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Jennifer ‘Jannah’ Contreras
(LECTURER)
Learning Outcomes
Appreciate individual rights to privacy and
related issues
Understand the importance of information and
...
Privacy and Issues
• PRIVACY is the ability of an individual or group to
seclude themselves or information about
themselve...
Privacy
• Privacy is a fundamental human right and a
cornerstone of a democratic society. With the
• development of new in...
10-5
Privacy
• Computer ethics provide guidelines for
computer use
• Ethics issues
– Privacy
– Accuracy
– Property
– Access
10-6
Large Databases
• Data collected daily
• Data gatherers
– Information resellers or information brokers
– Information ...
10-7
Private Networks
• Employers monitor
email
– Legally done
– Snoopware Software
• Online services right to
censor cont...
10-8
Internet and Web
• Illusion of anonymity
– Not concerned about privacy when surfing the
Internet
– Not concerned abou...
Security
• Information security means protecting
information and information systems from
unauthorized access, use, disclo...
Difference
• Information security is concerned with the
confidentiality, integrity and availability of data
regardless of ...
Security
• Governments, military, corporations, financial
institutions, hospitals, and private businesses
amass a great de...
10-12
Computer Criminals
• Employees
• Outside users
• Hackers and crackers
• Organized crime
• Terrorists
Computer Crime and Measures of Security
• Computer related crime
The use of a computer is integral to committing the
offen...
Computer Crime and Measures of Security
• Internet crime
Refers to crimes which the use of the internet is a key
feature a...
Computer Crime and Measures of Security
• High tech crime
High tech crime refers to criminal activities that emphasizes
on...
10-16
Computer Crime
• Malicious Programs
– Viruses
– Worms
– Trojan horse
• Denial of service
(DoS)
• Internet Scams
• Th...
10-17
Other Hazards
• Natural hazards
– Fires & floods
– Winds
– Hurricanes
– Tornadoes
– Earthquakes
• Technological fail...
Measures of Security
What can we do to protect ourselves from the above crimes?
There is a list of actions that we can tak...
Measures of Security
• Anti–virus software
Since we use e-mail and nearly all of us will download
executable software from...
Measures of Security
• Firewall
It is good practice to install a ‘firewall’ because many
hackers run programs that randoml...
Measures of Security
• Backup
It is good practice to do backups regularly.
Daily, weekly or monthly, depending on how acti...
Measures of Security
• Spyware
Spyware is a new kind of malicious computer program
which is automatically installed when w...
What is Ergonomics?
• Ergonomics is a discipline that involves
arranging the environment to fit the person
in When ergonom...
What is Ergonomics?
• Today, however, the word is used to describe
the science of "designing the job to fit the
worker, no...
What is Ergonomics?
• Following ergonomic principles helps
reduce stress and eliminate many
potential injuries and disorde...
What is Ergonomics?
10-27
More on Ergonomics
• Mental Health
– Noise
– Electronic monitoring
• Technostress
– Stress associated
with computer ...
Mental and Physical Health
• During the agricultural age, working tools are the
spade and shovels. When the mechanical age...
Mental and Physical Health
• Physical stressors include repetitive motions such as those
caused by typing and prolong use ...
Basic Green PC
• A green PC is especially designed to minimize
power consumption
• Green PCs use less power than normal PC...
Greener Computer Experience
• Go Small - A laptop consumes five
times less energy than a desktop PC. We
now have laptops t...
10-32
The Environment
10-33
Personal Responsibility
• Conserve
• Recycle
• Educate
Greener Computer Experience
• Look for the Energy Star – Choose PCs that
qualify for the Energy Star. For a PC to wear the...
Greener Computer Experience
• Go Multicore - Designers of processors have been
working to produce processors that can redu...
Greener Computer Experience
• Recycle It - On average, most users buy a new
PC every three years. That's a relatively shor...
Personal Responsibility
• As individuals, we all have responsibility
when we use the Internet. O’Reilly, in his
book calle...
Thank you!
Any Questions?
REFERENCES
• Books:
• 1. Diane M. Coyle, Computers Are Your Future, Complete, 10/E, Prentice Hall, 2009. ISBN-10:
• 013504...
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Lecture 8 privacy, security, ergonomics and the environment

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Lecture 8 privacy, security, ergonomics and the environment

  1. 1. Jennifer ‘Jannah’ Contreras (LECTURER)
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes Appreciate individual rights to privacy and related issues Understand the importance of information and computer security Define Computer Crime and discuss measures of security that are available Explain Ergonomics and its importance Discuss the importance of mental and physical health of computer users Appreciate the need for green PC 2 At the end of this lesson, Students will be able to:
  3. 3. Privacy and Issues • PRIVACY is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively • The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share basic common themes. • Privacy is sometimes related to anonymity, the wish to remain unnoticed or unidentified in the public realm.
  4. 4. Privacy • Privacy is a fundamental human right and a cornerstone of a democratic society. With the • development of new information and communication technologies, the ability of the state and • the private sector to collect, record and "mine" personal information has grown exponentially.
