Next Genera*on Ver*cal Axis “Drag” Style Wind Turbines Getting it Right! Proper Siting of Wind Turbines & Selection of the Right Wind Turbine Technology Presenta(on by: Daniel Cook, Vice President Urban Power USA 3rd MA Sustainability Communities Conference 2nd MA Sustainability Campuses Conference
Massachuse>s Wind Energy Proﬁle Next GenerationVertical Axis Drag StyleWind Energy Opportunities
Small Wind Systems Small-‐scale wind power systems have the capacity to produce up to 100 kW of electrical power DarrieusVAWT Next GenerationDrag StyleVAWT
Tradi(onal “LiI” Style Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines High Eﬃciency Require Laminar Flow (smooth) Wind Work well in wind speeds between 18-‐35 mph Generates torque from high rotor speeds Generator located on turbine Lots of moving parts Require taller tower to eliminate turbulent air Feather or shut down when winds above 35 mph
Tradi(onal “LiI” Style Ver(cal Axis Wind Turbines High Eﬃciency Require Laminar Flow (smooth) Wind Work well in wind speeds between 18–35 mph Generator repairs require turbine disassembly Generates torque from high rotor speed Shut down when wind speed greater than 35 mph Require taller tower to eliminate turbulent air Generally Don’t operate at low wind speeds
“LiI” Style Wind Turbine Wind turbine blade requires smooth laminar ﬂowwind to create lift for the turbine to spin effectivelyand fast. Lift type wind turbines don’t become efﬁcient untilthe wind is approximately 18 mph
Savonius Ver(cal Axis Drag Style Wind Turbine Because of the curvature, the scoops experience less dragwhen moving against the wind than when moving with thewind. The differential drag causes the Savonius turbine tospin. There is resistance on the back side of the scoop resultingin lower efﬁciencies than traditional wind turbines. Resistance Impulse Force
Next Genera*on Ver(cal Axis “Drag” Style Wind Turbines Signiﬁcant increase in electrical production Massachusetts Manufacturer Work in turbulent wind and laminar ﬂow wind Work on Flat roof tops Requires ≥30% larger sweep area
Next Genera*on Ver(cal Axis “Drag” Style Wind Turbines Use wind loading like a sail to create force Produces torque by spinning a large mass slowly Produce more electricity at lower wind speeds 6-‐18 mph, less at 18-‐35 mph and more at high wind speeds > 35 mph Work in turbulent wind Don’t require tall towers Can be Roof Mounted Few moving parts Bird & bat friendly
Urban Power Unique Patented Wind Turbine Design
Capacity Factor The ra*o of an energy produc*on system’s actual output over *me to it poten*al output Solar PV: 13% - 15% Wind: 20% - 40% Note: Wind produces approximately 2X moreelectricity than Solar PV per KW whenproperly sited and equipment properly selected
Small Wind Turbines: Site Tes(ng Wind Speed & Air Flow Anemometer Testing Laminar Flow (smooth) Wind Turbulent Wind (caused by buildings, trees andother nearby obstructions)
Small Wind Turbines: Site Selec(on “lift” style wind turbines should be 2X the height ofobstructions & 20X the distance from obstructions
Small Wind Turbines: Product Selec(on Does the wind turbine work in turbulent wind?(are their buildings trees or other obstructionsnearby?) Does wind turbine require smooth laminar ﬂowwind away from any obstructions? Are predominant winds between 18 - 35 mph? Are predominant winds below 18 mph and/orabove 35 mph?
Small Wind Turbines: Performance Important that wind manufacturers and winddevelopers apply their wind turbines to theoptimal wind location (wind speed & wind type –laminar and/or turbulent wind) to ensure optimalcapacity factor/performance so customerexpectations are met. Lift type wind turbines should NOT be placed inturbulent wind locations such as on or nearbuildings, near trees and other obstructions thatcan cause turbulence.
Wind Energy Assessments Consulting a wind map, obtaining previously measured data Taking your own measurements with anemometer Hire consultant to test wind speed 1 year of data, or Use 1-‐ 2 months anemometer data to do correlation study
Small Wind Turbines: Monitoring Wind turbines should be monitored in real time,and record daily, weekly, monthly, annual andhistoric wind energy production relative to actualwind speeds.
Small Wind Turbines: Tradi(onal Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine are properly applied in Laminar Flow Winds only!!! Op*mum performance between 18 mph – 42 mph
Small Wind Turbines: Poor Applica(ons “Lift” Style Horizontal &Vertical Axis WindTurbines in theTurbulent UrbanEnvironment ofBoston (5 wind turbines withcombined 15.6 KWcapacity = 15,583 kWhsin 3 years 7 months) 15.6KW - 15,583 kWhs in 43 mos – ave. 362 kWhs /mo
Small Wind Turbines: Turbulent Wind Properly Applied Next Generation“Drag” Style Wind Turbines in aTurbulent Environment (1.8 KW capacity = 3,433kWhs in 8 month –Easthampton, MA windspeed less than Boston) 18,452 kWh in3 years 7 months
Small Wind Turbines: Summary Get it Right! Site the RightWind EnergyTechnology in the RightWind Location Lift Style Horizontal & Vertical Axis Wind Turbines inLaminar Flow Wind only with speeds between 18 mph – ±42 mph Traditional Vertical Axis Drag Style Wind Turbines inTurbulent and/or Laminar Flow Wind ±8 mph – 42 mph Next Generation Vertical Axis Drag Style Wind Turbinesin Turbulent and/or Laminar Flow Wind ±8 mph – ±70 mph