Conflict is the process that begins when one
person perceives that another person has
negatively affected, or is about to ...
 According to Martires and Fule (2000),
Conflicts arise when the interests of people
do not coincide.
 Conflict is a typ...
 Conflicts can ultimately degenerate into
chaos.
 Conflict is a part of organizational life.
 The essence of conflict i...
“Regardless of forms, the essence of conflict is incompatibility.”
1.) Goal conflict
Goal conflict occurs when two or more...
2.) Cognitive conflict
Cognitive conflict occurs when
the ideas and thoughts within an individual or
between individuals a...
3.) Affective conflict
Affective conflict occurs when the
feelings and emotions within an individual or
between individual...
3.) Procedural conflict
Procedural conflict exists when group members
disagree about the procedures to be followed in acco...
Two views of conflict have evolved over time.
One is the classical view.
• Traditionally, conflict has been viewed as
dysf...
And the other one is called the contemporary view.
• In this view, conflict is seen as inevitable. It
arises from many sou...
Underlying Assumptions About Conflict
Classical View Contemporary View
1. Conflict is avoidable.
2. Conflict is caused by ...
Conflict can have both destructive and constructive
outcomes for organization. James Stoner suggests that the net impact
o...
• Neither too much nor too little conflict is
good for the organization. Instead, moderate
levels of conflict have far mor...
• The flexibility of organizational structure and
climate also determines the conflict outcome.
• The more open the struct...
• A manager’s skill in conflict diagnosis and
management will largely influence which
outcome eventually occurs.
The skill...
Managers may, depending on the situation,
opt to stimulate, resolve, or prevent
conflict. The issue for the manager is to
...
1.)
• Conflict is energizing.
•Workers become more enthusiastic to perform
better than before.
•Conflict can drive people ...
2.)
• Conflict provides a means for early detection
of problems before they get out of hand.
• Manifest conflict behavior ...
3.)
• Conflict triggers a search for new and
creative solutions to problems.
• The protagonists are exposed to different
v...
4.)
• Conflict serves to stimulate participants to
work hard to accomplish the task at hand.
• Individual differences with...
5.)
• Conflict provides feedback to the
protagonists.
• Usually, protagonists have a distorted
perception of themselves. T...
• Conflict induces tension and anxiety.
• The resulting stress can cause emotional and
physical fatigue that lead to a dec...
• While conflict reflects symptoms, there is
risk that the underlying causes may be
glossed over.
•Worse, the symptoms mig...
• People in dispute may become more rigid in
holding on to their positions rather than
become more flexible.
• Rather than...
• Conflict can dull the need for cooperation
and teamwork with other parties.
• Information is withheld and communication
...
• Conflict can result in loss of self-esteem.
•Self-image which may have been held so
highly is injured.
• This is the most common source of
intergroup conflict in organizations.
• Each departmental goal will have to be
achieve...
Goal differences between the marketing and
manufacturing departments provide instances that can
lead to conflict. Marketin...
• Often, departmental units require materials,
resources, information, or services from other units to
be able to perform ...
• Although task interdependence among
departmental units may be minimal, there is
normally resource interdependence among ...
• The incentive and reward system affects the way
subgroups relate with one another.
• The system’s design influences the ...
• Sometimes, there is a lack of clarity as to how a task
is to be done or who is to perform it in the
organization.
• The ...
• The various tasks in the organization will require
people with different education, training, skills,
attitude, and expe...
• Power and status differences among different units
of the organization evolve in accordance with the
relative value of t...
If a group sees itself in
conflict with another, members
quickly begin to close ranks to
present a solid front to defeat t...
The relationship between the
competing groups deteriorates.
Hostility toward the rival group
increases. Interactions with ...
Tension is released, and every
member of the winning group
feels happy. In the short run,
people prefer to rest on their
l...
Initially, the members deal
with the reality of failure either by
denying or distorting it. Rather
than accepting defeat, ...
The negotiators often
experience substantial conflict in
having dual roles: that of being a
good group member and a good
n...
• An executive may opt to impose a solution to resolve
or suppress conflict by invoking higher authority.
• This often hap...
• To resolve conflict, a manager may choose to
separate the contending parties away from each
other.
• This is characteriz...
• Smoothing over the conflict is another method that
can be used by the manager. The manager plays down
the magnitude of t...
• Conflict may be resolved through face-to-face
negotiations between the protagonists. Each party
goes to the bargaining t...
