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Copyright and Art

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Copyright and Art

  1. 1. Beyond Cutting and Pasting: Copyright Issues for Artists and Students <ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Jennifer B. Stidham </li></ul><ul><li>Public Services Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>HCC-Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>Northline Campus </li></ul>
  2. 2. Caution! The Librarian You See Before You....
  3. 3. Stealing is Fun! ....Ooops, Appropriation is Fun! <ul><li>The Center for Social Media's Remix Culture </li></ul><ul><li>http:// centerforsocialmedia .org/files/videos/remix_culture/remix_culture. mov </li></ul>
  4. 4. Popular Copyright Myths <ul><li>If a work is on the Internet/Google it is in the public domain. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no copyright notice on the work, I don’t need permission. </li></ul><ul><li>If I don’t profit from the use, I don’t need permission. </li></ul><ul><li>If I remove the work after notice, I don’t owe any money to the copyright holder. </li></ul><ul><li>If I alter the work only X% I don’t need permission. </li></ul><ul><li>If I only use a part of the work I don’t need permission. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Consider these Scenarios... <ul><li>1. A creates a unique collage that includes a copyrighted photograph taken by B. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A creates a limited edition series of prints that incorporates B's copyrighted photograph. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A constructs several identical sculptural works based on B's copyrighted photographs of a comic book character. </li></ul>
  6. 6. And, more... <ul><li>4. A makes copies of B's reproduction of a public domain painting. </li></ul><ul><li>5. A purchases B's copyrighted note cards, affixes them to tiles, and sells them as decorative objects. </li></ul><ul><li>6. A museum reproduces an image in digital format of a copyrighted work in its collection. It places the reproduction on its website. Other individuals down load the image and distribute it over the Internet. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ahhhh! What Are We To Do? <ul><li>Know a bit about relevant laws and legislation- their purpose and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a thorough working knowledge of Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about commonly accepted best practices for the use of copyrighted materials </li></ul><ul><li>Implement strategies to protect your own creative works and your Fair Use of others' works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to properly cite your uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn about asking permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep thorough records </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Copyright Basics <ul><ul><li>The US Constitution gives Congress the power to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enact laws “to promote the progress of science and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and inventors the exclusive right to their respective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>writings and discoveries.” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. When Do You Acquire Copyright Protection? <ul><li>Copyright protects “original works of authorship” that are fixed in “a tangible form of expression.” </li></ul><ul><li>Rights begin at the moment of “fixation.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is Protected? <ul><li>Literary works (all text, including computer software) </li></ul><ul><li>Musical works </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic works </li></ul><ul><li>Pantomimes and choreographic works </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works </li></ul><ul><li>Motion pictures and other audiovisual works </li></ul><ul><li>Sound recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural works </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is Not Protected? <ul><li>Ideas, concepts, or discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Titles, names, short phrases, and slogans </li></ul><ul><li>Works that are not fixed in a tangible form of expression such as improvised speech or dance </li></ul><ul><li>Works consisting entirely of information that is commonly available and contains no originality </li></ul><ul><li>Anything written or created by the US government </li></ul>
  12. 12. What Rights Does the Owner Control? <ul><li>Rights to: </li></ul><ul><li>Make copies of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute copies of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Perform the work publicly (such as for plays, film, or music)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Display the work publicly (such as for artwork, or any material used on the internet or television)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Make “derivative works” (including making modifications, adaptations or other new uses of a work, or translating the work to another media)‏ </li></ul>
  13. 13. How Long Does Copyright Protection Last? <ul><li>For the life of the author, plus 70 years </li></ul><ul><li>95 years for corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a chart that shows the possibilities- </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.copyright. cornell . edu /public_domain/ </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is Public Domain? <ul><li>Works out of copyright </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. - All published works before 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Works that fell out of copyright for failure to register or renew under 1909 Act or for </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of notice before 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Works produced by the U.S. government </li></ul>
  15. 15. Is Copyright Notice Needed? <ul><li>Since March 1989: copyright notice is no longer required for published works </li></ul><ul><li>Notice is voluntary but recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Proper notice: © year, name </li></ul>
  16. 16. Limitations on Owner’s Rights <ul><li>The &quot;Fair Use&quot; doctrine allows limited copying and use of copyrighted works for educational and research purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>The copyright law provides that reproduction &quot;...for purposes such as criticism, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research&quot; is not an infringement of copyright. </li></ul>
  17. 17. What is Fair Use? <ul><li>The Fair Use Doctrine basically says that in some cases it's okay to use protected works so long as your use meets certain criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Exemption: Law broken, but... </li></ul><ul><li>Four factors of fair use- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Character of the use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of the work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of the work used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on the market for the original or for permissions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Character of the Use <ul><li>Favors Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>* Non-profit </li></ul><ul><li>* Instructional (available just for students, restricted)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>* Transformative (criticism or parody)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs Against Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>* Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>* Available to non-students (e.g. Learning Web)‏ </li></ul>
  19. 19. Nature of the Work <ul><li>Favors Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>* Published </li></ul><ul><li>* Non-fiction, factual </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs Against Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>* Unpublished </li></ul><ul><li>* Creative or Fictional </li></ul><ul><li>* Consumable (e.g. Workbooks)‏ </li></ul>
  20. 20. Amount of the Work Used <ul><li>Favors Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>* Small portion </li></ul><ul><li>* Not central or of utmost significance to whole work </li></ul><ul><li>* Appropriate for intended purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs Against Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>* Large amount or whole work </li></ul><ul><li>* The &quot;heart of the work&quot; used </li></ul>
  21. 21. Market Impact <ul><li>Favors Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>* User owns original </li></ul><ul><li>* One or few copies made </li></ul><ul><li>* Not possible or difficult to acquire permission </li></ul><ul><li>* Stimulates market (e.g. a book review)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs Against Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>* Repeated use (semester after semester)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>* Permission is available for sale </li></ul><ul><li>* Multiple copies, not for education </li></ul>
  22. 22. Social Commentary
  23. 23. Parody Can Be Fair Use
  24. 24. Parody?
