Towards a Tunisian  Sustainable Knowledge Society: Away from piecemeal actions and further coordination with development i...
The Unemployment Connundrum!  <ul><li>20.5 % among individuals without secondary education. </li></ul><ul><li>Among univer...
CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
… established wisdom! CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011 “ Over the next ten years, 26 of the top 30 fastest growing j...
… !!! CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
A Closer L o ok at HE CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Major  Trends: University Enrolment  Evolution CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011 212 706 357  472
Major  Trends: University Enrolment  Rate  for 19-24 Age Group CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Major  Trends: S&E Enrolment Evolution CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011 60 181 145 652
Major  Trends: University Graduates  Evolution CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011 86 035 24   543
Grads by Field of Study (2010) CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
New S&E Grads (2007) CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
The Coming 5 years:  E nhancing Relevance and Quality <ul><li>Swiftly bestow autonomy to the Universities, enable differen...
The Coming 5 years:   Accelerate S&E throughput   <ul><li>Increase the number of Engineering grads to 9000 by 2014, while ...
What Ab o ut R&D? CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Research Productivity in Africa  CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
International Cooperation (Key partners) CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Network of collaboration in Africa CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
<ul><li>Among smaller countries, the Royal Society report singles out  Tunisia ,  </li></ul><ul><li>where R&D spending ros...
CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
What? In d ustry! … CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
A Glimps to Tunisia’s Industry (key data) <ul><ul><li>5 831 SMEs having 10 or more employees, of which 2 800 are totally e...
A Glimps to Tunisia’s Industry (International firms) <ul><ul><li>International companies in Tunisia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
…  « counterintuitives »! <ul><li>…  the results show the positive impact of R&D activities, human capital quality, past e...
CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Back t o  Basics! CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
The Four Pillars  of The Knowledge Economy <ul><li>Education & Training </li></ul><ul><li>I nformation Infrastructure </li...
…  Visibility! University Government Industry Cal Tech (1) NSF Apple KAIST (94) KISTI Samsung Univ. of Helsinki (91) TEKES...
…  does it make sense!? CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Why is it so? CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Knowledge Flow Diagram (Pasteur’s Quadrant) Improved Basic Understanding Improved/New Technology Existing theoretical Unde...
The Innovation Chain CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
“ Systemic” approach to understanding  Innovation’s impact on development CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Back t o  Tunisia CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Finnish NIS CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille Tunisian NIS v.s. 12/11/2011
Tunisia’s Research and Innovation Weaknesses <ul><li>Lack of a global mutually shared vision </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the...
The problems of the world cannot be solved with the same kind of thinking that created them.  Albert Einstein CMI-Villa Va...
Lessons  & Vision <ul><li>Lessons: </li></ul><ul><li>Long term process requires engagement and continuity </li></ul><ul><l...
NIS Framework:  Increased Coherence & Efficiency Info Out Info In Cooperation Coordination Holistic Management Prioritizat...
This is Still N O T Enough! CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
Gerschenkron and catch up: extending the framework <ul><li>O'Brien, 1998:  The  key insight  from Gerschenkron’s thesis is...
Extending  &  reverse engineering Gerschenkron catch up strategy <ul><li>Restructuring our industry through new technologi...
Integrated  Capabilities Accumulation 12/11/2011 CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille Higher Edu. Spin-Offs Ind. Niche R&D H. Edu. ...
CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille … back to modern wisdom! 12/11/2011 Education  is a social process; education is growth; educa...