• In the problem-solving approach, the protagonists
meet to discuss problems and issues related to the
conflict.
• The aim...
• A third party consultant is invited to mediate the
conflict. The consultant provides structure for
interaction, maintain...
• Intergroup training as a means of resolving
conflicts has gained prominence over the years.
• Under this method, the gro...
• The achievement of overall organizational goals and
effectiveness should be stressed so that departmental
goals do not b...
• Group contacts should be encouraged.
• Frequent communication and exchange of
information prevent the development of
mis...
• Frequent rotation of members among departments
promotes mutual understanding.
• The members can explain to their new dep...
• Groups should never be put in the position of
intense competition for the same organizational
resources and rewards sinc...
“Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are
powerful beyond measure. It is our light,...
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
F I N A L    M A N A G E M E N T  O F  C O N F L I C T
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F I N A L M A N A G E M E N T O F C O N F L I C T

  1. 1. Conflict is the process that begins when one person perceives that another person has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first person, a group, or an organization cares about.
  2. 2.  According to Martires and Fule (2000), Conflicts arise when the interests of people do not coincide.  Conflict is a type of relationship.  Conflict tends to acquire a life of its own, if unattended.  Conflict requires energy.
  3. 3.  Conflicts can ultimately degenerate into chaos.  Conflict is a part of organizational life.  The essence of conflict is incompatibility.
  4. 4. “Regardless of forms, the essence of conflict is incompatibility.” 1.) Goal conflict Goal conflict occurs when two or more desired or expected outcomes are incompatible. For Example: Michella may set goals of earning 3,000 pesos per week and achieving a 1.25 grade point average while being enrolled full-time during the coming semester. After a month, Michella may realize that there aren’t enough hours in the week to achieve both goals.
  5. 5. 2.) Cognitive conflict Cognitive conflict occurs when the ideas and thoughts within an individual or between individuals are incompatible. For example: Manager A and Manager B may have different strategies to get things done in the organization. Thus, the differences of their plans may arise to arguments.
  6. 6. 3.) Affective conflict Affective conflict occurs when the feelings and emotions within an individual or between individuals are incompatible. For example: A boy might feel that the girl he is courting likes him back because of the kindness that the girl shows toward him. But in the perspective of the girl , the kindness she gives back is just a sign of politeness for the effort exerted by the boy. The truth is that, she doesn’t feel the same way for him.
  7. 7. 3.) Procedural conflict Procedural conflict exists when group members disagree about the procedures to be followed in accomplishing the group goal. New procedures may be formulated and a new agenda suggested. Even the group goal may be modified. Procedural conflict, like task conflict, may be productive (Barker et al. 1987). For example: Union and management negotiations often involve procedural conflicts over who will be involved in the negotiations, where they will take place, and when sessions will be held (and how long will they be.)
  8. 8. Two views of conflict have evolved over time. One is the classical view. • Traditionally, conflict has been viewed as dysfunctional and unnecessary. • It disturbs peace and harmony. • Where conflict is present, it is deemed to be caused by management failure to apply sound management techniques.
  9. 9. And the other one is called the contemporary view. • In this view, conflict is seen as inevitable. It arises from many sources and it can be present no matter how well-designed organizations are. • For instance, while conflict can cause tension, it can also lead to a search for better solutions to organizational problems.
  10. 10. Underlying Assumptions About Conflict Classical View Contemporary View 1. Conflict is avoidable. 2. Conflict is caused by management errors in designing and managing organizations. 3. Conflict results from breakdown in communication and lack of trust and understanding between individuals and between groups. 4. Conflict disrupts operations and prevents optimal performance. 5. Optimal organizational performance requires the removal of conflict. 1. Conflict is inevitable. 2. Conflict arises from conditions which are inherent in organizations: competition for limited rewards, goal differences, and so on. 3. Conflict results from individual and group differences such as those in education, training, and experience. 4. Conflict enhances and inhibits organizational performance in varying degrees. 5. Optimal organizational requires a moderate level of conflict.
  11. 11. Conflict can have both destructive and constructive outcomes for organization. James Stoner suggests that the net impact of conflict on organizational performance would be functional or dysfunctional, depends on three factors:
  12. 12. • Neither too much nor too little conflict is good for the organization. Instead, moderate levels of conflict have far more potential constructive outcomes. • As the level of conflict rises, the tendency is to engage in destructive behavior toward rival group.
