside the scope of this presentation. The 济 focus will instead be on how the 发 entrepreneur should view software 展 development as a whole. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 65
  66. 66. 创 业 者 是 Without an appropriate mind set, the expectation will not be in sync with the来 经 developers reality. The result of which 济 should be obvious. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 66
  67. 67. 创 业 者 是 A conflict between vision and execution 经 rarely results in a positive outcome. To来 ensure a compatible outlook, identifying the 济 发 mental framework necessary to successfully navigate the development process will prove 展 helpful. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 67
  68. 68. 创 业 者 是 "Nothings ever easy" is a accurate statement that serves well as a constant reminder that来 经 no matter how simple a software project 济 sounds, it never is. As the project is defined, 发 there will be many attempts to discredit this 展 mantra. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 68
  69. 69. 创 业 者 是 High-level discussions with non-technical associates will ensure the most complex来 经 projects will appear basic. Simply generate 济 a feature list, hire a developer and the 发 throw up a website. Seems easy enough! 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 69
  70. 70. 创 业 者 是 The oversimplification of the project will continue during preliminary discussions来 经 with a development group where feedback 济 frequently consists of statements such as 发 "no problem" or "we have done similar 展 projects as this one." 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 70
  71. 71. 创 业 者 是 To be fair, the developers are not lying.来 经 They are merely stating that the project is 济 doable. But the devil truly is in the details. 发 Any significant project will not be quick or 展 easy. Expecting otherwise will result in considerable levels of frustration. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 71
  72. 72. 创 业 者 是 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT IS 经来 NOT MANUFACTURING! 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 72
  73. 73. 创 业 者 是 It is too common to see software development as an assembly line. The来 经 reality is that software development is 济 much closer to creating art than gadgets. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 73
  74. 74. 创 业 者 是 Understanding this concept will shed light 经 on why project time estimates appear to be来 济 pulled out of thin air. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 74
  75. 75. 创 业 者 是 It also will explain why a "few weeks" turns into a "few months." In manufacturing, the来 经 number of gadgets you can produce in a 济 month can be accurately estimated by the 发 ones produced last month. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 75
  76. 76. 创 业 者 是 For developers, each project though there may be similarities with past projects is来 经 unique. Ask an artist how long it will take 济 to produce a commissioned sculpture and 发 the response will be a general time frame. 展 的 The artist is not being evasive. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 76
  77. 77. 创 业 者 是 The exact amount of time it will take to product the final piece is unknown. When来 经 developers present project time estimates, 济 the entrepreneur should understand the 发 estimate is a best guess. Like the artist, the 展 software developer can only provide time frames. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 77
  78. 78. 创 业 者 However, unlike the artist, the software 是 developer must factor in external influences 经 such as changes in requirements technology来 济 innovations, and dependency on other 发 teammates to name a few. 展 Unrealistic expectations of project time line 的 estimations will result in needless aggravation. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 78
  79. 79. 创 业 者 是 The creation of software is a constant process of shaping the product until it来 经 accurately reflects the entrepreneurs vision. 济 As the leader, you will be focused on the 发 final product. Nevertheless, it is critical for 展 the vision to be broken down into easily manageable steps. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 79
  80. 80. 创 业 者 是 Unlike a large company where teams of product specialists create reams of来 经 specifications, a startup does not have that 济 luxury. To further complicate the process, 发 the product requirements will likely change 展 as the software is being developed. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 80
  81. 81. 创 业 者 是 This is the nature of an emerging business. A good development team will deploy many来 经 interim releases versus a few large ones. The 济 "mini-releases" allow the entrepreneur the 发 opportunity to verify the team is on the right 展 track. Thus, the software evolves to meet the 的 vision. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 81
  82. 82. 创 业 者 是 CONCLUSION来 经 济 The intent of this presentation is not to 发 paint a bleak picture of software development but rather to assist with 展 managing the unique challenges of 的 software development within a start-up. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 82
  83. 83. 创 业 者 By understanding how developers work, you 是 will be better equipped to roll with the 经 challenges that will undoubtedly be来 济 presented. With this pragmatic approach and 发 a good set of processes, creating software 展 will be extremely rewarding. Similar to the artists sculpture, the final product will not be 的 a gadget but a unique merger of function and art. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 83
