Differentiation in the elementary classroom

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Differentiation in the elementary classroom

  1. 1. Mrs. Jen GualtieriJen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 1
  2. 2. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 2
  3. 3. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 3
  4. 4. At its most basic level,differentiating instructionmeans “shaking up” whatgoes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 4
  5. 5. Teachers proactively plan varied approaches to• what students need to learn• how they will learn it• and/or how they will show what they have learnedin order to increase the likelihood thateach student will learn as much as he or shecan, as efficiently as possible. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 5
  6. 6. National Board of Professional Teaching Standards: Five Core Propositions PROPOSITION ONE - TEACHERS ARE COMMITTED TO STUDENTS AND THEIR LEARNING•Dedicated to making knowledge accessible to all students,•Believe in the worth and dignity of each individual and in the potential that exists within each child,•Treat students equitably, but do not treat them alike,•Recognize individual differences that distinguish one student from another,•Know many things about individual students and use the knowledge to tailor instruction,•Adjust their practice based on observation and knowledge of their students’ interests, abilities, skills, knowledge, family circumstances, and peer relationships,•Incorporate prevailing theories of cognition & intelligence in their practice,•Aware of the influence of context & culture on behavior,•Develop students’ cognitive capacity & respect for learning,•Foster students’ self-esteem, motivation, character, civic responsibility, and their respect for individual, cultural, religious & racial differences. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 6
  7. 7. National Board of Professional Teaching Standards: Five Core Propositions PROPOSITION TWO - TEACHERS KNOW THE SUBJECTS THEY TEACH & HOW TO TEACH THOSE SUBJECTS TO STUDENTS•Have rich understanding of the subjects they teach,•Appreciate how knowledge in their subject is created, organized, linked to other disciplines, applied to real-world settings,•Command specialized knowledge & how to reveal subject matter to students,•Aware of preconceptions & background knowledge students bring,•Understand where difficulties are likely to arise & modify their practice accordingly,•Their instructional repertoire allows them to create multiple paths to the subjects they teach,•Adept at teaching students how to pose & solve their own problems. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 7
  8. 8. National Board of Professional Teaching Standards: Five Core Propositions PROPOSITION THREE - TEACHERS THINK SYSTEMATICALLY ABOUT THEIR PRACTICE & LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE•Exemplify the virtues they seek to inspire in their students—curiosity, tolerance, honesty, fairness, respect for diversity, & appreciation of cultural differences,•Take into account multiple perspectives & adopt an experimental & problem-solving orientation in their teaching,•Draw on knowledge of human development, subject matter & instruction, their understanding of their students to make principled judgments about sound practice,•Place a premium on student engagement,•Build upon student interests & spark new passions,•Seek to expand their instructional repertoire (being a master lecturer is not enough),•Know the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches and arrangements and their suitability or unsuitability for individuals and groups of students,•Critically examine their practice,•Adapt their teaching to new findings, ideas, & theories. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 8
  9. 9. National Board of Professional Teaching Standards: Five Core Propositions PROPOSITION FOUR - TEACHERS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MANAGING AND MONITORING STUDENT LEARNING•Create, enrich, maintain, and alter instructional settings to capture and sustain the interest of their students,•Adept at engaging students & adults to assist their teaching,•Command a range of instructional techniques, know when each is appropriate, and implement them as needed,•As aware of ineffectual or damaging practice as they are devoted to elegant practice,•Know how to engage groups of students to ensure a disciplined learning environment,•Adept at setting norms for interaction among students,•Understand how to motivate students to learn & how to maintain their interest, even in the face of temporary failure,•Assess the progress of individual students as well as that of the class as a whole,•Track what students are learning or not learning & find ways to use what they learn to accommodate the needs of individual students,•Employ multiple methods for measuring student growth and understanding. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 9
  10. 10. National Board of Professional Teaching Standards: Five Core Propositions PROPOSITION FIVE - TEACHERS ARE MEMBERS OF LEARNING COMMUNITIES•Work in tandem with specialists•Knowledgeable about specialized resources that can be engaged for their students’ benefit•Are skilled at employing such resources as needed•Work collaboratively & creatively with parents, engaging them productively Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 10
  11. 11. The Common Sense of Differentiation• Crafting an environment that actively supports each student in the hard work of learning.• Having absolute clarity about the learning destination.• Persistently knowing where students are in relation to the destination all along the way.• Adjusting teaching & learning to make sure EACH student arrives at the destination (and, when possible, moves beyond it).• Leading students and managing a flexible classroom. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 11
