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413 ch1 powerpoint

  1. 1. CHAPTER ONE Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards by Jenifer York Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  2. 2. Teaching is a complicated art. It is an interplay between individuals where an idea or skill is shared. It is a delicate process involving timing, encouragement, sharing, and molding. The teacher may model, give information, and provide feedback, but mastery is ultimately in the hands of the learner. Patience is needed as is the employment of various skills in the journey of shaping new abilities and ideas. Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  3. 3. CRITICAL LEGISLATURE PL 94-142 Education for All The central goal of this law Handicapped Children Act was to provide an (EHA) appropriate education for students with disabilities that It initiated funding for states up to this point had not had a to aid in “development, change at this kind of expansion, and improvement education. of special education This law ensured the rights of programs” (Palloway, Patton, all children with disabilities. & Serna, 2007). It laid the groundwork for IDEA 2004 Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  4. 4. CRITICAL LEGISLATURE CONT. Individuals with Disabilities An evaluation prior to receiving special ed. services must be conducted. The evaluation must have Education Act (IDEA 2004) parent consent, be evaluated by a team, use more than one procedure, This law has historically gone test in the student’s native language, through four reauthorizations and and should have re-evaluations as necessary. revisions. Individualize Education Program (IEP) IDEA carries great significance for This is to establish specific, special education today, and lays measurable goals for the learner, six provisions for all children with dependent upon the student’s disabilities: present level of performance. It must also include transition planning for Free and Appropriate Public Education all students age 14 and older. (FAPE) This is also to address how much and The school is to provide services and to what extent the student will be transportation to meet the student’s participating in the general needs, and if not available at the curriculum. school, it must provide funding to receive those services elsewhere. Appropriate Evaluation Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  5. 5. CRITICAL LEGISLATURE CONT. Individuals with Parents have the right to obtain an Independent Education Evaluation (IEE) if any disagreement arises. Disabilities Education Act Procedural Safeguards (IDEA 2004) cont. Various safeguards have been implemented under IDEA to ensure Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) protection of the rights of parents This is the mandate for all students and their children such as: to be in the LRE, or the setting/ right to education records, right to curriculum most similar to the obtain and IEE, the right to request general curriculum--often times the and the right to initiate civil action general education classroom. when appealing a final hearing decision, the need for a functional Parent and Student Participation in behavioral assessment, and the Decision Making xdevelopment of behavioral intervention plans. Parental consent is required for all decisions regarding and influencing the student. Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  6. 6. CRITICAL LEGISLATURE CONT. Section 504 Americans with Disabilities “any student who has a physical Act (ADA) or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more The definitions and implications major life activities can qualify for those with disabilities are for special services.” similar to that of Section 504 This is in essence, a safety net to It ensure the protection of guarantee services for all those general civil rights for those with who do not fall under the criteria disabilities. to qualify for the special education protection provided by Under this legislature, guidelines IDEA, but still require additional are established for employment, support to succeed. public accommodation, transportation, state and local government operations, and telecommunications systems Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  7. 7. CRITICAL LEGISLATURE CONT. No Child Left Behind Act Parents may move their children from a failing school or choose to obtain supplemental services from a (NCLB) private or public provider. This law is the most recent piece Greater Flexibility to states, school districts, and schools of a national, standards based movement. Passed in 2001, it Greater flexility in spending federal money received. made provisions for: Putting Reading First Increased Accountability A strong emphasis on scientifically Schools are measured through based strategies for teaching statewide testing to assess if the reading paired with lofty goals for established academics standards literacy. have been met in the Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) measurement. Highly Qualified Teachers Participation of ALL students including those with disabilities, is Firmer requirements on required to ensure equal attention qualifications for educators. in the educational setting. Parent and student choice Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  8. 8. KEY ELEMENTS IN SCHOOLS TODAY Standards-Based Education Student Accountability Under the current situation and Under the legislation of NCLB, all the historical movement, students are required to take the instruction is centered around standardized test, including those specific standards set for the with disabilities. A small percent various grade levels. of students with severe disabilities will be allowed to take an There are two types of standards alternative assessment. An Content Standards: exception is made for a VERY “knowledge, skills, and understanding small percentage of students with that students should attain in severe disabilities who may be academic subjects excused from the testing. Performance Standards: “levels of achievement that students must meet to demonstrate their proficiency in the subjects” (Palloway, Patton, & Serna, 2007). Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  9. 9. KEY ELEMENTS IN SCHOOLS TODAY Inclusion Response to Intervention “the most constant theme in special (RTI) education has been the commitment RTI is a three tiered intervention to providing persons with strategy, in which each tier provides disabilities the opportunity to have a different intensity of intervention a place in society” (Palloway, Patton, & to fit the support needed for an Serna, 2007) individual. There is a strong push in special It uses evidence-based intervention education for students with to and systematic documentation to disabilities to be included as much bring general education instruction as possible into the general to the highest quality. education setting, as is aligned with the LRE mandate. However, It serves to put more responsibility inclusion is beyond a seat in a into the hands of the gen. ed. classroom and includes proper teachers. challenge for the individual, as well as a sense of belonging. It can be very helpful for identifying possible Learning Disabilities. Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  10. 10. KEY ELEMENTS IN SCHOOLS TODAY Universal Design for Learning Differentiated Instruction (UDL) Differentiated instruction involves UDL is the development and tailoring instruction to meet the implementation of curricula with needs of various learners in the supports from the start. It is a classroom. UDL plays a part in this, proactive and discreet way to make but differentiated instruction also the classroom a welcoming learning involves teaching to different environment for all learners. learning styles, strengths and weaknesses, and many other factors UDL should address: that can change the way a student experiences the classroom. Recognition System: reception and interpretation of sensory input Strategic System: ability to plan and take action Affective System: an individual’s motivation Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  11. 11. KEY ELEMENTS IN SCHOOLS TODAY Evidence Based Practices Diversity Consideration This is the requirement to use Today’s classrooms carry an array of evidence based practices in the students, with backgrounds differing classroom. in areas of: culture, behavior, race and ethnicity, setting, language, Overall, it will make teachers better socioeconomic status, sexual teachers and puts some backing to orientation, intellectual or cognitive the methods of the classroom. ability, physically, and possibly in It is a effort to ensure that time is not sensory ways. Under Diversity wasted in the classroom on Consideration, the classroom is meaningless or inefficient strategies aware of and equipped to teach to the and to ensure the best opportunity various backgrounds students may for learners, come from. The curriculum should be acceptable and look out for the interests of all students, regardless of differences. This may require the the teacher learn specific skills to address these differences. Wednesday, June 9, 2010
  12. 12. BIBLIOGRAPHY Pol l oway, E dward, Patton, James, & Serna, Loretta. ( 2007) . Strategi es for teachi ng l earners w i th speci al needs . Prenti ce H al l . Wednesday, June 9, 2010