  84. 84. 创 业 者 是 One example of successful software development I use is from a company where I来 经 am chairman. 济 发 The company is Modularis Inc. Here is an 展 example of how using the right tools and strategic partnering can ensure success: 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 84
  85. 85. 创 业 者 是 TATA India & Modularis USA: Forte to .NET Migration Case Study来 经 济 Client 发 展 Large US based pharmaceutical company 的 with offices world wide. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 85
  86. 86. 创 业 者 Business Scenario 是 •The regulatory activity planning and来 经 tracking system is a business critical 济 application for the customer. It is used as a 发 key system for managing product 展 registrations, supporting other business processes/activities, and serving as 的 subscription base for product dictionary data. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 86
  87. 87. 创 业 者 是 · The application had complex business logic and was developed using Forte tracking来 经 application. 济 · The client wanted to migrate the application 发 to .Net platform due to high cost of 展 ownership and withdrawal of Forte support by SUN 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 87
  88. 88. 创 业 者 Solution Highlights 是 •The project included re-development/migration来 经 of existing web application from sun’s Forte to 济 Microsoft’s .NET environment. The goal of this 发 project was to take the older version of source 展 code written in Forte UDS 5.01 and re-write the application in .NET using C#.Net for business 的 layer, code behind and ASP.Net for UI. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 88
  89. 89. 创 业 者 是 • The project used Accelerator tool from Modularis (TCS’s strategic partner) for 经 enabling automated code generation based来 on the existing data model. 济 发 Solution Benefits 展 • Automated code generation for business 的 layer using Modularis. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 89
  90. 90. 创 业 者 • Usage of this tool proved to be beneficial 是 in capturing of accurate business model and来 经 faster generation of code, so as to reduce 济 validation effort 发 •Migrated application had the same look 展 and feel as of the original application 的 •Overall effort reduction by 30-40% 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 90
  91. 91. 创 业 者 When you see somebody coming out of 是 school with an engineering degree, the most 经 important thing theyve got going for them is来 curiosity engineers-or technologists-basically 济 are curious people. Thats why youre in that 发 discipline. Youre trying to look into the 展 future. Youre surrounded, not only by fellow undergraduates, but also by graduate students 的 and professors; you are exposed to the future. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 91
  92. 92. 创 业 者 Amount of start funds needed. 是 Of the Inc. 500 founders, 36% had start-up来 经 capital of less than $20,000. 济 With approximately 75% of all new job 发 creation in the U.S. coming from small 展 businesses, the Inc. 500 is a true indicator 的 of the companies and industries that are driving the economy forward. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 92
  93. 93. 创 业 者 是 The role of entrepreneurship has evolved 经 significantly and is now seen as a requisite来 ingredient in the global economy 济 -generating employment, growth and 发 international competitiveness. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 93
  94. 94. 创 业 者 是 It’s never about the money.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 94
  95. 95. 创 业 者 是 What message does my life give?来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 95
  96. 96. 创 业 者 是 I believe that each of us has a purpose on this planet. It is our duty and来 经 responsibility to find that purpose and 济 apply it for the betterment of those 发 around us rather than merely for 展 ourselves. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 96
  97. 97. 创 业 者 是 Ultimately, we will be judged by how hard we worked to find that mission,来 经 how well we applied it in the service of 济 others, and how we ultimately made a 发 positive footprint on this planet by our 展 presence. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 97
  98. 98. 创 业 者 是 Never forget where you came from; be proud of your roots and your upbringing,来 经 for they helped shape who you are today 济 and keep you grounded. Find out what you 发 were meant to do, what you are really good 展 at, and make sure you work hard to be even better than that while helping all those with 的 whom you come in contact. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 98
  99. 99. 创 业 者 是 Finally, appreciate every moment you have, for you do not know when your last来 经 moment will arrive. 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 99
  100. 100. 创 业 者 是 Lessons from personnel experience.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 100
  101. 101. 创 业 者 是 Case study. One companies success taking来 经 technology out of MIT labs. 济 发 Lessons from personnel experience. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 101
  102. 102. 创 业 者 是 Changing how the world designs.来 经 济 Computer Aided Design CAD 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 102
  103. 103. 创 业 者 是 Bringing automation to manufacturing来 经 济 Computer Aided Manufacturing CAM 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 103
  104. 104. 创 业 者 是 From 5 founders to 150 people in 18 months.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 104
  105. 105. 创 业 者 是 The lessons I want to pass on to you and other entrepreneurs are about the need to develop a来 经 plan that matches your vision. Share the plan, 济 and that includes the company’s exit strategy, 发 with all employees. 展 Have meetings where all employees are able to 的 speak without fear of retaliation. Hold people accountable for their responsibilities. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 105