  5. 5. 10-5 Privacy • Computer ethics provide guidelines for computer use • Ethics issues – Privacy – Accuracy – Property – Access
  6. 6. 10-6 Large Databases • Data collected daily • Data gatherers – Information resellers or information brokers – Information profiles are created • Concerns – Identify theft – Mistaken identity
  7. 7. 10-7 Private Networks • Employers monitor email – Legally done – Snoopware Software • Online services right to censor content – Screen and reject messages – Terminate user accounts
  8. 8. 10-8 Internet and Web • Illusion of anonymity – Not concerned about privacy when surfing the Internet – Not concerned about privacy when sending e- mail • History file • Cookies – Traditional – Ad network or adware cookies
  9. 9. Security • Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction
  10. 10. Difference • Information security is concerned with the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data regardless of the form the data may take: electronic, print, or other forms. • Computer security can focus on ensuring the availability and correct operation of a computer system without concern for the information stored or processed by the computer.
  11. 11. Security • Governments, military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals, and private businesses amass a great deal of confidential information about their employees, customers, products, research, and financial status. • Most of this information is now collected, processed and stored on electronic computers and transmitted across networks to other computers.
  12. 12. 10-12 Computer Criminals • Employees • Outside users • Hackers and crackers • Organized crime • Terrorists
  13. 13. Computer Crime and Measures of Security • Computer related crime The use of a computer is integral to committing the offence. Examples are offences such as computer- related forgery (where false data are put forward as authentic) and computer related fraud (the fraudulent interference with or manipulation of data to cause property loss). • Computer crime This is a general label for offences in which a computer is the object of the offence or he tool for its commission. • E-crime A general label for offences committed using an electronic data storage or communications device.
  14. 14. Computer Crime and Measures of Security • Internet crime Refers to crimes which the use of the internet is a key feature and includes content-related offences such as possession of child pornography, or in some countries, the dissemination of hate or racist material. • Cybercrime The cybercrime is interpreted differently in many countries. Each country has its own definition of cybercrime, depending on its stature and laws. Cybercrime is an umbrella terms that includes criminal activities against computer-related offences, content offences, and copyright offences. This wide is definition of cybercrime overlaps in part with general offence categories that need not be ICT dependent, such as white- collar crime and economic crime.
  15. 15. Computer Crime and Measures of Security • High tech crime High tech crime refers to criminal activities that emphasizes on the role of ICT in the commission of the offence. Different practical considerations arise according to whether ICT equipment, services or data are the object of the offence, or whether ICT is the tool for the commission.
  16. 16. 10-16 Computer Crime • Malicious Programs – Viruses – Worms – Trojan horse • Denial of service (DoS) • Internet Scams • Theft – Hardware or software – Data – Computer time • Data Manipulation – Computer Fraud
  17. 17. 10-17 Other Hazards • Natural hazards – Fires & floods – Winds – Hurricanes – Tornadoes – Earthquakes • Technological failures • Voltage surge – Surge protector • Human errors • Civil strife and terrorism – Wars – Riots – Terrorist acts
  18. 18. Measures of Security What can we do to protect ourselves from the above crimes? There is a list of actions that we can take and they include: • Password Choose a good password - at least five characters long, at least one upper-case letter, at least one lower-case letter, and at least one digit, for example, c5U3rN.To access an online computer service or Internet service provider (ISP) one needs both a user name and password. ISPs typically select a user name that is the same as the last name of the subscriber. This means that user names are easy to guess, therefore we must be especially careful with the password selected.
  19. 19. Measures of Security • Anti–virus software Since we use e-mail and nearly all of us will download executable software from the Internet, we should have a good anti-virus program running on our machine. This is so important because of our activities. We usually distribute software and update via downloads from the Internet. At the same time, hackers developed viruses that were delivered inside macros for Microsoft Word, malicious macros are hidden inside a document sent by e-mail, and hackers also developed malicious computer programs that were commonly distributed as attachments to e-mail. Clicking on the attachment will execute the malicious computer program and will infect our computer
  20. 20. Measures of Security • Firewall It is good practice to install a ‘firewall’ because many hackers run programs that randomly search the Internet and probe ports on computers that are connected to the Internet. If the hacker finds a port that is "open", the hacker might be able to access that computer and view/alter/delete files on that computer. Worse, hackers may also hijack the victim's computer and use it to launch their illegal attacks on other computers.
  21. 21. Measures of Security • Backup It is good practice to do backups regularly. Daily, weekly or monthly, depending on how active we are. If a computer virus or an invading hacker deletes our files, or either one corrupts our files, the easiest way to restore our computer may be to reformat the hard drive(s) and then copy files from a recent backup. Backups also offer protection from more common (and less exotic) threats such as accidental deletion of a file by an authorized user or failure of a hard disk drive.
  22. 22. Measures of Security • Spyware Spyware is a new kind of malicious computer program which is automatically installed when we visit certain websites (e.g., file-sharing services), click on some pop- up adverts, or click on some attachments in an e-mail. The more benign spyware programs track the websites that we visit and send us adverts that are considered appropriate for our interests.
