Ch.20 Foreign Policy Slideshow


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P.1-3 Chapter 20: Foreign Policy
The in-class presentation felt inadequate, so the slideshow is now available online for after-school use! :)

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  • Key Points (needs title) -----------------still need to edit background------I (Steffi) will be doing this --------edit and animate! (note to self)
  • The roots of US foreign and defense policy: jenniferlin
  • General overview (no title) -------edited already
  • The United States as Global Superpower: Jennifer Lin (make title)--------------edit and animate, steffi! Remember! Don’t forget! (note to self)
  • The Doctrine of Containment (sub-point): Jennifer Lin (make title)
  • The Cold War (sub-point): Jennifer Lin (make title)
  • The Limits of American Power: The Vietnam War: Jennifer Lin (make title)
  • Détente (sub-point)Helen Albarelli (make title)
  • Disintegration of the “Evil Empire” (sub-point): Helen Albarelli (make title)
  • A New World Order: Helen Albarelli (make title)
  • General (don’t make title)
  • The Policymaking Instruments: Emily Alguila (make title)
  • The Policymaking Instruments (make title) -----------this is the same one as the one before (use same background)
  • The Policymaking Machinery: Emily Alguila (make title)
  • Defense Organizations (sub-points): Emily Alguila (make title)
  • Defense Organizations (sub-point): Emily Aguila (make same as one before)
  • Intelligence Organizations (sub-point): Emily Alguila (make title)
  • Diplomatic Organizations (sub-point): Lora Chizmar (make title)
  • Economic Organizations (sub-point): Lora Chizmar (make title)
  • US Military-Jenny’s Part
  • Defense Capability -------still Jenny’s part
  • Uses of Military Power
  • Counterinsurgency (sub-part): Cory Banas (make title)
  • Police-Type Action (sub-point): Cory Banas (make title)
  • The Politics of National Defense: Cory Banasthis section doesn’t have general overview: write one! (general)
  • Public Opinion and Elite Conflict (sub-point): Cory Banas (make title)
  • The Military-Industrial Complex (sub-point): Cory Banas (make title)
  • General (sub-point) (this isn’t a title)
  • A Changing World Economy: LoladeBakare (make title)
  • A Changing World Economy: LoladeBakare (make title)
  • American Goals in the Global Economy: LoladeBakare (Make title)
  • Global Trade (sub-point): ZachSarr (Make title)
  • Global Trade (sub-point) (make title) --------same one as the one before. Use same background
  • Global Trade (sub-point) --------same background as one before
  • Access to Natural Resources (make title) this is Zach Sarr’s part --------sub-point
  • Relations with the Developing world--------------add title-----------------anaroo’s part---------subpoint
  • This is continuing from previous slide (use same background) ------------still anaroo’s part! And still a sub-point
  • The Politics of Global Economic Policy ---this is anaroo’s part---------make a title-------point not sub point
  • Summary title page (make BIG)
  • Summary ----anaroo’s part --------make a title
  • Ch.20 Foreign Policy Slideshow

    1. 1.