  106. 106. 创 业 者 是 Globalization is unstoppable. Even though it may be only in its early stages, it is already来 经 intrinsic to the world economy. We have to 济 live with it, recognize its advantages and 发 learn to manage it. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 106
  107. 107. 创 业 者 是 Globalization creates many more new jobs来 经 than it destroys, but in different sectors and 济 areas. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 107
  108. 108. 创 业 者 是 The global economy offers better来 经 opportunities to small and medium-sized 济 companies than they had in the past. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 108
  109. 109. 创 业 者 是 Entrepreneurs starting out in business, or those new to the workforce such as students, will来 经 hear a lot confusing management expressions 济 (which some call buzz words). The term 发 “innovation” will likely be at the top of the 展 list. Here are my thoughts to help you to understand what it means in terms of the 的 lessons to learn and to avoid. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 109
  110. 110. 创 业 者 I speak at many conferences. Most people think 是 that they are innovative thinkers until asked, “Who was at this conference last year, made来 经 notes, and never looked at them again?” Half of 济 the people admit to this. Don’t fall into this trap. 发 Listen for the main ideas and write them down, 展 along with questions that rise in your head and the actions you will take. If I or other speakers 的 say something profound, write down the quote 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 110
  111. 111. 创 业 者 是 Innovation is more than technology.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 111
  112. 112. 创 业 者 是 Creativity is about finding new and original 经 ideas while innovation processes manage the来 济 best ideas into action. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 112
  113. 113. 创 业 者 是 It is best to consider innovation in terms of来 经 “innovative thinking”. 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 113
  114. 114. 创 业 者 是 Innovative companies have two things in 经 common: everyone in the business knows来 how to manage their ideas, and they 济 发 create a climate that is open to new ideas. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 114
  115. 115. 创 业 者 是 Innovative thinking is driven by your 经 ability to manage ideas.来 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 115
  116. 116. 创 业 者 是 Learn to be a creative rather than a 经 critical thinker来 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 116
  117. 117. 创 业 者 是 If an organization is not pursing 经 innovations, it is then pursuing来 mediocrity and complacency. 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 117
  118. 118. 创 业 者 是 Case Study. From monitoring the astronauts life signs to real world applications. Lesson来 经 from personnel experience. 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 118
  119. 119. 创 业 者 是 Bringing the team together.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 119
  120. 120. 创 业 者 是 Handling competition.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 120
  121. 121. 创 业 者 是 Mistakes we made.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 121
  122. 122. 创 业 者 Warmed by a genuine sense of satisfaction, 是 we are in a position to look toward the future and ask, "What next?" In answering this来 经 question, we should be aware of two 济 characteristics that will determine how well 发 we are able to meet the challenge of 展 innovation in our 21st century world: how adept we are in anticipating the future, and 的 how wise we are in shaping it to our ends. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 122
  123. 123. 创 业 者 是 These three conceptual innovation parameters – knowledge as capital,来 经 partnerships as transformational, and design 济 as intent – are the heart and soul of what 发 drives todays S, E & T Investment. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 123
  124. 124. 创 业 者 In anticipating the future, we must recognize 是 that civilization is on the brink of a new industrial world order. The big winners in the来 经 increasingly fierce global scramble for 济 supremacy will not be those who simply make commodities faster and cheaper than 发 the competition. They will be those who 展 develop talent, techniques and tools so advanced that there is no competition. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 124
  125. 125. 创 业 者 是 If our goal is to instill entrepreneurship in those we educate, then encouraging them to来 经 use their imaginations, to be visionaries, 济 and to think creatively is critical. We must 发 teach them to think against the grain; swim 展 upstream; violate the norm. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 125
  126. 126. 创 业 者 是 Albert Einstein, believed that "imagination" was the key to his work.来 经 He said, "Imagination is more important 济 than knowledge." Imagination in the 发 hand of entrepreneurs brings the ability to 展 connect the results of research to society, i.e., to envision. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 126
  127. 127. 创 业 者 是 The ability to understand the larger context in which we work – the sector, the society,来 经 and even the time in history, the moment in 济 civilization, is crucial to any form of 发 entrepreneurial leadership. 展 Learning to read the larger context provides 的 a path for imagining the future. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 127
