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Business Analysis –
Defining the Optimal Solution
Presented by
Jennifer Colburn,
CBAP, PMP
July 21, 2010
http://www.stellm...
Jennifer C. Colburn, CBAP, PMP
 Senior Business Analyst at Kindred Healthcare
 CBAP (Certified Business Analysis Profess...
Business Analysis –
Defining the Optimal Solution
 Overview of Business Analysis Profession
 Key Terms- Solutions and Re...
4
International Institute of Business Analysis
TM
Develop and maintain standards for the
practice of business analysis and...
 Analogous to the PMI and the PMBOK, the IIBA has
authored the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge
(BABOK) reflecting gen...
6
BABOK Knowledge Areas
CBAP Certification
 Certified Business Analysis Professional
 7,500 hours business analysis work experience in last
ten ...
Value of a Business Analyst
 Anyone who has ever worked on a complex and
lengthy software development project knows that ...
What is A Business Analyst?
 Works as a liaison among stakeholders in order to
understand the structure, policies, and op...
Why a Project Needs a Business Analyst
http://developer.motorola.com/fromfasttrack/February_09/agile_versus_waterfall.gif/
Business Analysis
 Understanding:
 How an organization works
 Why the organization exists
 What are the organization’s...
Solution Definition
 A solution meets a business need by solving
problems and/or enabling the organization to take
advant...
Business Analysis and Solution Scope
 Business Analysis helps organizations define the
optimal solution for their needs, ...
Complimentary Roles
 Project Manager – Project Scope: resources,
budget, schedule, plan, risks, quality.
 Business Analy...
Why a Project Needs a Project Manager and a
Business Analyst
 PM responsible for ensuring product delivered to
customer o...
Requirements Definition
 A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to
solve a problem or achieve an objective.
 ...
Types of Requirements
 Business- high level goals, needs, objectives of
enterprise
 Stakeholder- needs of a given stakeh...
Knowledge Areas
Enterprise Analysis
 Understanding the “big picture”
 Define business goals the solution must meet
 Integrate requireme...
Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring
 Focus on planning for the BA processes and
activities.
 “What do I need to do...
Requirements Management and Communications
 Focus on presenting and communicating
documented requirements to all stakehol...
Elicitation
 Focus on gathering requirements from various
stakeholder groups
 Identify the tasks, knowledge and techniqu...
Requirements Analysis
 Focuses on analyzing the data
 Defines the methods, tools, techniques to
structure raw data colle...
Solutions Assessment & Validation
 Focus on ensuring the best approach is
chosen, that the solution will meet
stakeholder...
BA Underlying Competencies
Analytical Thinking & Problem Solving-
 Creative Thinking
 Decision Making
 Learning
 Probl...
Elicitation Techniques:
 Brainstorming
 Focus Groups
 Interviewing
 Observation
 Prototyping
 Requirements Workshop
...
Brainstorming
 Brainstorming is an excellent way to foster creative
thinking about a problem.
 The aim is to produce num...
Focus Groups
 “A means to elicit ideas and attitudes about a
specific product, service or opportunity in an
interactive g...
Interviewing
 “Systematic approach designed to elicit information
from a person or group of people in an informal or
form...
Observation
 “Means of eliciting requirements by conducting an
assessment of the stakeholder’s work
environment.”
 Also ...
Prototyping
 Horizontal prototype
 Demonstrates outer layer of human interface only, such as menus
and screens; no logic...
Requirements Workshop
 “A structured way to capture requirements. A
workshop may be used to scope, discover, define,
prio...
Surveys/Questionnaire
 Collect information about customers, products, work practices
and attitudes from many people in a ...
Document Analysis
 “A means to elicit requirements by studying
available documentation on existing and
comparable solutio...
Interface Analysis
Purpose - identify interfaces between solutions and/or solution
components and define requirements that...
Summary
 BA has a variety of techniques available to elicit
requirements depending on situation
 Goal is to deliver a fe...
Business Analysis- Defining the Optimal Solution
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Business Analysis- Defining the Optimal Solution

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This is a presentation I did for Mercer which gives an overview of Business Analysis and some of the techniques used.

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Business Analysis- Defining the Optimal Solution

  1. 1. Business Analysis – Defining the Optimal Solution Presented by Jennifer Colburn, CBAP, PMP July 21, 2010 http://www.stellman-greene.com/2007/08/03/qa-how-
  2. 2. Jennifer C. Colburn, CBAP, PMP  Senior Business Analyst at Kindred Healthcare  CBAP (Certified Business Analysis Professional) by the IIBA (International Institute of Business Analysis)  PMP (Project Management Professional) by PMI (Project Management Institute)  VP of Education for Louisville Chapter of the IIBA  Member of the IIBA’s Business Analysis Competency Model Committee  Just returned from European vacation- London, Brussels, Germany, and Croatia.
