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Discourse analysis is used to provide a
linguistic description of the interaction which
goes on in EFL classrooms.
It was used for many reasons:
- Using authentic and naturally-occurring data
as a source
- It establishes in the process new insights
into the sequencing of patterns of interaction.
What are the predominant patterns of
classroom interaction between teachers and
students in EFL classrooms?
Are the interactions teacher-dominated or
How are such patterns affected by genders?
The classes were single-gender, boys being
taught by male teachers and girls by female
The classes were observed and audio-taped
using a MP3 player.
The data collector was present in the
classroom as a non-participant observer.
Each class period involved:
Covering homework material
Teaching grammatical points, a reading
passage, vocabulary items or a conversation
Listening to a text either as a whole-class
activity or as a pair work
Data Analysis Procedure
- In the teacher talk were such utterances as
- Some categories were too general to depict
subtle distinctions in the patterns of classroom
interaction between teachers and students
- During the analyzing the interaction between
the teachers and the students some utterances
were run into which were not analyzable using
the framework proposed
A large number of discourse acts were
present in Teacher-Student Talk.
Some discourse acts have been added to
The interaction between the students
reflected the use of variety of discourse acts.
There was not much difference between
male and female teachers regarding their
patterns of interaction with their students.
There is difference in ‘Criticism’ because it
was present in female teachers’ talk and
absent in male teachers’ talk.
Both male and female students made use of
the same discourse acts in their interaction
with their teachers.
The interaction patterns between the
participants in all three types of talk showed
These interactions sharing some
commonalities with the interaction taking
place in natural contexts occurring outside
The teachers sould take up the major
portion of all talk occurring in the classroom
There is not much difference between male
and female teachers.
Female teachers were more supportive and
encouraging, providing the students with a
positive evaluation more often than male