  128. 128. 创 业 者 是 Part of our task is to mentor others in scanning the big picture for the relevant来 经 signals. We must develop acumen for such 济 thinking in our nations students. We cannot 发 graduate talented young professionals with 展 supremely specialized expertise that exists in a vacuum. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 128
  129. 129. 创 业 者 是 The ability to read the subtle signals will often make the difference between a nation来 经 being the industrial leader or laggard. 济 Reading the tea leaves, so to speak, is not 发 just for mystics anymore. Its a job for 展 mentors, managers, entrepreneurs, and every kind of leader. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 129
  130. 130. 创 业 者 是 The astute "readers of the context" and "imaginers of possible futures" have proven来 经 to us that envisioning is a worthwhile 济 endeavor. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 130
  131. 131. 创 业 者 是 Envisioning combined with risk-taking is a supercharged combination on the来 经 personal level as well as on the level of 济 the economy. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 131
  132. 132. 创 业 者 是 Something new and exciting is happening in the 21st century that can help us foster this来 经 capability. The borders between discovery, 济 learning, and innovation are blurring. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 132
  133. 133. 创 业 者 是 Increasingly, scientists and engineers, educators, and entrepreneurs are working来 经 across many different disciplines, fields 济 and even sectors to make the connections 发 that lead to deeper insights and more 展 creative solutions. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 133
  134. 134. 创 业 者 是 We look ahead to exquisite but practical improvements in everything from drug来 经 delivery systems to renewable energy 济 resources. I like to think of this as "creative 发 transformation" - the flip side of the coin of 展 "creative destruction." 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 134
  135. 135. 创 业 者 是 Focusing on creative transformation can 经 help us act intelligently as we move ahead.来 It can cultivate a benevolent approach to 济 发 robust change. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 135
  136. 136. 创 业 者 是 The question for us is: how do we mobilize such an effort? A critical founding stone is来 经 to ingrain early on in education that failure 济 is a part of the learning process – if students 发 fear failure they will surely avoid changing 展 the status quo. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 136
  137. 137. 创 业 者 是 As students move on, we need to educate them beyond their technical expertise. The来 经 best technical training must be combined 济 with understanding how that expertise fits 发 into the larger societal environment, into 展 our overriding national goals, and indeed, into the goals of other nations. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 137
  138. 138. 创 业 者 是 Today, the trend in science and engineering research, technology development and来 经 business operations is much more cross- 济 boundary centric. Many disciplines are 发 converging in surprising ways to generate 展 the new knowledge needed for the increasingly complex challenges we face as a 的 society. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 138
  139. 139. 创 业 者 是 Todays graduates must be capable of integrating knowledge from a variety of来 经 disciplines and working with industry- 济 partners to advance that knowledge into 发 innovations. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 139
  140. 140. 创 业 者 Engineers, scientists, educators, entrepreneurs, 是 and workers at every level must be able to see functionally beyond the boundaries of their own来 经 fields. In the past, when the tools for discovery 济 and application were rudimentary, innovative 发 progress across the frontier of science and engineering was possible only by parsing the 展 frontier into doable pieces that we called disciplines. But todays increasingly exotic tools 的 allow a more holistic attack along the frontier. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 140
  141. 141. 创 业 者 是 If we want to change the way the workforce thinks, and increase its creativity, innovation,来 经 and boundary-crossing abilities, we must 济 ingrain these ideas, while students are on the 发 path to becoming the workforce we need them 展 to be. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 141
  142. 142. 创 业 者 Together, we need to educate today’s 是 students and tomorrows future entrepreneurs 经 to think strategically and holistically. They来 济 need to be able to read patterns and trends 发 from the larger context to envision the future. 展 And, in particular, integrative, cross boundary-educated, visionary engineers and 的 scientists are critical components to success in our age of complexity. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 142
  143. 143. 创 业 者 是 In the larger sense, innovation depends upon a synergistic set of interactions that includes来 经 not only science, engineering and technology, 济 but social, political and economic interactions 发 as well. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 143
  144. 144. 创 业 者 是 We need new arrangements that foster the kind of integration that supports innovation,来 经 and the social and economic well being it 济 enables. 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 144
  145. 145. 创 业 者 是 If innovation is at the heart of progress, then we need to understand the skills that foster the来 经 capacity for risk taking, for imagination, and a 济 tolerance for unfamiliar and uncertain territory. 发 That in turn will mean that our institutions must evolve to cultivate these skills. 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 145