  3. 3. Business Analysis – Defining the Optimal Solution  Overview of Business Analysis Profession  Key Terms- Solutions and Requirements  BABOK Knowledge Areas  Elicitation Techniques Presentation material from the BABOK 2.0 (unless otherwise stated)
  4. 4. 4 International Institute of Business Analysis TM Develop and maintain standards for the practice of business analysis and for the certification of its practitioners The IIBA TM is an international not-for-profit professional association for business analysis professionals. Founded in 2003 www.theiiba.org Vision The world's leading association for Business Analysis professionals Mission KBa
  5. 5.  Analogous to the PMI and the PMBOK, the IIBA has authored the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABOK) reflecting generally accepted practices in the Business Analysis community.  Released in 2005  Version 2.0 released March 31, 2009 Business Analysis Body of KnowledgeTM
  6. 6. 6 BABOK Knowledge Areas
  7. 7. CBAP Certification  Certified Business Analysis Professional  7,500 hours business analysis work experience in last ten years  Experience and expertise in four of six knowledge areas  150 question multiple choice exam  Almost 1000 CBAPs internationally  At the end of 2010, the IIBA will also offer Certification of Competency in Business Analysis (CCBA), an intermediate level designation.
  8. 8. Value of a Business Analyst  Anyone who has ever worked on a complex and lengthy software development project knows that the involvement of a business analyst can mean the difference between success and failure.  ~ Thomas Wailgum, CIO http://www.cio.com/article/343013/  “Everyone agrees on the importance of the business analyst role, but few know exactly what it is that business analysts do.”  ~ Carey Schwaber & Rob Carel, Forrester Research April 2008
  9. 9. What is A Business Analyst?  Works as a liaison among stakeholders in order to understand the structure, policies, and operations of an organization, and to recommend solutions that enable the organization to achieve its goals.  Understands how organizations function to accomplish their purposes.  Definition of organizational goals  How those goals connect to specific objectives  Determining courses of action that a business has to undertake to achieve those goals and objectives  Defining how various organizational units and stakeholders within and outside the organization interact. (from the Business Analysis Body Of Knowledge v. 2.0, p. 3)
  10. 10. Why a Project Needs a Business Analyst http://developer.motorola.com/fromfasttrack/February_09/agile_versus_waterfall.gif/
  11. 11. Business Analysis  Understanding:  How an organization works  Why the organization exists  What are the organization’s goals and objectives  How does an organization accomplish those goals and objectives  How does an organization need to change to better accomplish those objectives and/or overcome challenges  Defining the scope of the solution (from the IIBA “A Primer to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge” presentation)
  12. 12. Solution Definition  A solution meets a business need by solving problems and/or enabling the organization to take advantage of an opportunity.  System of interacting solution components such as: software applications, web services, business processes, business rules that govern that process, an IT application, revised org structure, outsourcing, insourcing, redefining job roles or any other method of creating a capability needed by an organization.
  13. 13. Business Analysis and Solution Scope  Business Analysis helps organizations define the optimal solution for their needs, given a set of constraints (time, budget, regulations, etc) under which that organization operates.  Solution Scope- the set of capabilities a solution must support to meet the business needs.  Project Scope- the work necessary to construct and implement a particular solution
  14. 14. Complimentary Roles  Project Manager – Project Scope: resources, budget, schedule, plan, risks, quality.  Business Analyst – Solution Scope: business risks/issues, requirements related tasks in WBS, solution quality, represent business.
  15. 15. Why a Project Needs a Project Manager and a Business Analyst  PM responsible for ensuring product delivered to customer on time and within budget.  BA responsible for ensuring product built according to requirements and built correctly.  Difference in focus is reason that both roles on team are critical. ~ Barbara Carkenord, President B2T Training
  16. 16. Requirements Definition  A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective.  A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a solution or solution component to satisfy a contract, standard specification or other formally imposed documents.  A documented representation of a condition or capability as in 1) or 2).
  17. 17. Types of Requirements  Business- high level goals, needs, objectives of enterprise  Stakeholder- needs of a given stakeholder and how they interact with solution  Solution –  Functional  Non-functional  Transition - implementation requirements such as data conversion
  18. 18. Knowledge Areas
  19. 19. Enterprise Analysis  Understanding the “big picture”  Define business goals the solution must meet  Integrate requirements into larger business architecture  Support initiatives and long term planning  Strategic planning, business case development, Cost Benefit Analysis, feasibility studies  “Why are we doing this?”
