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# Audience response methods

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• Christina
• Christina
• Christina
• Christina
• Jim
• Jim
• Jim
• Jim
• General idea:Overall feelings were neutral. likes: anonymity, discussion, hands on dislike: cost, wanted to be lectured toMethods: the more teacher led, the more students enjoyed
• JeremyConundrum: instructors want more engagement students say clickers increased engagement student perceptions were neutral
• JeremyWe are going to bring you through three of the major models of ARS useThese were each implemented in the Chem class
• FOCUS ON WHEN WE USED THIS/WHYWhen students had decent background on a concept Mainly to refine concept and move on Allowed an expert student to assist other students (though it could sometimes throw off correct students) **We remember best what we teach othersWhen there was a mix of concrete facts and abstract concepts **Allows instructor to hear thought process when consolidating a concept &amp; jump in to lecture
• Since students in introductory courses often try to learn through memorization, questions should be aimed beyond the remember/knowledge domain.
• Question &amp; a few minutes of wait timeCollect individual results (often not projected)Group discussion – defend your choice, talk through disagreementsRe-poll (most often projected)Instructor explanation majority correct: short explanation majority incorrect: lengthy explanation
• This one will go through a full cycle – question, individual response, group discussion/response, explanation
• The basic idea is that you will understand the concept of parabolic motion and be able to apply its impact on travel time in a given scenarioAllow a few minutes to consider the answerCollect poll results, break students into groups for 2 minutesReconvene for second poll and resultsCORRECT ANSWER: B(t)Trip = 2* square root of (2h/g) The (h) of the trajectory is less, so the (t)trip is lesser
• Describe equation and variables and then click to show explanation.
• CORRECT ANSWER: B(t)Trip = 2* square root of (2h/g) The (h) of the trajectory is less, so the (t)trip is lesser
• This is another example of a concept test in the liberal arts
• Must understand all of the terms and synthesizethem contextuallySex labeling – that’s men’s work or women’s work overt in title policeman, stewardess covert in stereotypes – nurses are women, doctors are menSupply-side is worker behaviorDemand-side is employer behaviorCORRECT ANSWER: C
• An example of a concept test in health sciences / nursing
• This question requires the student to not only know the terms, but to apply the appropriate methodology to a case.CORRECT ANSWER: A
• FOCUS ON WHY WE USED THISDifferent from Peer Instrution in that more time is spent in groups and whole class discussion. This method also prefers demonstrations or short experiments over straight lecture to enhance opportunity for experiential learningWhen students had significant background &amp; could really dig into a new experience
• Compared to Peer Instruction it adds more layers of social constructivismNo individual responses first, rather students work together to answer &amp; explore knowledge gaps.After responses there is a whole group discussion – teacher facilitates only
• Students move up Bloom’s:Comprehend concepts / refine miscomprehensionConnect parts of a whole (many forces at work, e.g.)Analyze a problem using related concepts – explore, discuss, etc.Solve a problem using related concepts – final step
• This one will go through a full cycle – question, group discussion/response, whole room discussion, demo/explanation
• CORRECT ANSWER: BBreak into small groups to discussPoll after discussion and show results
• After discussing you would provide a demonstration or lecture to clarify any misconceptions or misapplications of a concept
• You can see, especially in the slow motion, that his motion is linear (not curved) and continues in a straight line (that is, not tangential) from the point of departure
• Jim
• Jeremy, Jim, Christina
• ### Audience response methods

1. 1. AudienceResponseSystemsLESSONS LEARNED AND APPLICATIONS
2. 2. Order of the SessionIntroduction to audience response systems (ARS)Presentation on use of ARS in a low enrollmentchemistry classWorkshop of several ARS models◦ Peer instruction◦ Assessing to Learn (A2L)◦ Contingent teachingGroup work and questions
3. 3. Introduction to audienceresponse systems (ARS)Audience Response System: uses software andhardware to question (poll) a large group ofparticipants.Many systems collect data that can be used forassessment and data analysis.