  146. 146. 创 业 者 是 Innovation and competitive entrepreneurship will always remain an enduring quest, an on-来 经 going process. There is no peak that we can 济 reach that will assure continuing success. It is 发 not a matter of sticking to the task for the 展 long haul. It is the "haul." 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 146
  147. 147. 创 业 者 是 Entrepreneurs will have to be effective collaborators, innovators, risk takers, and来 经 communicators, working across shifting 济 boundaries, and embracing diversity. They 发 will need to know the human and social 展 dimensions of technology. Our social and 的 economic progress depends upon it. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 147
  148. 148. 创 业 者 I often get asked by college students whether 是 they should start their own businesses right 经 out of college or whether they should join an来 济 established company. The reality is that at 发 that stage in your life and career, there are no 展 wrong choices. No matter what you choose, you are going to learn a lot and get valuable 的 experience. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 148
  149. 149. 创 业 者 是 I want to reemphasize that there are no fundamentally wrong paths out of college.来 经 You can create your company. Fail or 济 succeed, you will learn a lot. You can go 发 into management consulting. Another 展 alternative I discuss is to join a startup, especially an early stage startup. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 149
  150. 150. 创 业 者 是 In startups there is so much work, that if you step up to the plate you will be given来 经 opportunities you might never have in a 济 larger company despite your youth and 发 inexperience. It’s a great way to learn hands 展 on execution. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 150
  151. 151. 创 业 者 是 Entrepreneurs view work as a means to an end -- to be their own boss. We measure来 经 success in terms of achievements. 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 151
  152. 152. 创 业 者 是 Your presence this evening symbolizes the global nature of Entrepreneurship.来 经 济 发 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 152
  153. 153. 创 业 者 Today’s state of emerging business has been 是 described as "The Golden Age of Small 经 Business." Small businesses are becoming来 increasingly competitive against their larger 济 发 counterparts. The global economy has seen the emergence of new industries that have 展 captured the attention of consumers all over 的 the world, and has allowed resourceful entrepreneurs to capitalize on these markets. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 153
  154. 154. 创 业 者 是 No innovative product was ever invented without good science and risk-taking. By来 经 its very definition, science is a risky 济 business, and no amount of money will 发 ever eliminate the need for scientists who 展 go out on a limb to develop products never seen before. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 154
  155. 155. 创 业 者 是 Copying someone else’s product is not innovation, and adding something to来 经 someone else’s product is not innovation. 济 Bill Gates started out with an idea, not a 发 billion dollars. 展 的 未 For China Tsinghua University
  156. 156. 创 业 者 是 During the last 100 years, we have created more wealth, reduced poverty more, and来 经 increased life expectancy more than in the 济 previous 100,000 years. That happened 发 because of entrepreneurs, thinkers, creators 展 and innovators. 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 156
  157. 157. 创 业 者 是 And that happened because of people like you entrepreneurs, thinkers, creators,来 经 innovators—who had new ideas, who 济 traveled geo-graphical distances and, more 发 important, mental distances to create new 展 things and who saw to it that old traditions, which would have stopped new creations, 的 would not stop them for long. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 157
  158. 158. 创 业 者 I am 70 today. But I do not forget the little 是 boy that I was in Chicago. I was influenced 经 by my parents who taught me how to be a来 trusted friend. I still believe in family and 济 发 friends. I still want to make good. I still dont mind going up against those younger 展 and smarter than me. I still believe hard 的 work will not fail me. And I still believe in people willing to think the same way. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 158
  159. 159. 创 业 者 是 I am confident that each of you here today will make many contributions to the来 经 development of strong relationships 济 between our two countries, and will shape a 发 future that is challenging and rewarding, a 展 future that provides you every opportunity to create the life – and the world-you 的 imagine. 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 159
  160. 160. 创 业 者 All of you carry the excitement and the 是 responsibility to make it happen. 经 The contribution of entrepreneurs is to tie the来 济 whole package of ideas, knowledge, workforce 发 and institutions together into a productive engine of economic growth. Thats not only a 展 big job-but a worthy goal and I am certain that 的 you here at Tsinghua University can carry this through! 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 160
  161. 161. 创 业 者 是 联系方式: Jerry R. Mitchell 杰瑞 · 米切尔 经来 电话 : 001 630-305-0005 济 发 Email: jerry@jerryRmitchellandassoc.com 展 网页: www.jerryRmitchell.com 博客: www.JerryMitchellBlog.com 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 161
  162. 162. 创 业 者 是 I hope Ive left some time for questions?来 经 济 发 希望还有时间请各位提些问题 展 的 未 03/16/13 For China Tsinghua University 162

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