  25. 25. Change of Medium is Still an Infringement
  26. 26. Blanche v Koons: “transformative = fair use”
  27. 27. Why Should You Worry About Copyright? <ul><li>Substantial monetary damages can be awarded (actual damages, profits)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory damages ($750-$30,000 and up to $150,000 if the infringement was wilful)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>The infringing use can be enjoined (prohibited)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Attorney’s fees may be high </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal offense under some circumstances </li></ul>
  28. 28. What is Infringement? <ul><li>Use of the whole or part of a work without permission </li></ul><ul><li>Use beyond the scope of a license </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting a work without permission </li></ul><ul><li>Asking another author to recreate a work </li></ul>
  29. 29. How the Work is Treated Can Be Important <ul><li>For example, the ways in which images can be changed and manipulated by technology can come into play in the copyright and Fair Use arena. Some examples that pertain to the use of visual images are- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sizing - thumbnails/vignettes vs. original or larger sized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality - effect on market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking, framing, and in-lining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watermarks and other protection devices </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Best Practices <ul><ul><li>Guidelines for Off-Air Recordings of Broadcast Programming for Educational Purposes http://library. pittstate . edu /OIM/Guidelines. pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States Copyright Law: A Guide for Music Educators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. menc .org/information/copyright/ copyr .html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentary Filmmakers’ Statement of Best Practices in Fair Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. centerforsocialmedia .org/resources/publications/statement_of_best_practices_in_fair_use/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Software: A Guide to the Ethical and Legal Use of Software for Members of the Academic Community </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia <ul><li>These guidelines cover educational presentations that incorporate various media- like Powerpoints, websites, DE classes. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portion Guidelines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Max: 5 images per artist or photographer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Published collected works: lesser of 10% or 15 images </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time Limit- 2 years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Derivative Work
  33. 33. Original Art
  34. 34. Substantial Similarity <ul><li>There is no hard and fast rule for what is substantially similar. </li></ul><ul><li>The two works are compared to one another in court. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Elements that are Compared <ul><li>Posing </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Angle </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Shading </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Viewpoint </li></ul>
  36. 36. Idea-Expression Dichotomy <ul><li>The idea is not protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the expression of the idea is protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Where the way the idea is expressed tends to merge with the idea itself, there is no protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic facts, blank forms, computer displays </li></ul><ul><li>Compilation </li></ul>
  37. 37. Idea vs. Expression
  38. 38. Fournier v Erickson
  39. 39. Leigh v Warner Bros.
  40. 40. Scenes a Faire <ul><li>Things that tend to look similar or are handled in a similar way in any two depictions of the same or similar subject </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a photo of a building will naturally look similar to another photo of the same building. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Kaplan v. Stock Market Photo Agency, Inc.
  42. 42. Highly Orchestrated Images Enjoy Greater Protection
  43. 43. What’s Copyrightable? <ul><li>Protected </li></ul><ul><li>Particular expression </li></ul><ul><li>Total look and feel </li></ul><ul><li>Not Protected </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Expression merged with an idea </li></ul><ul><li>Commonplace subjects and compositions </li></ul>
  44. 44. Inspiration or Infringement? You Decide...