4. 4. Audience ResponseSystemsiClickereInstructionQwizdomPoll EverywhereTurning Technologies
5. 5. Company Cost License ModeliClicker \$45 per clicker- Clicker(Models vary)Students (or departments)purchase clicker. Instructordownloads software.eInstruction \$20 per clicker or \$1500 forclicker set- (models vary)Students (or departmentspurchase clickers. Instructordownloads Software.Qwizdom \$70 per clicker,\$500 forinstructor software or \$1800for clicker set – (models vary)Students purchase a clicker ordepartment purchases aclicker set to share.Poll Everywhere Free- \$14 per student/\$349+per semester for instructorStudents (or departments)purchase a license andstudents bring a mobile deviceto the classroom. The entirepoll is web-based.Turning Technologies \$15 for one year license/\$20for two year licenseStudents (or departments)purchase a ResponseWarelicense. Students can use anydevice that can connect to theinternet. Software isbackwards compatible.
6. 6. Results - Features to AvoidHard to use software(proprietary format)Software that upgradeswithout sending anotificationLarge devicesDevices that are notbackwards compatibleDevices without adisplayClickers that are notdiverse in outputoptions (e.g. inability tosend responses inscientific notation)
7. 7. Why we choseResponseWareAccessible customerserviceOn-site training fromcompanyEasy to use softwareBackwards compatiblesoftwareLow cost of entryFree software and updatesfor instructorsFacilitated a “Clicker-free”campusHelped students utilizemobile devices foreducationDid not limit the amountof usersWorks with Blackboard
8. 8. ImplementationRESPONSEWARE IN A LOW ENROLLMENTCHEMISTRY COURSE
9. 9. ResponseWare CHE 410CHE 410 -- Inorganic Chemistry“Largest class ever at QU for this course” -- 14students! (12 Majors, 1 Minor, 1 HS Major)lecture only coursestudents used laptops or phones with internet toanswer questionsattempted each of the methods which will bedemonstrated in this presentation to comparestudent achievement and interest
10. 10. Classroom Responses:Mid-term Exam Results
11. 11. Classroom Responses:Mid-term Exam to FinalExam
12. 12. Classroom Responses:Final Exam ResultsStudents achieved an 88.4% correct response ratefor final exam questions with a similar in-classversion.Students achieved a 71.4% correct response ratefor final exam questions that were new or were nottaught with clickers.Questions remain: How much is because it wasfamiliar? How much is because it was “easier”?How much is because it was “recent”?
13. 13. Student EvaluationInformationWhat is your general attitude towards the use ofAudience Response Systems in this course? Pre-course Survey: 3.36(5) (neutral to somewhat positive) Post-course Survey: 3.00(5) (neutral)What was your preferred style of teaching? Contingency Teaching (3.50) Peer Instruction (3.29) Group Discussion (3.00)
14. 14. Student EvaluationInformationWhat type of impact did Audience Response Systemshave on your level of active engagement in a typicalmeeting of this course?4.29(5)1: decreased involvement greatly, 5: increased involvement greatlyTo what extent did you find Audience Response Systemuse to be enjoyable to use in this course?3.43(5)
15. 15. WorkshopARS METHODS
16. 16. ARS models•Peer instruction•Assessing to Learn (A2L)•Contingent teaching
17. 17. ARS & Learning TheoriesObjectivist Constructivist(Lecture) Contingent Peer A2L (Experiential)Teaching Instruction
18. 18. Peer instructionA method built around this structure:1. ConceptTest / question2. Individual response3. Group discussion & response4. Teacher lecturehttp://mazur.harvard.edu/research/detailspage.php?rowid=8
19. 19. ConceptTestConceptualBloom’s: comprehension & applicationShortMultiple ChoiceIntermediate difficulty
20. 20. QuestionIndividualResponseGroupDiscussionResponseExplanation
21. 21. Concept Test 1PHYSICS 101: MOTION IN TWODIMENSIONS
22. 22. A battleship simultaneously fires two shells at enemyships. If the shells follow the parabolic trajectoriesshown, which ship gets hit first?A. Ship AB. Ship BC. They will both be hit at the same timeD. Need more information
23. 23. Explanation