  13. 13. • The flexibility of organizational structure and climate also determines the conflict outcome. • The more open the structure and climate are to changes, the more beneficial conflicts are likely to be. • Conflict can draw attention to the existence of problems and can lead to better ways of doing things. • On the other hand, if an organization rigidly resists changes, the conflicts may never be resolved.
  14. 14. • A manager’s skill in conflict diagnosis and management will largely influence which outcome eventually occurs. The skills include the following: a) The ability to diagnose the nature and sources of the conflict. b) The ability to initiate confrontation. c) The ability to engage into active listening. d) The ability to choose the right approach.
  15. 15. Managers may, depending on the situation, opt to stimulate, resolve, or prevent conflict. The issue for the manager is to select the most appropriate approach and use it at the right time.
  16. 16. 1.) • Conflict is energizing. •Workers become more enthusiastic to perform better than before. •Conflict can drive people out of complacency. • Faced with opposition, people seek new and higher levels of achievement.
  17. 17. 2.) • Conflict provides a means for early detection of problems before they get out of hand. • Manifest conflict behavior means that there are disagreements beneath. • When conflict eventually breaks out into the open, it may be a lot more difficult to handle it by then.
  18. 18. 3.) • Conflict triggers a search for new and creative solutions to problems. • The protagonists are exposed to different views and perspectives about problems. • In the process, they are forced to re-examine themselves and the way they have been doing things. •They may discover their own mediocrity and then seek to change that.
  19. 19. 4.) • Conflict serves to stimulate participants to work hard to accomplish the task at hand. • Individual differences within groups tend to be submerged as effort is concentrated on finishing the work to be done. • Overall goals of the organization are achieved when the departments do their jobs well.
  20. 20. 5.) • Conflict provides feedback to the protagonists. • Usually, protagonists have a distorted perception of themselves. They may overestimate their own skills and abilities. They may also overvalue their importance in the organization. • Conflict serves to regulate perceptions to keep them in closer alignment with reality.
  21. 21. • Conflict induces tension and anxiety. • The resulting stress can cause emotional and physical fatigue that lead to a decline in productivity.
  22. 22. • While conflict reflects symptoms, there is risk that the underlying causes may be glossed over. •Worse, the symptoms might be mistaken for root causes.
  23. 23. • People in dispute may become more rigid in holding on to their positions rather than become more flexible. • Rather than accepting new ideas, they reject them. • During conflict, people’s judgement is altered and they may not see the merit of other points of view. They cling to the old ways of doing things.
  24. 24. • Conflict can dull the need for cooperation and teamwork with other parties. • Information is withheld and communication between parties breaks down.
  25. 25. • Conflict can result in loss of self-esteem. •Self-image which may have been held so highly is injured.
  26. 26. • This is the most common source of intergroup conflict in organizations. • Each departmental goal will have to be achieved in order to achieve overall organization goals. • The achievement of one group’s goal may frustrate the achievement of another group’s goals.
  27. 27. Goal differences between the marketing and manufacturing departments provide instances that can lead to conflict. Marketing wants flexibility in order to respond quickly to market demands. This means frequent changes in production schedules and shorter production runs. Manufacturing, however, wants stable production schedules and longer production runs in order to minimize costs. Their respective goals are incompatible; and that places the groups directly in conflict with each other.
  28. 28. • Often, departmental units require materials, resources, information, or services from other units to be able to perform their respective tasks effectively. • In general, the higher the degree of interdependence, the higher the potential for conflict. • Furthermore, the more the units have to coordinate their efforts, the more contact they should have; the more likely goal conflict is brought to the surface.
  29. 29. • Although task interdependence among departmental units may be minimal, there is normally resource interdependence among them. • The units compete with each other for their own share of organizational resources – money, materials, men, office or factory, space, etc. • Competition for resources tend to be minimal when the organization is growing up and there are enough resources for everyone.
  30. 30. • The incentive and reward system affects the way subgroups relate with one another. • The system’s design influences the extent of cooperation or conflict that is sustainable among subgroups. • When departments are rewarded on the basis of their contribution to organizational goals, cooperation among them is greater.
  31. 31. • Sometimes, there is a lack of clarity as to how a task is to be done or who is to perform it in the organization. • The absence of guidelines or policies in these areas arouse confusion and provoke arguments. • Also, there may be tasks in the organization that do not, however, fall squarely into any group’s responsibility
  32. 32. • The various tasks in the organization will require people with different education, training, skills, attitude, and experience. Thus, they tend to look at things differently. • So, for instance, if a common problem is presented to them, it is very likely that they will look at it from different points of view. •When these people have to coordinate their work, that is when conflict emerges.
