UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLOMAESTRIA EN EDUCACION MENCION DIDACTICAS DEL IDIOMA INGLES Curso : Filosofía y Epistemología DEMOCRITUS Lic. Lupe Rivera Gonzales Docente . Dr. Wilson Lozano Diaz
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS1.- Which the theory of Democritus was? He was an influential pre-Socratic philosopher and pupil of Leucippus, who formulated an atomic theory for the cosmos. Democritus is recognized as the earliest proponent of the concept of atomism.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 2.- What motivated Democritus to realized their trips and that places knew? Democritus expense the inheritance that his father had left knowing different countries was motivated by his thirst of the knowledge. After returning to his native land he occupied himself with natural philosophy. He traveled to Asia, and the India and Ethiopia He traveled along Greece to acquire a knowledge of its culture
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 3.- How the atomists explained the philosophy and the science? Democritus followed in the tradition of Leucippus. They were both strict determinists and materialists, they believed that everything was been of natural laws . The history of modern science has shown that mechanistic questions lead to scientific knowledge, especially in physics, while the teleological question can be useful in biology, in adaptationist reasoning at providing proximate explanations, though the deeper evolutionary explanations are thoroughly mechanistic. The atomists looked for mechanistic questions, and gave mechanistic answers. Their successors until the Renaissance became occupied with the teleological question, which arguably hindered progress.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 4.- What did Democritus propose about the Atoms? The theory of Democritus and Leucippus held that everything is composed of "atoms", which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; that between atoms were in the space; that atoms are indestructible; have always been, and always will be, in motion; that there are an infinite number of atoms, and kinds of atoms, which differ in shape, and size. Of the mass of atoms,
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS5.- Who was the first philosopher in developing the theory of the atomism? Leucippus was widely the first philosopher that develop the theory of atomism,
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS6.- In what Democritus based the Void hypothesis ?These atoms always exist in the hole, subjected to a movement thatis they consustancial. Therefore, all that exists is the atoms and thehole. The introduction of the existence of the hole is a novelty withregard to Empédocles and Anaxágoras and that it collides frontlywith the negation of the hole (not to be) that Parménides demanded.Now then, without the existence of the hole it is impossible to explainthe movement, for what necessarily has to exist. The atoms move inthat hole on-line straight line in a principle, but, for strictlymechanical causes, some of them leave their trajectory and theycollide against other, to those that deviate, colliding the groupagainst other atoms, causing the aggregation in groups of atomsevery bigger time, and that they will give place to the constitution ofthe objects just as us we know them.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 7.- What did Democritus think about the knowledge? The knowledge of truth according to Democritus is difficult, since the perception through the senses is subjective. As from the same senses derive different impressions for each individual, then through the sense-impressions we cannot judge the truth.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 8.- Why did he refer to the knowledge like genuine? The second kind of knowledge is the “legitimate” , can be achieved through the intellect, in other words, all the sense-data from the “illegitimate” must be elaborated through reasoning. In this way one can get away from the false perception of the “illegitimate” knowledge and grasp the truth through the inductive reasoning.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 9.- How many types of Knowledge did Democritus mention? There are two kinds of knowing, the one he calls “legitimate” (gnesie: genuine) and the other “bastard or illegitimate” ( skotie: obscure)
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS10.- What thought had Democritus about the equality? The ethics and politics of Democritus come to us mostly in the form of maxims. He says that "Equality is everywhere noble," but he is not encompassing enough to include women or slaves in this sentiment.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 11.- What Democritus thought about the Goodness? He believed in the Goodness came more from practice and discipline than from innate human nature. He believed that one should distance oneself from the wicked, stating that such association increases disposition to vice. The anger, while difficult to control, must be mastered in order for one to be rational.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS12.- What idea had Democritus about the poverty? The poverty in a democracy is better than prosperity under tyrants, for the same reason one is to prefer liberty over slavery. Those in power should "take it upon themselves to lend to the poor and to aid them and to favor them, then is there pity and no isolation but companionship and mutual defense and concord among the citizens and other good things ."
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 13.- What observations made about of the mathematics? .Democritus was among the first to observe that a cone or pyramid has one- third the volume of a cylinder or prism respectively with the same base and height. Also, a cone divided in a plane parallel to its base produces two surfaces.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 14.- What thought had Democritus about the first humans? Democritus thought that the first humans lived an anarchic and animal sort of life, going out to forage individually and living off the most palatable herbs and the fruit which grew wild on the trees. They were driven together into societies for fear of wild animals, he said. He believed that these early people had no language, but that they gradually began to articulate their expressions, establishing symbols for every sort of object, and in this manner came to understand with each other.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 15.-Which the theory was of the Earth and the cosmos? Democritus held that the Earth was round, and stated that originally the universe was composed of nothing but tiny atoms churning in chaos, until they collided together to form larger units—including the earth and everything on it. He surmised that there are many worlds, some growing, some decaying; some with no sun or moon, some with several. He held that every world has a beginning and an end, and that a world could be destroyed by collision with another world.