  12. 12. Is EQUAL really FAIR? Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 12
  13. 13. Now this is abetter “FIT”! Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 13
  14. 14. for Education IN OUTApplying Knowledge Regurgitating factsProblem Solving Rote learningDialogue LectureFacilitating TellingCritical Thinking MemorizingSimulation ObservationTeams Passive listeningHands On One size fits allIndividualized Learning Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 14
  15. 15. Establishing Curricular Priorities Nice to know Foundationalconcepts and skills Enduring understandings Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 15
  16. 16. Planning a Focused Curriculum Means –At the Very Least—Clarity About What Students Should … Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 16
  17. 17. KNOW Facts, names, dates, places, information• There are 50 states in the US• Thomas Jefferson• 1492• Names & descriptions of the body systems• The multiplication tables• Names & examples of the food groups Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 17
  18. 18. UNDERSTANDEssential truths that give meaning to the topicStated as a full sentenceBegin with, “I want students to understand THAT…” (not HOW… or WHY… or WHAT)– Multiplication is another way to do addition.– People migrate to meet basic needs.– All cultures contain the same elements.– Entropy and enthalpy are competing forces inthe natural world.– Voice reflects the author. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 18
  19. 19. Be able to DOSkills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, independence, social skills, skills of production)Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity)– Analyze– Solve a problem to find perimeter– Write a well supported argument– Evaluate work according to specific criteria– Contribute to the success of a group or team– Use graphics to represent data appropriately Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 19
  20. 20. MOVIE TIME!From the BLIND SIDE . . .• What does this mom model that we should remember to do? Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 20
  21. 21. Quality Differentiation“Teaches Up” and ensures “Respectful Tasks” (based on essential understandings, equally engaging, requiring high level thought for all students). Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 21
  22. 22. What does it mean to TEACH UP?TASKS• Clear KUDs• Require careful thought• Focus on understanding• Problems to solve / Issues to address• Use key knowledge & skills to explore or extend understandings• Authentic• Require support, explanation, application, evaluation, transfer• Criteria at or above “meets expectations”• Require metacognition ***Always teach up – NEVER water down!*** Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 22
  23. 23. Start slowly. Lead your students—make them your partners. Plan the details carefully & at a pace that works for you.Rehearse and review. Be reflective-celebrate successes and learn from rough spots. Remember what you want toaccomplish and whyJen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 it matters! 23
  24. 24. An Example Model for “Teaching Up” Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 24
  25. 25. • What is Socratic seminar?• Extended discussion among students about a common text based on an overarching, open- ended question.• Does not end with question being answered, but with further questions being raised.• Students practice developing in-depth understandings of a text or issue through cooperative discussion. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 25
  26. 26. History of Socratic seminar•Socrates 470-399 BCE•“I only know that I know nothing.”•Midwife•Socratic method of inquiry problem solving through series of questions Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 26
  27. 27. • Seats must be in a circle.• Only one person may speak at a time.• Do not interrupt.• Comments must be respectful in tone and content.• Comments about the text should be supported with specific examples.• Speak to one another, not the teacher Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 27
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  29. 29. The Road Not Taken by Robert FrostTwo roads diverged in a yellow wood, And both that morning equally layAnd sorry I could not travel both In leaves no step had trodden black.And be one traveler, long I stood Oh, I kept the first for another day!And looked down one as far as I could Yet knowing how way leads on to way,To where it bent in the undergrowth I doubted if I should ever come back.Then took the other, as just as fair, I shall be telling this with a sighAnd having perhaps the better claim, Somewhere ages and ages hence:Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Two roads diverged in a wood, and I –Though as for that, the passing there I took the one less traveled by,Had worn them really about the same, And that has made all the difference. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 29
  30. 30. Level One Questions– Gather and recall information– May be used to clarify information, sequence, and/or details• What is the definition of diverge?• How does Frost describe the two roads? Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 30
  31. 31. Level Two Questions- Make sense of gathered information- May be helpful for analyzing information related to the opening question • What are the similarities and differences in the two roads? Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 31
  32. 32. Level Three Questions- Most effective for seminar- Require us to apply and evaluate information- Leads to rich and significant details • In the Road Not Taken, is the poet ambivalent, self-assured, regretful, or adventuresome? Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 32
