Part VIII Late Adulthood: Cognitive Development Chapter Twenty-Four The Usual: Information Processing  After Age 65  The i...
The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>information-processing approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breaking down...
The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>storage refers to memory in the inform...
The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an aspect of impaired analysis is th...
The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>another control process, the abilit...
The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Reminding People of What They Know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>priming </...
The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Staying Healthy and Alert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary aging—ill...
The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Beyond Ageism </li></ul>
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Loss of intellectual ability in elderly people has traditionally been called  senility. </l...
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the most common cause of dementia, character...
Alzheimer's
Alzheimer's
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gender, ethnicity, and especiall...
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Stages: From Confusion to Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease usually runs thro...
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Stages: From Confusion to Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stage 1 – confused with normal aging ...
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Many Strokes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the second most common cause of dementia is a stroke </l...
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Subcortical Dementias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms of dementia that begin with impairments i...
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Reversible Dementia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dementia caused by medication, inadequate nutriti...
The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Psychological Illness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elderly people have a lower incidence of psycho...
Coping with aging <ul><li>The Life Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an examination of one’s own part in life, engaged in by ma...
The Optimal: New Cognitive Development <ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a cognitive perspective characterized by a bro...
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Berger ls 7e ch 24

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Berger ls 7e ch 24

  1. 1. Part VIII Late Adulthood: Cognitive Development Chapter Twenty-Four The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 The impaired Dementia The Optimal: New Cognitive Development
  2. 2. The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>information-processing approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breaking down cognition into the steps of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>input (sensing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>storage (memory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>program (control process) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output” (Chapter 6) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>storage refers to memory in the information-processing model of cognition </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an aspect of impaired analysis is that some elderly are more likely to stick to preconceived ideas rather than consider and change their minds </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>another control process, the ability to recall the name of childhood acquaintance, worsens with age </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Reminding People of What They Know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>priming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preparation that makes it easier to perform some action—it is easier to retrieve an item from memory if we are given a clue about it beforehand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explicit memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>memory that is easy to retrieve on demand (as in a specific test), usually with words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most explicit memory involves consciously learned words, data, and concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implicit memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unconscious or automatic memory that is usually stored via habits, emotional responses, routine procedures, and various sensations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Staying Healthy and Alert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary aging—illness and conditions— that affect one person but not another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secondary aging is a major reason for the remarkable variation in intellectual ability between one older person and another </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Usual: Information Processing After Age 65 <ul><li>Beyond Ageism </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Loss of intellectual ability in elderly people has traditionally been called senility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dementia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>irreversible loss of intellectual functioning caused by organic brain damage or disease—dementia becomes more common with age, but it is abnormal and pathological even in the very old </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the most common cause of dementia, characterized by gradual deterioration of memory and personality and marked by the information of plaques of beta-amyloid protein and tangles in the brain </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Alzheimer's
  12. 12. Alzheimer's
  13. 13. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gender, ethnicity, and especially age affect a person’s odds of developing Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women are at greater risk than men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer East Asians than Europeans develop the disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less common among those of African descent, but life expectancy is far lower in Africa than in any other continent and diagnosis of illness in late adulthood is less certain </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Stages: From Confusion to Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease usually runs through a progressive course of five identifiable stages, beginning with forgetfulness and ending in death </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Stages: From Confusion to Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stage 1 – confused with normal aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stage 2 – generalized confusion—deficits in concentration and short-term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stage 3 – memory loss becomes dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stage 4 – full-time care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stage 5 – unresponsive, no longer talking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>stages take 10 to 15 years </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Many Strokes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the second most common cause of dementia is a stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repeated brain damage leads to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vascular dementia (VaD), also called multi-infarct dementia (MID) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a form of dementia characterized by sporadic, and progressive, loss of intellectual functioning caused by repeated infarcts, or temporary obstructions of blood vessels, which prevent sufficient blood from reaching the brain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Subcortical Dementias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms of dementia that begin with impairments in motor ability (which is governed by the sub-cortex) and produce cognitive impairment in later stages—Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and multiple sclerosis are subcortical dementias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a chronic, progressive disease that is characterized by muscle tremor and rigidity, and sometimes dementia, caused by a reduction of dopamine production in the brain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Reversible Dementia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dementia caused by medication, inadequate nutrition, alcohol abuse, depression, or other mental illness can sometimes be reversed </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Impaired: Dementia <ul><li>Psychological Illness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elderly people have a lower incidence of psychological disorders—the rate of anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression are lower after age 65 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Coping with aging <ul><li>The Life Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an examination of one’s own part in life, engaged in by many elderly people </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Optimal: New Cognitive Development <ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a cognitive perspective characterized by a broad, practical, comprehensive approach to life’s problems, reflecting timeless truths rather than immediate expediency—seems to be more common in the elderly than in the young </li></ul></ul>

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