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Eye Tracking the User Experience of Mobile: What You Need to Know


Published on

Richmond UX (@RichmondUX) talk on April 30

Published in: Technology, Design
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Eye Tracking the User Experience of Mobile: What You Need to Know

  1. 1. Eye Tracking the User Experience of Mobile: What You Need to Know Jennifer Romano Bergstrom April 30, 2014 RUX| Richmond, VA @romanocog @richmondux
  2. 2. 2 @romanocog @richmondux Technology Revolutions %ofAmericanadults 90% of American adults have a cell phone 58% have a smartphone 42% have an tablet 32% have an e-reader
  3. 3. 3 @romanocog @richmondux The % of cell phone owners who use their cell phone to…
  4. 4. 4 @romanocog @richmondux %ofAmericanadults%ofAmericanadults Cell Phone Activities
  5. 5. 5 Nielsen: The Cross-Platform Report, Quarter 2, 2012-US @romanocog @richmondux
  6. 6. 6 Krug, S. (2000) Don’t Make Me Think. Pearson Education *NEW 3rd Edition (2014)* @romanocog @richmondux What we design for…and reality
  7. 7. 7 He, Siu, Strohl, & Chaparro (2014). Mobile. In Romano Bergstrom & Schall (Eds). Eye Tracking in User Experience Design. Morgan Kaufmann. @romanocog @richmondux Users read what they need to read
  8. 8. 8 Placement of Instructions
  9. 9. 9 Placement of Instructions
  10. 10. 10 Placement of Instructions
  11. 11. 11 Placement of Instructions
  12. 12. Usability = “the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use.” ISO 9241-11 @romanocog @richmondux + emotions and perceptions = UX
  13. 13. 13 User Experience Design (P. Morville): @romanocog @richmondux User Experience
  14. 14. 14 @romanocog @richmondux When to test
  15. 15. 15 @romanocog @richmondux Low-Fi Paper Prototypes
  16. 16. 16 @romanocog @richmondux Mobile Low-Fi Paper Prototypes
  17. 17. 17 OBSERVATIONAL + Ethnography + Time to complete task + Reaction time + Selection/click behavior + Ability to complete tasks + Accuracy IMPLICIT + Facial expression analysis + Eye tracking + Electrodermal activity (EDA) + Behavioral analysis + Linguistic analysis of verbalizations + Implicit associations + Pupil dilation EXPLICIT + Post-task satisfaction questionnaires + In-session difficulty ratings + Verbal responses + Moderator follow up + Real-time +/- dial @romanocog @richmondux UX Data
  18. 18. Traditional UX research is good at explaining what people say and do, not what they think and feel. @romanocog @richmondux Why should we measure implicit?
  19. 19. Explicit data 19 *Satisfaction Questionnaire: Please rate how difficult it was to log in on this device. 1= not difficult at all to 5= extremely difficult. “Love the picture in the middle of it.” “It looks very clean and very simple.” “It looks pretty organized, it's a nice design.” When asked how they would save information, four of six participants said they would bookmark the page or take a screenshot of the information. Only two mentioned that they would use the site functionality to save for later use. 83% 9% 9% Percentage of Difficulty Ratings* 1 & 2 3 >=4 @romanocog @richmondux Explicit Data 0 3 6 9 Participant Ratings Likelihood to Recommend Not likely at all or Slightly likely Moderately Likely Very Likely 0 3 6 9 Participant Ratings Likelihood to Use Not likely at all or Slightly likely Moderately Likely Very Likely *Satisfaction Questionnaire: How likely would you be to use this site in the future? How likely would you be to recommend this site to a friend?
  20. 20. Observational data 20 Details page about Military Physician Assistant career, only accessible through Military section. Details page about Civilian Physician Assistant career. Six participants clicked on Salary & Wages when looking for states with the most jobs before looking under Job Growth. • Five participants thought they had completed the task once they found the Salary & Wages map on the wrong page. 0 5 10 15 20 Time on Page Seconds Average time on landing page @romanocog @richmondux Observational Data First click data
