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Self-tracking technologies and Self-quantification.


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Self-tracking technologies and how they relate to self-quantification and motivation.

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Self-tracking technologies and Self-quantification.

  1. 1. Self-tracking technologies and selfquantification. Based on information sourced at
  2. 2. Hi, I’m Jenna.
  3. 3. Today I know that…. I have consumed 394 calories so far….. I also know that last time I worked out I ran 4.8 kilometres in 33 minutes and 40 seconds burning 291 calories. This was a slight improvement on the data collected from the previous workout. …and that I can record and compare my sleep patterns over an extended period of time with ease. I am confident in this knowledge as I have employed self-quantification technologies to record this data. This presentation will explore the nature of self-quantification technologies through exploring three such technologies.
  4. 4. Defining self-tracking/ self-quantification… • Evans (2012) refers to self-quantification as “selfknowledge through numbers” Evans goes on to refer to this phenomenon as “a rational, scientific approach to self-improvement, which means keeping account of yourself, so that you can see what progress you‟re making, which interventions are really working, and which are a waste of time” (Evans, 2012).
  5. 5. Self-tracking/ self-quantification technologies typically employ the following techniques to motivate users: ‚Gamification‛ refers to ‚interactivity, the ability to customise and personalise the experience, the provision of ‘just in time’ information, and the presentation of information in multiple modes (audio, visual, textual and tactile)‛ as successful techniques for engaging players (Gee as cited in Jones, 2013). Many selfquantification technologies present challenges in a game-format. Social networking/ sharing is often an option in self-quantifying technologies. This motivates users as it allows them to share their achievements and progress with their ‘friends’ and ‘followers’ via social networking sites, namely Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Tokens refers to the use of ‘token’ prizes as a rewards for achievement. Tokens are a visual, and in the case of these technologies, typically non-tangible reward for achievement/ progression. Comparison: Many self-quantification technologies employ comparison techniques, allowing users to see their progress through direct comparison of multiple data logs. Seeing ones progress can serve to further motivate users.
  6. 6. I know my calorie intake through using the MyFitnessPal Ipad app…. • This „app‟ allows me to record my daily calorie intake and compare it to any other given day I have entered data. • This technology calculates an ideal daily calorie intake based on my current and goal weight. • Each food I have eaten is logged. A comprehensive database of foods and their calories allows me to keep a track of my daily calorie intake.
  7. 7. I know my calorie intake through using the MyFitnessPal Ipad app….
  8. 8. This technology logs comprehensive information about each food I add to my daily intake.
  9. 9. MapMyRun allows me to quantify data from working out…. • Information about my workouts is saved in this Iphone app. • This includes distance, time, calories burned… • Furthermore, this app allows comparison of previous data with that of a new workout. • This app allows me to create a „profile‟ make it a social network in itself.
  10. 10. In the case of MapMyRun the intangible token reward system is the possibility for me to earn ‘awards’ for attaining achievements or making progress. ‚the fitbit website awards me a badge every time I climb a certain amount of stairs and transmits that fact to my Facebook and the Nike+ :website allows me to ‘race’ with my friends whether we are running at the same time or not‛ (Jones, 2013). The features Jones describes are applicable to MapMyRun.
  11. 11. The ‘sleep on it’ app allows me to regulate and compare my sleep patterns… • This technology allows me to compare data collected about my daily sleep patterns. • The communications section of this technology allows me to share my data via social media.
  12. 12. Self-tracking, achievement as motivation: • • • • • • • Self-quantification technologies rely heavily on achievement motivation. Spielberger (2004) refers to achievement motivation as “the desire to excel at effortful activities”. There are two main categories into which human motivation falls. Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to “the inherent propensity to engage in one‟s interests and to exercise one‟s capacities and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges” (Deci & Ryan as cited in Reeve, 2009 p.111). Intrinsic motivation “emerges spontaneously from psychological needs and innate strivings… when people are motivated intrinsically, they act out of interest „for the fun of it‟” (Reeve, 2009). Essentially intrinsic motivation stems from one‟s capacity and desire to pursue an interest into stages of mastery for the sake of enjoyment. Extrinsic motivation “arises from environmental incentives and consequences… praise, attention… tokens, approval… public recognition… extrinsic motivation arises from some consequence that is separate from the activity itself” (Reeve, 2009)
  13. 13. Self-regulation as a process. • Self-regulation is often thought of as a cylindrical process. Reeve (2009) refers to the self-regulation process as “an ongoing, cylindrical process… it involves forethought, action and reflection”. • Reeve (2009) describes forethought as involving „goal-setting‟ and „implementation intentions‟, • Reeve describes the second stage in the self-regulation cycle as performance and the third stage as self-reflection which involves „self-monitoring‟ and „self-evaluating‟. • Bandura also posited that self-regulation involves three processes; “self-observations, self-judgements and selfreactions” (Bandura as cited in Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011). • The desire to engage in self-tracking is closely related to that to self-regulate.