  20. 20. Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring  Focus on planning for the BA processes and activities.  “What do I need to do?”  Specify the how the business analysis tasks will be performed  Identify the deliverables produced  Describe how changes will be controlled and managed
  21. 21. Requirements Management and Communications  Focus on presenting and communicating documented requirements to all stakeholders, including project team members, to bring the group to consensus on project scope.  Identify and manage change  “Does everyone understand and agree?”
  22. 22. Elicitation  Focus on gathering requirements from various stakeholder groups  Identify the tasks, knowledge and techniques for capturing requirements  “What do the Stakeholders need?”
  23. 23. Requirements Analysis  Focuses on analyzing the data  Defines the methods, tools, techniques to structure raw data collected during elicitation  Identifies gaps in requirements  Defines the “solution” capabilities and can serve as the foundation for selecting among solution alternatives.  “What must the solution do?”
  24. 24. Solutions Assessment & Validation  Focus on ensuring the best approach is chosen, that the solution will meet stakeholder objectives, that the solution is feasible, and guides solution “verification.”  “Does the solution do what it is suppose to do?”
  25. 25. BA Underlying Competencies Analytical Thinking & Problem Solving-  Creative Thinking  Decision Making  Learning  Problem Solving  Systems Thinking  Behavioral Characteristics- ethics, personal organization, trustworthiness  Business Knowledge  Communication Skills  Interaction Skills- facilitation &negotiation, leadership & influencing, teamwork  Software Applications
  26. 26. Elicitation Techniques:  Brainstorming  Focus Groups  Interviewing  Observation  Prototyping  Requirements Workshop  Survey/Questionnaire  Document Analysis  Interface Analysis
  27. 27. Brainstorming  Brainstorming is an excellent way to foster creative thinking about a problem.  The aim is to produce numerous new ideas, and to derive from them themes for further analysis.  Best applied in a group - it draws on the experience and creativity of all members of the group.  Participants are encouraged to use new ways of looking at things and free associate in any direction.
  28. 28. Focus Groups  “A means to elicit ideas and attitudes about a specific product, service or opportunity in an interactive group environment. The participants share their impressions, preferences and needs, guided by a moderator.”  Pre-qualified individuals  Homogenous or Heterogeneous groups
  29. 29. Interviewing  “Systematic approach designed to elicit information from a person or group of people in an informal or formal setting by talking to an interviewee, asking relevant questions and documenting the responses.”  One-on-one or Group  Structured – pre-defined questions  Unstructured – open-ended discussion
  30. 30. Observation  “Means of eliciting requirements by conducting an assessment of the stakeholder’s work environment.”  Also known as “Job Shadowing”  Documenting details about current processes  Enhance or change a current process  Passive/Invisible  Active/Visible
  31. 31. Prototyping  Horizontal prototype  Demonstrates outer layer of human interface only, such as menus and screens; no logic behind the visualization  Incremental prototype  The final product is built as separate prototypes. At the end, the separate prototypes are merged into an overall design  Throw-away prototype  Simple, quick approach - can be paper & pencil or screen mock- ups  Discarded when final system is developed  Evolutionary (Breadboard) prototype  A system that is continually refined and rebuilt until it is a fully functioning system
  32. 32. Requirements Workshop  “A structured way to capture requirements. A workshop may be used to scope, discover, define, prioritize and reach closure on requirements for the target system.”  Effective way to deliver high quality requirements quickly  Promote trust, understanding, and communication among the stakeholders/team  Produce deliverables that structure and guide future analysis
  33. 33. Surveys/Questionnaire  Collect information about customers, products, work practices and attitudes from many people in a relatively short period of time  Can be Anonymous  Closed - Respondent selects from predetermined choices  Easier to analyze, limited responses  Useful when ranges of response is understood, but strength of response needs to be determined  Open - Respondent is free to answer as they wish  Wider range of responses, difficult to quantify  Useful when issues known but range of responses is not
  34. 34. Document Analysis  “A means to elicit requirements by studying available documentation on existing and comparable solutions and identifying relevant information”  Gathering detail of AS-IS  SMEs not available  Enhancements to existing system  Existing system to be included in new system
  35. 35. Interface Analysis Purpose - identify interfaces between solutions and/or solution components and define requirements that describe how they will act.
  36. 36. Summary  BA has a variety of techniques available to elicit requirements depending on situation  Goal is to deliver a feasible quality solution that meets the business needs- the optimal solution  Help prevent scope creep and reduce project risks, including rework  Provide traceability to business goals  Business Analysis is a formally defined profession  Internationally acknowledged certification program

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