  33. 33. • Power and status differences among different units of the organization evolve in accordance with the relative value of their contributions to the achievement of overall goals. • Those units whose contributions are regarded as more important tend to gain higher power and status. • Conflict arise as departments overvalue their importance to the organization and, subsequently, demand more power and status.
  34. 34. If a group sees itself in conflict with another, members quickly begin to close ranks to present a solid front to defeat the other group. Members become closely-knit and cohesive.
  35. 35. The relationship between the competing groups deteriorates. Hostility toward the rival group increases. Interactions with the rival group decrease and become characterized by distrust.
  36. 36. Tension is released, and every member of the winning group feels happy. In the short run, people prefer to rest on their laurels, and become more complacent.
  37. 37. Initially, the members deal with the reality of failure either by denying or distorting it. Rather than accepting defeat, they tend to look for scapegoats and excuses.
  38. 38. The negotiators often experience substantial conflict in having dual roles: that of being a good group member and a good negotiator.
  39. 39. • An executive may opt to impose a solution to resolve or suppress conflict by invoking higher authority. • This often happens when disagreements between two departments are referred to their common superior for resolution. • Once a decision is made at the higher level, conflict is not allowed to continue under threat of sanctions from management.
  40. 40. • To resolve conflict, a manager may choose to separate the contending parties away from each other. • This is characterized by either or both parties withdrawing from the scene of conflict. • Sometimes, this is one of the easiest and fastest way of reducing conflict. Interaction is not allowed or its incidence is diminished.
  41. 41. • Smoothing over the conflict is another method that can be used by the manager. The manager plays down the magnitude of the conflict. • Attention is drawn on similarities rather than the differences between the contending groups. • In using this approach, the manager may appeal to the Filipino value of pakikisama or getting along well with others.
  42. 42. • Conflict may be resolved through face-to-face negotiations between the protagonists. Each party goes to the bargaining table and engages in a mutual exchange of concessions to arrive at a compromise. • In essence, they “split the difference” between them in order to reach an agreement. • Information exchange is tightly controlled, while discussion is limited to what can be given and what can be taken in terms of concessions.
  43. 43. • In the problem-solving approach, the protagonists meet to discuss problems and issues related to the conflict. • The aim is not victory or compromise but integration of the respective needs and viewpoints of the protagonists. • They define the conflict as a mutual problem and together search for a creative solution.
  44. 44. • A third party consultant is invited to mediate the conflict. The consultant provides structure for interaction, maintains direction towards resolution, and offers new perspectives which may have been overlooked. • The consultant may come from inside or outside the organization so long as he does not belong to any of the groups involved in the conflict.
  45. 45. • Intergroup training as a means of resolving conflicts has gained prominence over the years. • Under this method, the groups are required to attend a training seminar and/or workshop outside the workplace. •A facilitator structures the interactions between them. The objective is for the groups to learn more about themselves and about each other.
  46. 46. • The achievement of overall organizational goals and effectiveness should be stressed so that departmental goals do not become the only ones to be pursued. • Thus, organizational goals serve as subordinate goals. This helps departments see their respective contributions from a broader perspective. •Departments should be rewarded on the basis of their contribution to the total organizational performance rather than on their individual performance alone.
  47. 47. • Group contacts should be encouraged. • Frequent communication and exchange of information prevent the development of misperceptions about the intentions, skills, and traits of the other groups. • Organizational rewards should be based partly on the ability of groups to work and cooperate with each other.
  48. 48. • Frequent rotation of members among departments promotes mutual understanding. • The members can explain to their new department the problems and goals of their original departments while obtaining insights about those of the new departments which he can then share his original department. • Empathy for each other’s problem is developed.
  49. 49. • Groups should never be put in the position of intense competition for the same organizational resources and rewards since, ultimately, this will force one group to be the loser. • Emphasis should be placed on pooling resources to attain maximum organizational effectiveness. • Rewards should be shared in accordance with each other group’s contribution to total effectiveness.
  50. 50. “Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that most frightens us. We ask ourselves, who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented, and fabulous? Actually, who are you not to be? You are a child of God. Your playing small doesn't serve the world. There's nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine, as children do. We are born to make manifest the glory of God that is within us. It's not just in some of us, it's in everyone. And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others." - Marianne Williamson

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