  14. 14. The rise of selfquantification: • • • The phrase „quantified-self‟ was first used by Gary Wolf and Kevin Kelly, editors of wired magazine, in 2007 (CIPR, 2013). According to Morozov (2013) Wolf and Kelly cofounded the quantifiedself movement. In 2010; “Wolf penned something of a manifesto for this nascent movement… which was published in… The New York Times Magazine, launching the Quantified-self movement not just nationally but globally” (Morozov, 2013). This article contained four factors that Wolf speculated led to the swift rise of this movement in recent years these included….. • “electronic sensors shrank in size and became more powerful… once they entered our smartphones, they became ubiquitous… social media :–from Facebook to Twitter- made sharing seem normal… the idea of cloud computing made it possible (and acceptable) to offload one‟s :data onto distant servers, where merged with the data of other users, it can be expected to yield better results” (Morozov, 2013).
  15. 15. Social needs and selfquantification: • According to Plotnik and Kouyoumdjian (2011, p.332) “social needs are needs that are acquired through learning and experience”. Reeve (2009) asserts that “social needs arise and activate emotional and behavioural potential when need-satisfying incentives appear”. So, social needs facilitate emotional and behavioural actions when potentially socially satisfying inducements present themselves. • Social needs have the potential to motivate behaviour. Since self-quantification technologies often feature social aspects as a means of sharing users‟ progress, social gratification serves as a means of motivating achievement. As such, human social needs are highly relevant to self-quantification in the 21st century.
  16. 16. Social needs and selfquantification: • It can be asserted that improvements and progress recorded by self-quantifying technologies are in part due to motivation resulting from social needs. • Many of these technologies feature the option to upload progress and data collected to social media websites like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. There is also often a feature allowing one to send an email or text message showing the details of their achievements. • These features allow users to employ self-quantification technologies for the purpose of seeking social gratification, acceptance and praise from their peers via social media. • For many self-quantifiers the motivation behind logging an extra kilometre on one‟s fitness app may be the revere of one‟s peers when one upload the data associated with this workout to social media.
  17. 17. How self-quantified are you? • If you answer „yes‟ to a question add the number of points with which it corresponds, if no, do not add any points. The sum of scores at the end of the quiz reveals your self-quantification data! • Do you have access to one of the following; a smartphone, tablet, computer, the internet? (If yes add 1 point). Do you use any of the following social media websites: Facebook, Twitter or Instagram? (If yes add 1 point). Do you use any of the following apps/websites?: Nike+, MapMyRun, MyFitnessPal, Spendee or fitbit? (If yes add 3 points). Have you ever used one of these apps to share your personal data through social media, email or text message? (If yes add 3 points) Do you use more than one technology to record personal data in the pursuit of self-improvement? (If yes add 4 points). Have you ever used any other application that records your personal data in the pursuit of self-improvement? (If yes add 1 point). Is there a technology that you would attribute personal selfimprovement to? (If yes add 2 points) • • • • • •
  18. 18. How self-quantified are you? • What does your score say about you? 0-5 points you're a non-quantified Nancy! You are yet to embrace the self-quantification movement! • 5-10 points you're catching on! You are starting to embrace some self-quantifying technologies... • 10-15 points you're a self-quantifying smarty! Not only are you embracing the self-quantifying technologies available you're sharing your data with the world - you're a part of the movement! •
  19. 19. References: • • • • • • • • • • • • • CIPR (Chartered Institute of Public Relations). (2013). Share this too: More social media solutions for PR professionals. Cornwall: UK. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Evans, J. (2012). Philosophy for life and other dangerous situations. Great Britain. Ebury Publishing. Jones, R. (2013). Health and Risk Communication: An Applied Linguistic Perspective. Routledge publishing. Lipson, H. & Kurman, M. (2013). Fabricated: The new world of 3D printing. Indiana: USA. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Morozov, E. (2013). To save everything, click here: The folly of technological solutionism. PublicAffairs publishing. Nevid, J. (2009) Psychology: Concepts and applications. Boston: MA. Houghton Mifflin Company. Pine, B. J. & Korn, K. C. (2011). Infinite possibility. San Francisco: CA. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. Plotnik, R. & Kouyoumdjian, H. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Belmont: CA. Wadsworth publishing. Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion. New Jersey: US. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Sandhu, R. (n.d.). The Quantified Self Movement: Unlocking Your Own Personal Data Stream. Retrieved from: Website: Spielberger, C. (2004). Encyclopaedia of applied psychology. Academic Press. Zimmerman, B. & Schunk, D. (2011). Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. New York: US. Taylor & Francis. Screenshots from the apps: MyFitnessPal, MapMyRun and „sleep on it‟ were used.