    2. 2. The United States has been the world leader since World War II. This has affected the military, diplomatic, and economic policies<br />The policy machinery for foreign and defense affairs (which includes military, intelligence, diplomatic, and economic agencies and organizations) is under the authority of the president<br />There is a high degree of defense preparedness in the United States<br />Due to changes in the international marketplace, there has been an increase in economic interdependence among nations. This has left a major influence on the United States’ economy and on security planning<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4. There were many efforts to stop communism (such as in the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union conflict)<br />Changes in policy: center of world politics still, but after wars, switched to become less military and more economic<br />Note: Soviet Union=USSR<br />
    5. 5. Isolationism– view that country should deliberately avoid becoming a big role in world affairs and concentrate on domestic issues instead.<br />Internationalism – view that country should deeply involve self in world affairs.<br />Before WWII, the US was an isolationist country, after war, changed to internationalist country (more land, sea, air power, large military base).<br />Soviet leader Joseph Stalin breached self-determination agreement, resulted in “iron curtain” (Winston Churchill) across Europe.<br />
    6. 6. Containment– doctrine developed after WWII, on assumptions that Soviet Union was an aggressor nation, only determined US could block Soviet territorial ambitions.<br />Soviet Union aims and actions assessed by U.S. policymakers; <br />George Kennan – WWI/WWII invasions – large number of deaths made USSR paranoid. Some believed the USSR could become mature, but was an immediate threat to surrounding countries. Policy – “long-term, patient but firm, and vigilant containment.”<br />Harry S Truman: USSR motivated on GLOBAL DOMINATION, not REGIONAL SECURITY CONCERN. Based on the “Lesson of Munich”<br />
    7. 7. Cold war – lengthy period after WWII in which U.S. and USSR not engaged in physical combat (“hot war”), but in state of deep hostility.<br />Extension of containment policy threatened by communist takeovers – in China, Korea (Korean War).<br />
    8. 8. The Limits of American Power:<br />The Vietnam War<br />French army in charge of Vietnam defeated – 1954 by Ho Chi Minh guerrilla.<br />At the Geneva conference, Vietnam was separated into North = Ho Chi Minh, South = anti-communist leaders<br />US supported south economically, politically, and through military action<br />Fought stalemate guerrilla war – hidden<br />
    9. 9. Détente-French word meaning “a relaxing” and used to refer to an era of improved relations between the US and the Soviet Union that began in the early 1970’s.<br />1972-First official US contact with China since communists took power.<br />Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)-Indication of policy change (1969). Presumed that US and Soviet Union each could retain enough nuclear power to deter the other from an attack.<br />
    10. 10. Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979) convinced U.S. leaders that the USSR was still bent on expansion.<br />In March of 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became the Soviet leader. He tried to restructure Soviet society. His attempts failed.<br />In 1989, Soviet troops were withdrawn from eastern Europe.<br />In November of 1989, the Berlin Wall between East and West Germany was taken down.<br />On December 8, 1991, the leaders of the Russian, Belarus, and Ukrainian republics declared the Soviet Union no longer existed.<br />
    11. 11. Multilateralism-Situation in which nations act together in response to problems and crises; characterized US response to Iraq invasion of Kuwait.<br />Multilateralism also adapted by Balkans.<br />President Busch worked through UN which demanded withdrawal of Iraqi forces.<br />In the Gulf Operation, President Busch was successful from military perspective.<br />In 1992, Bosnian Serbs attacked Muslims and Croats. Forced evacuations and mass executions part of effort to rid Bosnia of rival ethnic and religious groups.<br />In 1999, War in Balkans started up again after Yugoslav Serbs began campaign of “ethnic cleansing”.<br />Multilateralism was somewhat successful<br />
    12. 12.
    13. 13. Differs from other areas of government policy because it rest on relations with powers outside the country<br />Some countries are more powerful than others, leading the strong to sometimes bully the weak<br />National security policy is composed of diplomacy, military force, economic exchange, and intelligence gathering<br />
    14. 14. There are four policymaking instruments<br />Diplomacy-is the process of negotiation between countries<br />- It is preferred to settle disputes verbally rather than physically<br />Bilateral and multilateral negotiating is the 1stinstrument of foreign policy<br />Military power is the 2ndinstrument of foreign policy<br />- It is used more commonly for defense, but the U.S uses its military force more actively<br />
    15. 15. Economic exchange is the third instrument of world politics in the form of trade or assistance<br />- Trade is more important because most countries strive to a strong trading position<br />- Some weaker countries need assistance from the wealthier countries, which will help both partners<br />Intelligence gathering is the fourth instrument of world politics, which is used to monitor other countries’ activities<br />- Each nation keeps a watchful eye on each other<br />So basically, the four instruments are:<br />1. Diplomacy 2. Military 3. Economic 4. Intelligence<br />