  45. 48. Just Ask! Getting Permission! <ul><li>Often quick and easy- sometimes an email will do </li></ul><ul><li>But, what if an author is unknown or a more formal process is called for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding the author with search resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample permission letters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helpful handout at http:// libline . hccs . edu /copyright/get_permission.doc </li></ul>
  46. 49. Odds and Ends for Academia <ul><ul><li>Think of alternatives when use is problematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructors- consider including copyright information and instruction in class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep records of permission requests and fair use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include copyright statements with presentations, distance education classes, and reserve materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to respect the rights of your students as well. If you would like to use student work in subsequent semesters, use release forms such as http://www.copyright. iupui . edu / stuworkperm . htm . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't be afraid! Exercise your fair use rights! </li></ul></ul>
  47. 50. Protecting Your Own Intellectual Property <ul><li>Before you create- </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors- know where you stand- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is your work a “work for hire?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HCC's policy is contained in the 2007 Faculty Handbook , Section 4.3.3 under “Conflict of Interest” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check out UT's Protecting Intellectual Property at </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.lib. utexas . edu /services/faculty/protect_ ip .html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And The Copyright Management Center's page at </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.copyright. iupui . edu / nego _doc. htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 51. Copyright Protection Online and Offline <ul><li>Register the work with the Copyright Office at </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.copyright. gov /register/ </li></ul><ul><li>Include clear copyright management information (CMI) with the work </li></ul><ul><li>For online works, consider using a service such as Creative Commons. Here are examples of their licenses http:// creativecommons .org/about/licenses/meet-the-licenses </li></ul>
  49. 52. Why Register Anyway? <ul><li>Required before filing a claim (US authors)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Remedies limited to actual damages and no ability to recover attorneys’ fees if work registered after infringement. </li></ul><ul><li>With registration before infringement, you can seek statutory damages ($750-$30,000) and attorneys’ fees and statutory damages can be enhanced up to $150,000 if the infringement was wilful. </li></ul>
  50. 53. Something Extra for Visual Artists- Moral Rights <ul><li>The Visual Artists Rights Act of 1990 (VARA), 17 U.S.C. </li></ul><ul><li>§ 106A , is a United States law protecting artist rights. </li></ul><ul><li>VARA gives the author (or creator) of a work of visual art the right to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claim authorship of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the use of his/her name as the author of a work he/she did not create </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the use of his/her name as author of a work that has been distorted,mutilated or modified to a certain degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under certain circumstances, prevent the distortion, mutilation, modification or destruction of a work of visual art, though this right is restricted when the work has been incorporated into a building with the consent of the author. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARA provides protection of these rights for the duration of the life of the author(s) of the work, and these rights cannot be transferred to another party, though they can be waived if done so by an express written and signed waiver. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Thanks, France!
  52. 55. I am beleaguered because the Information Age doesn't look anything like the age I thought it would, could, or should. As an information professional trained to organize, store, retrieve, disseminate, and evaluate the quality of information, I am chagrined at how little we value information as a freely transacted commodity. I might not feel so beleaguered: * if the information age were about the dissemination of information, and not its commodification; * if the distinction between reference images and reproduction images were recognized. Reference images would be freely transacted for scholarship, teaching, criticism, research, news, transacted without rights and permissions. Reference images would require attribution and source documentation. Reproduction images, on the other hand, would be those high resolution, large scale images that meet all the requirements of fidelity, attribution, and permissions required by the copyright owner. * if we recognized the difference between display and publication on the World Wide Web; * if faculty and students would cite their use of images with the same attention to detail as they should cite their use of words in quotations; * if normative and prescriptive guidelines like the Classroom Guidelines and CONFU will go away in favor of principles of use and right practice, resulting in a strengthening of fair use on the Web; * if there were bumper stickers that said &quot; fair use trumps site licensing&quot;. Strike a blow against the commodification of information, the commercialization of the World Wide Web, the marginalization of education, the mystification of fair use: assert your statutory right and create responsible fair use web sites. I wouldn't go as far as Abby Hoffman's Steal This Book, but I do say, &quot;Use That Image.&quot;
  53. 56. Thank You! <ul><li>Jennifer B. Stidham </li></ul><ul><li>jennifer . stidham @ hccs . edu </li></ul>

Editor's Notes

  • Welcome! Thank you for being here today! About 18 months ago, I began working on a short course for faculty on the subject of copyright literacy- about 90 minutes of content. Not so much, shouldn&apos;t be too difficult. After all, I am a librarian with all the information resources of HCC at my fingertips, right! Well, I quickly realized that a 90 minute overview of the entire copyright issue was going to be a little rushed! So, I was actually excited to have a chance to really delve deeply into one specific aspect of copyright and intellectual property- the issues that pertain to artists and to students in our digital environment. Again, though, I found that even a discrete topic as this one has to be severely reined in in order to fit a 90 minute time frame, so again, like the broader seminar I teach, I will focus on just enough background and legal, and legislative information to get us acclimated, but we&apos;ll really focus on the practical- on the day-to-day scenarios that we encounter in the educational and artistic contexts that we fear will come back to haunt us! What of the creative works of others can we use in the service of art, of expression, of education? How can we use this material? How can we protect our own creations while still contributing to the works of others? This will be the focus of this presentation today.