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Laundry Care Products Performance Testing

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Performance test methods for home laundering products

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Laundry Care Products Performance Testing

  1. 1. dell tech laboratories ltd. 1 LAUNDRY CARE PRODUCTS PERFORMANCE TESTING Joe McCarthy Lab Services Manager/Senior Regulatory Affairs Specialist www.delltech.com Product Safety - Regulatory Affairs – Lab Services
  2. 2. dell tech laboratories ltd. 2 WHY Test? Formula development & screening Evaluate performance of new product formulations. Set a benchmark to compare future reformulations against. Claims validation/support Does is actually work? Are you making specific marketing or performance claims? National Brand Equivalency (NBE), how does it compare to other products?
  3. 3. dell tech laboratories ltd. 3 3rd party certification WHY Test? The Green Seal Certification Mark:
  4. 4. dell tech laboratories ltd. 4 It all starts and ends with customer. Why buy a product that does not work? Why sell a product that does not work? WHY Test? So why NOT test?
  5. 5. dell tech laboratories ltd. 5 Commonly used or cited methods for Cleaning Products ASTM D4265 - Evaluating Stain Removal Performance in Home Laundering ASTM D5343 - Cleaning Performance of Ceramic Tile Cleaners ASTM D3556* Deposition on Glassware During Mechanical Dishwashing ASTM D4009* Foam Stability of Hand Dishwashing Detergents ASTM D4488 - Cleaning Performance of Products Intended for Use on Resilient Flooring & Washable Walls WHERE can we find Test Methods? www.astm.org
  6. 6. dell tech laboratories ltd. 6 Consumer Specialty Products Association http://www.cspa.org/product-category/publications/ Includes 17 different Methods across a range of product categories such as All Purpose Cleaners, Glass Cleaners, Bathroom Cleaners, Laundry Detergents, Pre-Spotter, Fabric Softeners, Oven Cleaners & Dish Detergents. WHERE can we find Test Methods?
  7. 7. dell tech laboratories ltd. 7 ASTM D3050 Standard Guide for Measuring Soil Removal from Artificially Soiled Fabrics A laboratory scale bench top evaluation of detergents. Allows for rapid screening of formulations and/or water conditions. Automatic control of agitation and water temperatures Wash/rinse cycle typically finished 10-13 minute range TERG-O-TOMETER
  8. 8. dell tech laboratories ltd. 8 Pros Cons Quick assessment Terg-o-Tometer $$$ Run multiple product/test conditions simultaneously Reflectometer (Colorimeter) $ Recommends use of standard soiled fabrics Evaluates performance Instrumentally using only Reflectance value of the stain Less specific on testing considerations (fabric types, soils, orientations, pretreatment of fabrics for ballast of soiled swatches) % Improvement in Reflectance = Reflectance of soil swatch after washing - Reflectance of soil swatches before washing X 100 Reflectance of unsoiled swatch before washing - Reflectance of soil swatches before washing ASTM D3050 Standard Guide for Measuring Soil Removal from Artificially Soiled Fabrics
  9. 9. dell tech laboratories ltd. 9 ASTM D4265 – Standard Guide for Evaluating Stain Removal Performance in Home Laundering A full scale evaluation of performance with Household Washers & Dryers. Correlates more closely with the Consumer Experience Allows flexibility in the choice of testing conditions including: • Washing Machines (Traditional Top loader, HE Front Loader, HE Top Loader) • Fabric Selection (Cotton, Cotton/Poly blend, synthetics, knits, woven) • Stains (Proteins, Starchy, Bleachable, Fats, Oils, Grease) • Water Temperature & Hardness • Evaluation (Visible, Instrumental)
  10. 10. dell tech laboratories ltd. 10 Pros Cons Uses Household machines Longer times to run product/test condition Evaluation visually or Instrumentally Infrastructure to support multiple machines Instrumental evaluation uses compete color scale More effort required to adjust water conditions (Temperature and hardness) More detailed guidance on test conditions such as fabric types, soils, orientation, pretreatment of fabrics for ballast & soiled swatches. Reproducibility. Different machines have inherent variables. Wash times, wash & rinse volumes, agitation size etc. Guidance for preparing stained fabrics ASTM D4265 – Standard Guide for Evaluating Stain Removal Performance in Home Laundering
  11. 11. dell tech laboratories ltd. 11 ASTM D4265 – Standard Guide for Evaluating Stain Removal Performance in Home Laundering Stain considerations – manually prepared stains ASTM D4265 includes 2 annexes to provide guidance on manually preparing stains. Presents a challenge for 1) Repeatability: different individuals will prepare stains slightly differently (time/volume/pressure) 2) Reproducibility: different Labs will have different sources of stains, particularly natural stains like grass & blood 3) Time/Labour Intensive: Takes time precondition/cut/stains and cure swatches.
  12. 12. dell tech laboratories ltd. 12 ASTM D4265 – Standard Guide for Evaluating Stain Removal Performance in Home Laundering Stain considerations – Standard Soiled Fabrics Standard soiled fabrics in a wide range of stains and fabrics are commercially available CFT CS-15 EMPA 111 CFT CS-32 EMPA 114 Fruit Juice Blood, not aged Sebum w. Carbon black Red Wine, not aged www.testfabrics.com http://www.sdlatlas.com/
