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Capstone presentation on Postpartum Depression. Final paper summary.

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  1. 1. Postpartum Depression (PPD)<br />Jennifer A. Robertson<br />PSY492 Advanced General Psychology<br />Argosy University, Washington, DC<br />
  2. 2. Who is affected?<br />Postpartum Mental Health issues are reported by 80% of new mothers.<br />Baby Blues (50-85%)<br />Postpartum Depression (15%)<br />Postpartum Psychosis (0.1%) <br />Postpartum Stress Disorder (no data due to new diagnosis)<br /> (O'hara, & Swain, 1996)<br /> (Mental Health America, 2011)<br />
  3. 3. Symptoms<br />May include:<br />Baby blues-mood lability, anxiety and irritability.<br />Postpartum Depression-fatigue, tearfulness, feelings of guilt, and sleep disturbances.<br />Postpartum Stress Disorder-Obsessive thoughts about the birth experience, detachment, fear, anxiety and disturbed sleep.<br />Postpartum Psychosis-confusion, rapid mood swings, hallucinations, thoughts or attempts of hurting yourself or the baby.<br />Contributing factors<br /> history of depression<br />lack of emotional support<br />family turmoil<br />life stressors<br /> anxiety surrounding previous birth<br />drastic hormone fluctuation <br />unprepared <br />(Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders, 2011)<br />
  4. 4. Others affected<br />Postpartum Mental Health issues have been found to have profound impact on the<br />mental health of new fathers and other children in the household. <br />Children<br />Short stature<br />Delays in language acquisition<br />Bonding<br />Increased crying <br />Behavioral issues. <br />Men<br />Aggressive<br />Anxiety<br />Children<br />Emotional shut-down<br />(Surkin, Kawachi, Ryan, Berkman, Vieira, & Peterson, 2008)<br />
  5. 5. Cause for prevalence <br />Root of the issue reverts to a lack of availability to prenatal healthcare including a lack of postpartum mental health education<br />Lack of access to prenatal care (or any health care)<br />Lack of education (on the parents part)<br />Geography<br />Lack of testing hormone levels<br />Ranked 24/39 countries in infant mortality<br /> (Warner, n.d)<br /> (Web MD, 2008)<br />
  6. 6. Current Resources<br />During prenatal care:<br />Pamphlets <br />Videos<br />Hormone for testing<br />Postpartum care:<br />Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale<br />Short questionnaire <br />If a certain number is scored talk therapy is suggested.<br />(Nofsinger & Fox, 2003)<br />
  7. 7. Support after diagnosis<br />Current<br />Talk therapy<br />Antidepressant medication<br />Proposed<br />Hormone Evaluation<br />
  8. 8. What’s next?<br />Research prevention and care after diagnosis.<br />Focus on whole family preparedness and care.<br /> Research hormone/postpartum mental health connection <br />
  9. 9. References<br />Mental Health America: Postpartum Disorders. (2011). Mental Health America. Retrieved from<br />Nofsinger, M. M., & Fox, B. (2003). More Than Baby Blues: Unmasking Postpartum Depression/Post Partum Depression. Library Journal, 128(10), 183.<br />O‘Hara, M., & Swain, A. (1996). Rates and risk of postpartum depression - a meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 8(1), 37-54. doi: 10.3109/09540269609037816<br />Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders. (2011). Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Women's Mental Health. Retrieved from<br />Surkin, P., Kawachi, I., Ryan, L. M., Berkman, L. F., Vieira, L. M., & Peterson, K. E. (2008). Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Parenting Self-Efficacy, and Child Growth. American Journal of Public Health, 125(8), 125-132. doi: 10.2105/AJHP<br />Warner, G. (n.d.). The association between maternal depression and prenatal care adequacy. IDEAS: Economics and Finance Research. Retrieved March 07, 2011, from<br />