  33. 33. • Today’s SeminarWhat is the relationshipbetween conformity and individualism? Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 33
  34. 34. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 34
  35. 35. Play: 2 min-endJen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 35
  36. 36. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 36
  37. 37. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 37
  38. 38. Carol Tomlinson RESPONDS~ FAQ AnswerHow is differentiation There is no different difference! Differentiation From is just really good “good teaching?” teaching! Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 38
  39. 39. DifferentiationCommunity Curriculum AssessmnenInstruction t Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 39
  40. 40. Carol Tomlinson RESPONDS~ FAQ Answer• Differentiation is too • Teaching is complicated or at least high quality teaching is. complicated. • Differentiation doesn’t ask us to• It asks too much of do everything at once, but it does ask us to work steadily toward teachers. Isn’t is understanding how we can use unrealistic in its each classroom element expectations? separately and in an interrelated way to support student success. It asks us to grow in our craft. That ought to be quite reasonable. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 40
  41. 41. What’s worthwhile is rarely easy... And the cost is too great if any of us give up!Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 41
  42. 42. Carol Tomlinson RESPONDS~ FAQ AnswerDoesn’t differentiation Defensible differentiationlower expectations always “teaches up.”for students-- It’s never a way out of rigor—but rather support“mollycoddle” to achieve rigor.them & cause them to It guides students inbe dependent? becoming independent. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 42
  43. 43. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 43
  44. 44. Carol Tomlinson RESPONDS~ FAQ Answer• How can I • Differentiation differentiate if I is a means of ensuring have to work from that more students standards & use achieve whatever your standards-based learning goals are. It’s a teaching? means of achieving standards Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 44
  45. 45. There are at least two reasons why standards-based teaching and differentiation are not in conflict:1) Standards guide us in WHAT to teach. Differentiation guides us in HOW to teach.* It’s possible to TEACH the phone book or great books in a differentiated manner or a one-size-fits-all manner. * It’s likely that either will be LEARNED better when taught in a way that’s responsive to a learner’s needs.2) Differentiation doesn’t typically advocate changing the standard in response to learner variance, but rather providing a VARIETY of avenues to mastering the standard and a range of support systems for doing so.* The richer the framework of meaning, the more likely students are to be motivated to learn and to be able to recall, relate to, retain, and retrieve what matters. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 45
  46. 46. Carol Tomlinson RESPONDS~ FAQ Answer Isn’t differentiation • Very few teachers something most proactively & robustlyteachers already do? differentiate instruction. • That’s the standard necessary for academic diversity. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 46
  47. 47. A Continuum of Differentiated InstructionNO DIFFERENTIATION MICRO DIFFERENTIATION MACRO DIFFERENTIATION Adjusting questions in Articulated philosophy of studentClass works as a whole on discussion differences.most materials, exercises, Encouraging individuals to take Planned assessment/ compactingprojects. an assignment further Variable pacing is a given MovingGroup pacing Implied variations in grading furnitureGroup grading standards experiences Planned variation content/inputImplied or stated Students pick own work groups Planned variation in If students finish work early, process/sense-making Plannedphilosophy that all of the they can read, do puzzles, etc. variation in product/outputstudents need same Occasion alexceptionsto Consistent use of flexible groupsteaching/learning standard pacing. May not need Individual goal setting, to show work, do all math assessment (grading) Grading to Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 47 problems. reflect individual growth/process
  48. 48. Carol Tomlinson RESPONDS~ FAQ Answer• How can I possibly • Differentiation seeks create a different common patterns of lesson plan for every need across students student? (I teach and focuses on small 30, 35, 150.) groups. It is NOT a synonym for Individualization. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 48
  49. 49. Carol Tomlinson RESPONDS~ FAQ Answer• Isn’t differentiation • A goal of unfair because a DI is making sure teacher who each student gets differentiates the help necessary doesn’t treat all for success. That’s students the same? likely “more fair” than one-size- fits all.” Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 49
  50. 50. The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as ifthey were variants of the same individual andthus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects in the same ways. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 50
  51. 51. At its most basic level,differentiating instructionmeans “shaking up” whatgoes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 51
  52. 52. In one class…  Where the need is greatest  Where you feel most comfortable  For brief time spans • Without group work  With part of the class o At the end of a time block Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 52
  53. 53. Jen Gualtieri used with permission 2012 53

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