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  1. 1. Surveillance<br />By: Jennifer Howard<br />
  2. 2. Different types of Surveillance<br />Electronic Surveillance<br /><ul><li>Electronic article surveillance (EAS)
  3. 3. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tagging
  4. 4. Global Positioning System (GPS)</li></ul>Computer Surveillance<br /><ul><li>Social Network Analysis</li></ul>Facebook<br />MySpace<br />Twitter<br /><ul><li> Carnivore
  5. 5. NarusInsight
  6. 6. "Magic Lantern"
  7. 7. CIPAV
  8. 8. TEMPEST
  9. 9. "Pinwale“
  10. 10. Data Mining and Profiling</li></ul>Economic<br />Social<br />Audio Surveillance<br /><ul><li>Telephones/Mobile Devices</li></ul>Wiretap<br /> Bugs<br />Multilateration<br /> Pen Register<br />TrapDevice<br /> Trace Device<br />
  11. 11. Different types of Surveillance Cont’d.<br />Visual Surveillance<br /><ul><li>CCTV (Closed Circuit Television)
  12. 12. Red Light Camera
  13. 13. Aerial (Air Surveillance)
  14. 14. Satellite Imagery
  15. 15. Thermal imaging devices</li></ul>Biometric Surveillance<br /><ul><li>Facial Recognition
  16. 16. Fingerprints
  17. 17. DNA
  18. 18. Corporate Surveillance
  19. 19. Gait</li></li></ul><li>An example of electronic surveillance: Electronic article surveillance (EAS)<br />An electronic article surveillance system is made up of the security panels (that everyone goes through before and after leaving a retail store and/or library) and security tags or wired alarm clips or magnetic labels. Articles of clothing usually have a tag (similar to the one in the picture below) but, if someone has figured out how to remove the tag, wired alarm clips can be used instead of tags. Library books usually have some form of a magnetic label in them. <br />When a security tag, a wired alarm clip, or a magnetic label passes through the security panels an alarm may sound to inform employees that the merchandise may not have been purchased. When purchased correctly, the cashier will remove the tag or wired alarm clip or deactivate the magnetic label. <br />
  20. 20. An example of Computer Surveillance: Social Network Analysis<br />Social network analysis is a type of surveillance in which a “map” is created. “These social network "maps" are then data mined to extract useful information such as personal interests, friendships & affiliations, wants, beliefs, thoughts, and activities” wiki surveillance<br />Anything that is posted to the internet is public. Most people who use social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter post comments or pictures of their personal lives. Anything that is ever downloaded to the internet can be seen by anyone at any time.<br />If you plan on having a professional career in the future I would stop posting personal comments and pictures that would make you look bad when the person who is interviewing you brings the topic up. I agree with my instructor, Mr. Grabowski, the best thing to do would be to delete any social networking site that you are currently a part of. <br />
  21. 21. An example of Audio Surveillance: Wiretap<br />Wiretapping is pretty basic. Anyone can do it. All you need is a “listening device” and to know who it is that you are wanting to listen to. Then, you would connect the “listening device to the circuit carrying information between phones” howstuffworkswiretapping<br />“A total of 3,194 wiretaps were authorized by federal and state courts during 2010. Only one wiretap application was denied in 2010” lawenforcementwiretapping increases<br />
  22. 22. An example of Visual Surveillance: Red Light Camera Surveillance <br />Cities in States with Red Light Camera Surveillance Programs<br />The ONLY automated red light camera intersection in Santa Rosa (Santa Rosa Avenue at Yolanda Avenue).<br />“Local engineers determine the timing at traffic signals, including the length of the green, yellow, and red phases. A red light camera system is connected to a traffic signal and sensors buried in the pavement at a crosswalk or stop sign. In most cases, the system monitors the traffic signal and triggers the camera to <br />photograph the tags of vehicles entering the intersection after the light has turned red. The camera is triggered by any vehicle passing over the sensors above a pre-set minimum speed and at a specified time after the signal has turned red”<br />“The camera records the date, time, and speed of the vehicle, and a clear image is produced (under a wide range of light and weather conditions)” <br />