  21. 21. 2121 Implicit data 21 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 00:00.00 00:07.50 00:15.00 00:22.50 00:30.00 00:37.50 00:45.00 00:52.50 Begin date and time selection. End date and time selection. Trouble with scrolling. More trouble with scrolling. @romanocog @richmondux Implicit Data
  22. 22. 2222 Trouble with scrolling. 22 @romanocog @richmondux Implicit Data Djamasbi & Hall-Phillips (2014). Visual Search. In Romano Bergstrom & Schall (Eds). Eye Tracking in User Experience Design. Morgan Kaufmann.
  23. 23. 23 Modern eye trackingModern Eye Tracking @romanocog @richmondux
  24. 24. 24 Modern eye tracking Mobile Eye Tracking
  25. 25. 25 Eye tracking paper @romanocog @richmondux Paper Eye Tracking
  26. 26. Issue: Error messages are not useful. 26 UX Best Practice: Specifically explain the error, and place the messages near where the error occurs so the user can quickly fix the error and move on. • “How do I advance to the next screen?” • “It seems like it's stuck on the screen.” M Gaze Plot: After getting an error message, the participant had to search all over the screen to find the missing field. @romanocog @richmondux
  27. 27. Error Messages Across Devices 27 @romanocog @richmondux
  28. 28. Issue: The ‘Back’ button is not consistent. 28 UX Best Practice: Make the location of the ‘Next’ button consistent across all devices by placing it in the lower right corner. This will assure users that their selections will be saved and promote a sense of linear progression. • “I was expecting ‘Next,’ but I guess I have to push ‘Back.’” • “It was hard to get confidence that I was proceeding in the right way.” • “It didn't seem to flow, if you will—you had to go back and forth.” @romanocog @richmondux
  29. 29. Issue: The location of ‘Next’ is not intuitive. 29 * Couper, M.P., Baker, R., & Mechling, J. (2011). Placement and Design of Navigation Buttons in Web Surveys. Survey Practice, 4(1). • “Where and how you click is a bit counter-intuitive. [It’s] not super obvious which button to click to get to next sections.” • “I feel like the ‘Next’ should be at the bottom and not the top.” UX Best Practice: Users expect consistency and for navigation buttons to be close to the last entry field.* Place all ‘Next’ and navigation buttons near the last entry fields. Intuitive ‘Next’ button location Non-intuitive ‘Next’ button location @romanocog @richmondux
  30. 30. Issue: The iPad website keyboard blocks the screen. 30 UX Best Practice: Design the layout of the page such that important functions are always visible while the keyboard is open. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tablet PC Smart Phone NumberofiPadWebParticipants Tablet Web Users: Least Favorite Device @romanocog @richmondux
  31. 31. Issue: Workload is high when searching for entries. 31 UX Best Practice: Follow users’ mental model: Arrange previous entries with the most recent at the top. @romanocog @richmondux
  32. 32. Issue: Icons are not clickable and do not match user expectations. 32 • “I’m going to click on it, but it's not doing anything. That is annoying.” • “Do these not work?” UX Best Practice: Reduce the amount of non-clickable real estate on the homepage. Focus on making icons and images clickable. This will help the homepage feel more intuitive as users expect icons and images to function as active links. Logo should link to the homepage, similar to the way logos work on websites. Clicks along the bottom of the PC homepage showing that participants expected the icons to be working links. Homepage on the iPad website does not display the clickable links below each icon. @romanocog @richmondux
  33. 33. 33 Assess the UX across devices • Not necessarily the same UX across all devices • Different issues occur • Match user expectations and product objectives • Conduct UX testing with real users @romanocog @richmondux
  34. 34. Thank you! • Twitter: @forsmarshgroup • LinkedIn: • Blog: Jennifer Romano Bergstrom @romanocog RUX | Richmond, VA