    16. 16. The president is the lead actor in the application of these instruments in the U.S.<br />The National Security Council is the executive agency that provides advice on foreign and military issues to the president<br />The NSC is made of the president, vice president, the secretaries of state and defense, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as advisory members<br />The complexity of international politics makes it impossible for individual or government agencies to direct U.S. policy <br />The United Nations is an example of an outside institutions that is relied on by the U.S. to pursue some of its policy objectives<br />
    17. 17. Defense Organizations<br />The Department of Defense(DOD) is responsible for the military security of the United States<br />DOD was created in 1947 when the three military services- the Army, Navy, and Air Force- were placed under the secretary of defense<br />The defense secretary represents all the services in relations with Congress and the president<br />The president also receives military advice from the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), which includes a chair, a vice chair, and a member from each of the uniformed services- the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps<br />
    18. 18. Defense Organizations<br />The JCS helps shape military strategy and evaluates the military’s personnel and weapons<br />The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the most important of the country’s military alliances<br />NATO was formed as a “forward defense” against the possible Soviet invasion of Western Europe<br />NATO includes troops of the United States, Canada, and most Western European countries <br />NATO forces conduct joint military exercises and engage in joint strategic and tactical military planning<br />
    19. 19. Foreign and military policy requires a high state of knowledge of about what is happening in the world<br />This responsibility for the gathering of this information falls on specialized federal agencies like the CIA and the National Security Agency<br />Intelligence agencies have made increased efforts to stop international drug trafficking and terrorism<br />Intelligence Organizations<br />
    20. 20. U.S. Department of State conducts most of the country’s day-to-day business with foreign countries<br />Duties: negotiating political agreements with other nations, protecting U.S. citizens, promoting U.S. economic interests, gathering foreign intelligence, and representing the U.S. abroad<br />Secretary of State is basically second-most important to the president<br />American international efforts are made through international organizations, like the U.N.<br />
    21. 21. The Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, and Treasury Departments are playing increasingly important roles in foreign affairs<br />The U.S. also works through major international organizations that promote goals, such as economic development and free trade that are consistent with U.S. policy objectives<br />World Trade Organization (WTO) was created in 1995 and is a formal institution through which most nations negotiate general rules of international trade<br />World Bank makes long-term loans<br />International Monetary Fund (IMF) makes short-term loans<br />
    22. 22. US Military<br />Spends a lot of $ on military<br />Results in major loss in countries money <br />Positive impact is that it makes our army more stronger and equipped with better weapons<br />
    23. 23. Defense Capability<br />US has its "superpower" status due to forces such as: <br /><ul><li>US Navy
    24. 24. US Air force
    25. 25. US Army: technology and advanced</li></li></ul><li>Uses of Military Power<br />In past US tried had unlimited nuclear warfare, but now US (along with Russia) is trying to lessen the creation of nuclear weapons. <br />End of cold war caused US to lessen aggressive Russian nationalism <br />US tries to lesson war unless threatened by nuclear weapons from other countries <br />- Vietnam War was prime example and ever since less insurgencies occurred<br />
    26. 26. Insurgency -a type of military conflict in which irregular soldiers rise up against an established regime<br />Occur in Third World countries because of a monopoly of economic and political power by a ruling elite.<br />After the Vietnam War U.S. became much less involved in these wars- though they continued to train foreign troops. <br />
    27. 27. After Cold War, the U.S. became more involved with issues like drug trafficking, terrorism, population movement and political instability.<br />
    28. 28. Everyone agrees that physical security is important in the United States<br />The division comes in when it comes down to specific situations<br />- Vietnam War vs. Persian Gulf suppport<br />
    29. 29. Defense policy is a mix of majoritarian and elite politics<br /> -Majority: issues of broad national concern<br /> -Elite: foreign and defense policy debates (narrow concern)<br />
    30. 30. The Military-Industrial Complex<br />Military-industrial complex - 3 components that mutually benefit from high level of defense spending<br /> 1. The military establishment<br /> 2. The industries that manufacture weapons<br /> 3. Locations that depend on the arms industry<br />
    31. 31.
