Part VIII Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Twenty-Five Theories of Late Adulthood Coping with Retirement F...
Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development <ul><li>the range of possibilities for life after age 65 is vast, greater than at...
Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Self Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theories of late adulthood that emphasize the core ...
Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Integrity Versus Despair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the final stage of Erik Erikson’s develo...
Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Selective Optimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this concept is central to self theories—i...
Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Stratification by Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as they grow older, people may be consigned...
Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Stratification by Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disengagement theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Dynamic Theories of Aging <ul><li>Continuity Theory is much like personality trait theory </li></ul>
Coping with Retirement <ul><li>Retirement and Marriage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research says that it is best for both spouse...
Coping with Retirement <ul><li>Political Activism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the elderly are more politically active </li></ul>...
Coping with Retirement <ul><li>AARP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a U.S. organization of people aged 50 and older, which advocates...
Friends and Relatives <ul><ul><li>social convoy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collectively, the family members, friends, ...
Friends and Relatives <ul><li>Long-Term Marriages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a spouse buffers against the problems of old age a...
Friends and Relatives <ul><li>Losing a Spouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>widowhood among elderly is common and problematic—espe...
Friends and Relatives <ul><li>Grandchildren </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing grandparent-grandchild relationships usually rev...
The Frail Elderly <ul><li>frail elderly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people over age 65 who are physically infirm, very ill, or c...
The Frail Elderly <ul><li>activities of daily life (ADL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>actions that are important to independent l...
The Frail Elderly <ul><li>instrumental activities of daily life (IADL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>actions that are important to...
The Frail Elderly <ul><li>Instrumental Activities of Daily Life (IADL) </li></ul>
Caring for the Frail Elderly <ul><li>Elder Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis of elder abuse is complicated because thre...
Caring for the Frail Elderly <ul><li>Long-Term  Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assistant living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
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Berger ls 7e ch 25

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Berger ls 7e ch 25

  1. 1. Part VIII Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Twenty-Five Theories of Late Adulthood Coping with Retirement Friends and Relatives The Frail Elderly
  2. 2. Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development <ul><li>the range of possibilities for life after age 65 is vast, greater than at any earlier age </li></ul><ul><li>people in late adulthood take comfort in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pleasure in their daily routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>current events </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Self Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theories of late adulthood that emphasize the core self, or the search to maintain one’s integrity and identity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Integrity Versus Despair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the final stage of Erik Erikson’s developmental sequence, in which older adults seek to integrate their unique experience with their vision of community </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Selective Optimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this concept is central to self theories—individuals can set goals, assess their own abilities, and figure out how to accomplish what they want to achieve despite the limitation and declines of later life </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Stratification by Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as they grow older, people may be consigned to their own places and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industrialized nations segregate older people </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Theories of Late Adulthood <ul><li>Stratification by Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disengagement theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the view that aging makes a person’s social sphere increasingly narrow, resulting in role relinquishment, withdrawal, and passivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activity theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the view that elderly people want and need to remain active in a variety of social spheres—with relatives, friends, and community groups—and become withdrawn only unwillingly, as a result of ageism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Dynamic Theories of Aging <ul><li>Continuity Theory is much like personality trait theory </li></ul>
  9. 9. Coping with Retirement <ul><li>Retirement and Marriage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research says that it is best for both spouses to retire together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neither is satisfied if the other is still working and making family decisions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Coping with Retirement <ul><li>Political Activism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the elderly are more politically active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequently write to their elected representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vote in off-year elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify with a political party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>join groups that lobby </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Coping with Retirement <ul><li>AARP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a U.S. organization of people aged 50 and older, which advocates for the elderly—it was originally called the American Association of Retired Person, but now only the acronym AARP is used, to reflect the fact that the organization’s members do not have to be retired </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Friends and Relatives <ul><ul><li>social convoy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collectively, the family members, friends, acquaintances, and even strangers who move through life with an individual </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Friends and Relatives <ul><li>Long-Term Marriages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a spouse buffers against the problems of old age and extends life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal happiness increases with the quality of the marriage or intimate relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mutual respect </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Friends and Relatives <ul><li>Losing a Spouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>widowhood among elderly is common and problematic—especially the first two years after death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women tend to marry older men and live longer than men </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Friends and Relatives <ul><li>Grandchildren </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing grandparent-grandchild relationships usually reveal one of three approaches to grandparenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remote grandparents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>companionate grandparents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involved grandparents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Frail Elderly <ul><li>frail elderly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people over age 65 who are physically infirm, very ill, or cognitively impaired </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Frail Elderly <ul><li>activities of daily life (ADL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>actions that are important to independent living, typically consisting of five tasks of self-care; eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring from a bed to a chair—the inability to perform any of these tasks is a sign of frailty </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Frail Elderly <ul><li>instrumental activities of daily life (IADL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>actions that are important to independent living and that require some intellectual competence and forethought—the ability to perform these tasks is even more critical to self-sufficiency than ADL ability </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Frail Elderly <ul><li>Instrumental Activities of Daily Life (IADL) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Caring for the Frail Elderly <ul><li>Elder Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis of elder abuse is complicated because three distinct elements contribute to the problem: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the victim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the abuser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the setting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Caring for the Frail Elderly <ul><li>Long-Term Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assistant living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides some of the privacy and independence of living at home, along with some medical supervision </li></ul></ul></ul>

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