  23. 23. What is Ergonomics? • Ergonomics is a discipline that involves arranging the environment to fit the person in When ergonomics is applied correctly in the work environment, visual and musculoskeletal discomfort and fatigue are reduced significantly. • The word "Ergonomics” comes from two Greek words "ergon," meaning work, and "nomos" meaning "laws.”
  24. 24. What is Ergonomics? • Today, however, the word is used to describe the science of "designing the job to fit the worker, not forcing the worker to fit the job.” • Ergonomics covers all aspects of a job, from the physical stresses it places on joints, muscles, nerves, tendons, bones and the like, to environmental factors which can affect hearing, vision, and general comfort and health.
  25. 25. What is Ergonomics? • Following ergonomic principles helps reduce stress and eliminate many potential injuries and disorders associated with the overuse of muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks. • This is accomplished by designing tasks, work spaces, controls, displays, tools, lighting, and equipment to fit the employee’s physical capabilities and limitations.
  26. 26. What is Ergonomics?
  27. 27. 10-27 More on Ergonomics • Mental Health – Noise – Electronic monitoring • Technostress – Stress associated with computer use – Harmful to people
  28. 28. Mental and Physical Health • During the agricultural age, working tools are the spade and shovels. When the mechanical age came, working tools change to machineries. Now in the information age, our working tools are computers. • This however does not mean that we are not exposed to health hazards. We still need to look after and be concerned with our mental and physical health.
  29. 29. Mental and Physical Health • Physical stressors include repetitive motions such as those caused by typing and prolong use of the mouse. Carpal tunnel syndrome, Tendonitis, Tenosynovitis, DeQuarvain's Syndrome, Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, many back injuries, and several other conditions may result from repetitive motions. • Environmental factors could include such things as indoor air quality or excessive noise. "Sick building syndrome," with its accompanying headaches, congestion, fatigue and even rashes, can result from poor air quality in a building or office. Excessive noise around heavy machinery or equipment can cause permanent hearing loss. Improper lighting can cause eyestrain and headaches, especially in conjunction with a computer monitor.
  30. 30. Basic Green PC • A green PC is especially designed to minimize power consumption • Green PCs use less power than normal PCs and support sleep modes. Sleep mode is actually an energy-saving mode of operation in which all unnecessary components are shut down.
  31. 31. Greener Computer Experience • Go Small - A laptop consumes five times less energy than a desktop PC. We now have laptops that are powerful and petite in size. If we want to use monitors, choose flat panel display. • Avoid Hazardous Materials - Most PCs are laden with hazardous components, despite recent progress in convincing some computer makers to reduce the use of toxic substances in PC manufacture. We can do our part by looking for models selected by the EPA's Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT), which is largely based on European Union standards called Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS).
  32. 32. 10-32 The Environment
  33. 33. 10-33 Personal Responsibility • Conserve • Recycle • Educate
  34. 34. Greener Computer Experience • Look for the Energy Star – Choose PCs that qualify for the Energy Star. For a PC to wear the Energy Star badge, systems must meet certain consumption requirements when idle and when fully powered on. For instance, their power supplies must be able to convert 80 percent of incoming electricity for use by the PC. • 4. Pick a New PSU – Newly designed industry standard power supply units (PSU) can yield potentially huge energy savings.
  35. 35. Greener Computer Experience • Go Multicore - Designers of processors have been working to produce processors that can reduce power draw. The Intel Core 2 Duo desktop processor, for example, is up to 40 percent faster and more than 40 percent more energy-efficient than its single-core predecessor. It optimizes power consumption by selectively powering up processor components only when necessary. • Set it for Savings - It consumes more energy to leave our PC running than it does to simply turn it off and reboot later. If we hate to do this because of the lengthy startup time, putting our computer in sleep mode is the next best bet for energy savings.
  36. 36. Greener Computer Experience • Recycle It - On average, most users buy a new PC every three years. That's a relatively short lifespan for a product that creates toxic waste when it is recycled. • We should buy an expandable PC so that we can upgrade to meet growing needs; another benefit is that maximizing the lifespan of a computer saves a lot more energy in the big scheme of things than recycling it does. Another option is to donate a working PC to a local nonprofit or school.
  37. 37. Personal Responsibility • As individuals, we all have responsibility when we use the Internet. O’Reilly, in his book called Hackerteen, teaches young people basic Internet technology and a deeper understanding of where and why Internet use can be risky. • It is our responsibility to look after our own security when we use computers and the Internet.
  38. 38. Thank you! Any Questions?
  39. 39. REFERENCES • Books: • 1. Diane M. Coyle, Computers Are Your Future, Complete, 10/E, Prentice Hall, 2009. ISBN-10: • 0135045118, ISBN-13: 9780135045114. • 2. John Preston, Sally Preston and Robert L. Ferrett, Computer Literacy for IC3, Prentice Hall, • 2009. ISBN-10: 0131498649, ISBN-13: 9780131498648. • 3. Alan Evans, Mary Ann Poatsy and Kendall Martin, Technology in Action, Introductory, 5/E, • Prentice Hall, 2009. ISBN-10: 0135137667, ISBN-13: 9780135137666. • 4. Brian K.Williams and Stacey Sawyer, Using

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