    32. 32. (read) Economic strength is related to military strength<br />(summarize)Global power, in addition to being a way in which nations achieved other goals, was also an end to itself. For example, the Soviet Union.<br />(don’t read) Soviet Union collapse came from the poor economy as a result of the overly strong military power<br />
    33. 33. A Changing World Economy<br />(read) The U.S. superpower policy has clear economic benefits. <br />(summarize)For example, the Marshall Plan.<br />$ 13 Billion to rebuild post-war Europe<br />Allowed countries to confront Soviet threat; met the economic needs of the U.S., during recession Western Europe assisted U.S. market – became partner.<br />
    34. 34. A Changing World Economy<br />(read) In economic terms, the world its tripolar.  One center is the U.S., another is Japan, and the last one is the EU (European Union)<br />(summarize) The U.S. power-wise – <br />*Strongest: global economic competitiveness, well-rounded economy, strong industrial and agricultural base<br />*Weakest: worst trade imbalance<br />
    35. 35. American Goals in the Global Economy<br />(read)The United States depends on other countries for materials and products, which requires U.S. influence on world markets.<br />(summarize)The broad goals of the United States world economy would include:<br />Stable, open system of trade.<br />Maintaining access to resources<br />Limit rich and poor gap in economy<br />(read)Global trade has also been linked with other U.S. objectives (beliefs).<br />
    36. 36. Global Trade<br />(read) Since the end of the Cold War, U.S. foreign policy has centered on global economy. <br />(summarize)International commerce is not only more competitive but more important. Nations’ economies are increasingly interconnected as a result of transportation and communication revolution. Because of it multinational corporations find it easier to manage worldwide operations. <br />Multinationalcorporations- business firms with major operations in more than one country.<br />(summarize) Money, goods, and services now flow freely and quickly across national borders, and now large firms think about markets in global rather than national terms.<br />
    37. 37. Global Trade<br />Economic globalization - describes economic interdependency among nations. To the U.S. it poses a threat (competition) and an opportunity (high demand).<br />(read)Global economic stability has always been a high priority For the U.S. and it has lent it's hand in helping nations with unstable economies<br />U.S. policy makers are sharply divided over the topic of free trade vs. protectionism.<br />Protectionism-immediate interests of domestic producers should have higher priority.<br />Free Trade- long-term economic interests of all countries are advanced when trade barriers are kept to a minimum<br />
    38. 38. Global Trade<br />(summarize) NAFTA(North American Free Trade Agreement) has been a debated topic in recent years with strong arguments on both sides, however momentum sided with free trade advocates and has lead to the GATT(General Agreement on Tariff and Trade) and the WTO(World Trade Organization). But these organizations are not without criticism over how it deals with things from environmental labor practices to it's global and international structure.<br />
    39. 39. Access to Natural Resources<br />Most of the world’s oil is found in the Middle East, Latin America, and Russia<br />(read) Marketplace and the military has helped the U.S. access this oil<br />(read) Military power has increasingly become a less-effective means of preserving economic leverage <br />
    40. 40. Relations with the Developing World<br />Political instability in less developed countries is disruptive to world markets<br />To help less developed countries acquire goods and services, the U.S. has provided developmental assistance<br />Foreign aid’s unpopularity with the public makes it a prime target of politicians<br />Foreign aid by the U.S. sends a flow of overseas profits back to the U.S. and makes other nations dependent on the prosperity of the U.S.<br />
    41. 41. Critics suggest that the U.S. has placed too much emphasis on trade issues and not enough on human rights and democracy<br />- The pressure placed on foreign countries to improve their human rights policies has stopped where trade relations would be jeopardized<br />The is broad bipartisan support for the notion that the surest way to promote democracy and freedom in the developing world is to promote free market economies<br />Relations with the Developing World<br />
    42. 42. The Politic s of Global Economic Policy<br />The recent global economy is more competitive and less responsive to military power than immediately after World War II<br />The U.S. depend on the strength of its own economy for a favorable position in world trade<br />Recent public opinion supports the idea that the U.S. should focus on economic priorities over military ones<br />
    43. 43. Summary<br />
    44. 44. For the U.S. to have access to natural resources, it needs to have a good trade relationship with other countries<br />The U.S. government has provided economic assistance to less developed countries but their foreign aid policy has been hampered by the public’s unpopularity with it<br />Critics think that although the U.S. should help other countries, it should improve human rights and democracy in that country before emphasizing trade<br /><ul><li>This view is unpopular as well among the parties and U.S. government</li></ul>The world economy has become very competitive recently and this has led to the U.S. wanting to make itself a major world trade power through its economy. <br />