24. 24. A battleship simultaneously fires two shells at enemyships. If the shells follow the parabolic trajectoriesshown, which ship gets hit first?A. Ship AB. Ship BC. They will both be hit at the same timeD. Need more information
25. 25. Concept Test 2SOCIOLOGY OF GENDER: SEX LABELINGOCCUPATIONS
26. 26. Does the sex labeling of occupations affectsupply-side gender discrimination, demand-side gender discrimination, or both?A. Supply-side onlyB. Demand-side onlyC. BothD. Neither
27. 27. Concept Test 3GASTRO NURSING: PAIN EXAMINATION
28. 28. Mr. Lim was admitted to the hospital due to on-and-off pain that started yesterday. Whichmethod must Nurse Max perform to identifyareas of tenderness and swelling?A. Light palpationB. Deep palpationC. Direct percussionD. Direct fist percussionE. Indirect auscultation
29. 29. Assessing to Learn (A2L)A method built around this structure:1. ConceptTest / question2. Group discussion & response3. Whole class discussion4. Teacher lecture /demonstrationhttp://www.bedu.com/Publications/UMASS.pdf
30. 30. QuestionGroup WorkResponseClassDiscussionTeacherExplanationor Demo
31. 31. Goals of A2LSolve usingconceptsAnalyze usingconceptsIntegrate relatedconceptsExplore naïve concepts
32. 32. Concept Test 1PHYSICS 101: ROTATIONAL MOTION
33. 33. A child is standing on a merry-go-round holding a rock. If therock is dropped at the instant shown, which path most nearlyrepresents the path of the rock as seen from above?A. Path (1)B. Path (2)C. Path (3)D. Path (4)E. Path (5)
34. 34. Whole Class DiscussionDiscuss reasoningQuestions to help rejecting incorrect options◦ What would the motion be if the child kept holding therock?◦ What would have to happen to cause the rock’s motion tobecome perpendicular to its current path?◦ What might the path of the rock look like to the child?
35. 35. Demonstration
36. 36. Contingent teachingImagine:you are a student in my Inorganic Chemistry classyou were asked to read the chapter about acidsand basesclass begins as follows:
37. 37. Question 1Under80% correctRemediationLectureRetest &Question 2Over80% correctQuestion 2Remediation orQuestion 3
38. 38. Branching LectureACID-BASE ANDDONOR-ACCEPTORCHEMISTRY
39. 39. Which of the following is anexample of an Arrhenius acid?1) HCl in acetic acid2) HCl in water3) both 1 & 24) neither 1 nor 2
40. 40. History:Antoione Lavoisier (~1776): oxide of N, P, SJustis von Liebig (1838): compound with Hreplaceable by metalSvante Arrhenius (1884): forms H+ in water
41. 41. DefinitionsJohannes Nicolaus Brønsted & Thomas MartinLowry (independently in 1923): proton donorGilbert Lewis (1923): electron pair acceptorChristopher Kelk Ingold & Robert Robinson (1932):electrophile (electron pair acceptor)Hermann Lux & Håkon Flood (1939): oxide ionacceptorMikhail Usanovich (1939): electron acceptor
42. 42. Which of the following is anexample of a Brønsted-Lowryacid?1) HCl in acetic acid2) HCl in water3) both 1 & 24) neither 1 nor 2
43. 43. Brønsted-Lowry acid-basechemistryGeneral Chemistry textbooks focus on this definition of an acid and a base.Acids are proton donors.Bases are proton acceptors.Protons are hydrogen ions. (Note: 99.985 % of the natural isotopes ofhydrogen are H-1. Making H+ out of it results in ONLY a proton present. Thisdoes NOT make acid-base chemistry the same as nuclear chemistry!)e.g., acetic acid is a BASE if it is in the presence of hydrogen chloride (a strongeracid):CH3COOH + HCl ⇌ CH3COOH2+ + Cl-What if you aren’t working in a solvent system with H+?
44. 44. Which of the following is anexample of a Lewis acid?1) BF3 in the presence of F-(to form BF4-)2) HCl (g) in the presence of NH3 (g)3) both 1 & 24) neither 1 nor 2
45. 45. Which of the following is anexample of a Lewis acid-basereaction?1) Ca with S to form CaS2) Na with Cl2 to form NaCl3) both 1 & 24) neither 1 nor 2
46. 46. When to “step in” and“teach”Questions are of increasingly complexityLecture/remediate when 20%+ incorrectOnce objective met, question on next topic
47. 47. Think-Pair-ShareIndividually:◦ Pick a course and a topic◦ Match the topic to an approachIn pairs:◦ Share chosen approach◦ Design 1 or 2 questionsShare:◦ An example question◦ Describe thought process