Prof. Jennifer Hein
History of Textiles
Guide- Chpt 3 Notes
Location of Textile Production - Textile Industry Movement &Machines
TEXTILE TIMELINE according to archaeological records
Sheep & wool were traded in Europe & Asia Minor
Linen placed in Egyptian tombs
Weavings are found that were in use in Europe.
Linen produced in the Middle East
2000 BC Linen yarns & wool found used by Swiss
Cotton grown in India. Evidence of spinning, weaving & trading cotton
Linen & wool Tapestries are made in Egypt.
Silk industry begins
SILK & WOOL TIMELINE (Chpt 3, pp. 16-p.22)
1000 BC Ornamental weaving with plant materials:
linen, flax, reed found in Greece
Wool dyeing occurs in Rome
Linen Webster defined as yarn or thread made of flax fibers,
fabric woven from flax yarns
Archaeological extant linen fiber mummy wrappings
Silk- (Webster) thread or fabric made from the soft, lustrous fiber
obtained from the cocoon of the silk-worm.
12th-13th century Italian & German Silk Upholstery
Italian silk and metallic wrapped linen thread,
or German-silk, hemp & tin gilt threads
BASIC WEAVES- UPHOLSTERY FABRIC
Medium Weight- Complex Weaves
Light to Medium Weight Simple
DAMASK (stylized floral)
One of the oldest and most popular
staple cloths -a patterned fabric
where the design is the reverse
construction of the satin background always reversible
origin: China via Damascus in
SCHUMACHER SAMPLE GLOSSARY of
Historical design figures
Interwoven design of raised all-over,
multi-colored figures (often floral)
easily identified by horizontal bands
of color on back of fabric
origin: Medieval Latin, broccare -to
BROCADE – (Webster) fabric woven with a raised design
14th Century Metallic Silk Brocades
with Student Interior Ex.
Historical pictorial designs)
An intricate pattern employing
several sets of warps which
produce a Multi- colored, heavy,
durable fabric -originally made
with a design that illustrated a
story and used as wall hangings
for decoration as well as
origin: Greek tapes -rug.
Tapestry- (Webster) a heavy decorative woven fabric with a pictorial
design / pictures
15 - 17th century Tapestry
WOOL- Webster, yarn, fabric or garments made from fine, soft hair
that forms the fleece of sheep and other animals ( goat, llama,…)
Mid Century Textiles 14th- 16th century
Wool Tapestry Wallcoverings were for warmth then only decorative.
Warp- Webster, a set of yarns placed lengthwise in the loom.
Tapestry originally had wool weft or filling
on a linen warp or ground.
17th c. French Tapestry Artwork
TIMELINE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
FROM EUROPE TO THE UNITED STATES
London & India exported sheep to VA and New York City.
Wool woven in American Colonies.
English textile weavers moved to Lowell, MASS and begins
American textile industry.
George Washington imported Merino Lambs.
1798-1800 Cotton Gin Invented
Industrial Revolution in Textile manufacturing began
War of 1812
Forced American weavers to produce more than personal
goods, so the American textile industry takes off with
production of blankets & cloth for the army.
New Harmony, IN had the Harmonist Society who developed
1850s Sewing Machine & Jacquard Loom successfully used in industry.
Damask- (Webster) a reversible fabric woven with patterns, used esp. for
15 - 18th century Damask Wallcovering
Light to Medium Weight Simple Weaves
One of the oldest and most popular staple cloths
a patterned fabric where the design is the reverse construction of the
origin: China via Damascus in Asia Minor.
Damask- Webster, a reversible fabric woven with patterns
1800 / 17th c.
European and Early American Silk Damask Upholstery
17th century / 1650s
blue multicolor wool floral, shell and paisley embroidery
1920’s Paris Art Deco,
Embroidered clothing &
earth tone wool floral border, cut pile rug/ floor covering.
You can make an appt. to view the computer catalog in the
Ratti Center at the MET when you visit NYC.
Some of the textiles in the slide presentation were on view in the 2005
exhibitions others are details of department examples in storage that can
be viewed from the computer database. 212-650-2310
Historic Textile Introduction
to linen, silk & wool yarns,
Brocade, Tapestry & Damask weave structures,
with a mention of embroidery & cut pile
by Prof. Hein
with the Metropolitan exhibition textiles