  13. 13. dell tech laboratories ltd. 13 Cotton-Jersey with 15 different stains: Make-up, Curry, Red wine, Tomato sauce, Blood, Dessert (chocolate), Peat, Tea, Beta-Carotene, Grass, Animal fat/red dye, Baby-food, Clay, Butter, used Engine oil EMPA (Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology) Stain Monitor 102
  14. 14. dell tech laboratories ltd. 14 How is Performance Evaluated? Instrumentally Reflectometer (Colorimeter) Measures Color, not reflectance (gloss) L = Lightness (100 = Pure white, 0 = Pure Black) a = Red/green b = Blue/yellow
  15. 15. dell tech laboratories ltd. 15 How is Performance Evaluated? Instrumentally Stain Removal Index (SRI) The SRI is a 0-100 scale, with 0 = no stain removal and 100 = complete stain removal SRI = 100 x ΔE*(US-UF) - ΔE*(WS-UF) ΔE*(US-UF) Where: US = Unwashed stain area UF = Unwashed (unstained) fabric area ΔE*(US-UF) = Delta-E color difference between the unwashed stain and the unwashed fabric Δ E*(WS-UF) = Delta-E color difference between the washed stain and the unwashed fabric. The value ΔE (absolute color difference) is calculated as: ΔE* = √ΔL*2+ Δa*2+ Δb*2 Where: L = reflectance, a = redness/greenness, b = yellowness/blueness,
  16. 16. dell tech laboratories ltd. 16 How is Performance Evaluated? Visually Using a 1 to 5 Rating Scale by comparing stains after washing against the AATCC 130 Stain release Replica. 1 = Residual stain equivalent to Replica 1 2 = Residual stain equivalent to Replica 2 3 = Residual stain equivalent to Replica 3 4 = Residual stain equivalent to Replica 4 5 = No residue stain
  17. 17. dell tech laboratories ltd. 17 Trick is to judge intensity of stain. Challenge is in applying a monochromatic scale to colored stains. Original Intent of AATCC 130 was to evaluate the ability of fabrics to release oily stains (Corn oil) Many stains are intensely colored or saturated and rate lower than 1.0 How do you rate these stains? How is Performance Evaluated? Visually
  18. 18. dell tech laboratories ltd. 18 How is Performance Evaluated? Image Analysis Uses a combination of digital scanning/photography along with Image Analysis software.
  19. 19. dell tech laboratories ltd. 19 How is Performance Evaluated? Summary of Techniques Stain Before After ASTM D4265 Colorimeter Stain removal index AATCC 130 visual rating (5 judges) Image analysis (Lightness only using D3050 equation) Motor oil 76.6% 1.5 48.9% Animal fat & red dye 64.4% 2 49.9% Tomato Sauce 82.3% 3.5 74.4%
  20. 20. dell tech laboratories ltd. 20 How is Performance Evaluated? Summary of Techniques Method of Evaluation Pros Cons Instrumental Quantitative data NIST traceable calibration Used in published standard methods History as Industry Standard Factors measurement of stain before washing in calculations Cost of Colorimeter Limited area of measurement without taking multiple readings across stain area. Visual Economical Quick Subjective Does not factor in stain before washing in rating Monochromatic scale Requires a panel of judges (≥3) Image Analysis Quantitative data Economical & Accessible Complete Stain area selection color scale Calibration traceability?
  21. 21. dell tech laboratories ltd. 21 Color loss susceptibility Dye swatch ID Heavy Nylon 6.6 dyed Acid red 151, Medium Cotton Print Cloth Direct Blue 1 Light Cotton Print Cloth Direct Blue 90 ASTM D5548 Standard Guide for Evaluating Color Transfer or Color Loss of Dyed Fabrics in Laundering This test method evaluates the degree of color loss from a dyed fabric and or color transfer to undyed fabric. Uses 3 different standard dyed swatches prone to heavy, medium or light color loss along with undyed cotton print cloth to accept released dye. Each dyed swatch is washed separately in a Terg-o-tometer But can be modified to use a household machine as in ASTM D4265 How is Performance Evaluated? Color Loss & Transfer
  22. 22. dell tech laboratories ltd. 22 Color Loss (or Color Transfer) is measured as absolute Color change ΔE ΔE = √ (Lw - Lo)2 + (aw – ao)2 + (bw - bo)2 Where: L = reflectance, a = redness/greenness, b = yellowness/blueness w = fabric before washing o = fabric after washing How is Performance Evaluated? Color Loss & Transfer
  23. 23. dell tech laboratories ltd. 23 Foam is not your Friend It all starts and ends with customer. Frustrates customer, wastes water, energy & time FOAMING
  24. 24. dell tech laboratories ltd. 24 FOAMING ASTM D1173 Standard Test Method for Foaming Properties of Surface-Active Agents (Ross Miles Foam Test) ASTM D3519-Standard Test Method for Foam in Aqueous Media (Blender Test) Assess both how much foam is produced immediately and how quickly it knocks down
  25. 25. dell tech laboratories ltd. 25 Looking for more on Formulation & Testing? Consumer Specialty Products Association hosts a Cleaning Products Fundamentals Course every 2 years at its mid-year meeting. CSPA is planning an Intermediate Course for May 2016 in Washington D.C. Presented by leading Companies and industry Professionals Curriculum includes surfactants, builders, additives, solvents, formulations, testing, sustainability & regulatory issues. Look for information & registration at http://www.cspa.org/events/cspa- event-directory/
  26. 26. dell tech laboratories ltd. 26 Questions/Comments/Contact Joe McCarthy Lab Services Manager/Senior Regulatory Affairs Specialist Dell Tech Laboratories T: 519-858-5024 jmccarthy@delltech.com Product Safety - Regulatory Affairs – Lab Services

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