  23. 23. An example of Biometrical Surveillance: Gait (a person's manner of walking) or voice<br />Sometimes you can tell what kind of a mood someone is in just by analyzing their body language. Professional analysts can figure out what someone is going to do before they do it based on that persons body language.<br />“The gait of individuals checking in at an airport could…be compared with the database, perhaps even before they enter the airport concourse. Such data compared with CCTV footage might also be used to track suspect terrorists or criminals who may otherwise be disguising their features or be carrying forged documents” curebyte<br />
  24. 24. Are surveillance cameras a contributing factor to lower crime rates?<br />The argument of whether or not video surveillance cameras are a contributing factor to lower crime rates is difficult. Some people say video surveillance cameras have helped, some people say they haven’t, and some people say they violate their constitutional rights. The truth is, it depends. It depends on the kind of person you are, where you live, and many other circumstances. <br />If crime rates decrease as the amount of Police Officers patrolling the streets increase then, assuming that surveillance has contributed, in my opinion, would be a naïve assumption.<br />The video surveillance cameras are purposely made to be very conspicuous. But, you cannot be certain that someone who was planning on committing a crime saw the surveillance camera, and decided not to go through with their plan. <br /> Total: 767 Year:2010 Total: 4,096<br />Some video surveillance cameras are just a decoy to make people think that the cameras are watching their every move. When, in reality, the cameras aren’t even active.<br />I guess we would just have to ask the criminals who have been convicted of crimes (based on being caught on camera) if they saw the camera in the first place. Then, ask them if they would have committed the crime knowing that they were being recorded doing so. <br />
  25. 25. Greater surveillance powers for authorities <br />Authorities have been given greater surveillance powers over the years. There are two different viewpoints that citizens share. <br />First, some citizens share the same viewpoint as authorities. These citizens believe that in order for a safer Nation police need more power in order to outsmart the technological savvy criminals. <br />Other citizens believe that authorities are breaking the rules of the Constitution. These citizens believe that by giving authorities such great surveillance power their civil rights are being violated in return. <br />So, it’s really how you perceive this situation. Would you be willing to give up some of your constitutional rights in order to be more protected from terrorists and criminals? Or, do you feel as though your rights are being violated when you are under surveillance without your knowledge?<br />It’s a give and take situation…<br />
  26. 26. Warrants<br />An officer or any law enforcement official would need a warrant, based on probable cause, to put any law abiding citizen under any kind of surveillance if the person being surveilled has a reasonable expectation of privacy. If the person being surveilled does not have a reasonable expectation of privacy (i.e. in a public area) then a warrant is not neededeven if you are a law abiding citizen. <br />With a warrant officers can use thermal imaging devices, video surveillance, audio surveillance, wiretaps, trap devices, tape devices, pen registers, etc. Basically, with a warrant officers can use any form of surveillance as long as they have probable cause and have stated so under oath. <br />
  27. 27. New technologies that the police are using to track criminals<br />“Programmers are designing programs that can re-create the scene of a crime in three dimensional imagery, enabling investigators to examine every inch of the room from every angle -- down to a drop of blood -- with the movement of a mouse.”<br />“Security camera video of a convenience store robbery -- until now, grainy and pixeled–- can be enhanced to reveal a clear picture of the bad guy’s face, even though he was standing fifty feet away.”<br />“…Crime scene investigators are using space-aged flashlights to find traces of evidence invisible to the naked eye. A label from a grocery item, touched by a suspect in a crime would be unnoticeable until the investigator puts on special goggles with filtered lenses and shines the high-frequency colored light on it. Suddenly, a finger print appears.” crimetrackerstory<br />There is also “…a new kind of fingerprinting method. There’s no ink. An offender simply touches a glass tray and a computer system registers his print and identity. He touches the pad again, and within one second, his picture and identifying information appear on the computer monitor. It may be the fastest way yet to track bad guys.”<br />