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  • Offshoring-Germany, 2011
  • Offshoring-Germany, 2011
  • Offshoring-Germany, 2011
  • Offshoring-Germany, 2011
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  • KIST: Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information
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  • Cmi2011

    1. 1. Towards a Tunisian Sustainable Knowledge Society: Away from piecemeal actions and further coordination with development institutions Pr. Jelel Ezzine DG of International Cooperation Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research CMI, Marseille Nov. 12-13, 2011
    2. 2. The Unemployment Connundrum! <ul><li>20.5 % among individuals without secondary education. </li></ul><ul><li>Among university graduates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24.5% for Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>47.1% Econ. Mangt & Law, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>43.2 Social Sciences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Employment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16% secondary education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22.3% less than secondary education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20.3% grads in medecine and pharmacy. </li></ul></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    3. 3. CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    4. 4. CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    5. 5. … established wisdom! CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011 “ Over the next ten years, 26 of the top 30 fastest growing jobs require some post-secondary education or training … The demand for skilled workers is outpacing supply , resulting in attractive, high-paying jobs going unfilled .” Assistant Secretary of Labor for Employment and Training Innovate America, Dec. 2004 Human capital plays a decisive role, and the capacity to learn matters more than the level of knowledge. While secondary school certificates were the trump cards of industrialization , higher degrees are those of the knowledge economy . Lifelong training is essential. Lundvalle, 1998 Knowledge Economies in MENA, WBI, 2003
    6. 6. … !!! CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    7. 7. A Closer L o ok at HE CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    8. 8. Major Trends: University Enrolment Evolution CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011 212 706 357 472
    9. 9. Major Trends: University Enrolment Rate for 19-24 Age Group CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    10. 10. Major Trends: S&E Enrolment Evolution CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011 60 181 145 652
    11. 11. Major Trends: University Graduates Evolution CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011 86 035 24 543
    12. 12. Grads by Field of Study (2010) CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    13. 13. New S&E Grads (2007) CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    14. 14. The Coming 5 years: E nhancing Relevance and Quality <ul><li>Swiftly bestow autonomy to the Universities, enable differentiation, and unleash HE as a profit making service, </li></ul><ul><li>Bring HE’s quality up to international standards by creating the National Instance of Evaluation, Quality and Accreditation, </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize the adoption of a National Qualification Framework (most advanced Southern Mediterranean country, Tempus Report 2010), </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the time allocated to IT, Entrepreneurship & English, </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate the Bologna Process (LMD) by 2014, </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the system of certification, </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the number of joint-degrees with renowned international institutions, </li></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    15. 15. The Coming 5 years: Accelerate S&E throughput <ul><li>Increase the number of Engineering grads to 9000 by 2014, while keeping/enhancing the students to faculty ratio, </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the adoption of English as a teaching/learning means, </li></ul><ul><li>Boost the certification of Eng. Grads to 50% by 2014, </li></ul><ul><li>Create four new Engineering schools by 2014, </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce skills mismatch, while conferring the required flexibility to swiftly respond to planned/new needs … </li></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    16. 16. What Ab o ut R&D? CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    17. 17. Research Productivity in Africa CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    18. 18. International Cooperation (Key partners) CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    19. 19. Network of collaboration in Africa CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    20. 20. <ul><li>Among smaller countries, the Royal Society report singles out Tunisia , </li></ul><ul><li>where R&D spending rose from 0.03 per cent of GDP in 1996 to 1.25 per cent in 2009. Its priority is life sciences and medicine – with an official aim to increase pharmaceutical exports five-fold within five years. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the study does not cover the impact of the recent overthrow of Arab autocrats , such as … of Tunisia, Sir Chris said: “I would expect it to have a good influence on science.” </li></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille “ A number of countries are challenging the traditional scientific superpowers,” said Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith of Oxford university, who chaired the study team. 12/11/2011
    21. 21. CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    22. 22. What? In d ustry! … CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    23. 23. A Glimps to Tunisia’s Industry (key data) <ul><ul><li>5 831 SMEs having 10 or more employees, of which 2 800 are totally exporting ones, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 975 SMEs with foreign participation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 221 are 100% foreign owned, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 679 are totally exporting SMEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports (millions of dinars) </li></ul></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    24. 24. A Glimps to Tunisia’s Industry (International firms) <ul><ul><li>International companies in Tunisia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ALCATEL – LUCENT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CISCO </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MICROSOFT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LEONI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHILIPS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SAGEM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIEMENS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    25. 25. … « counterintuitives »! <ul><li>… the results show the positive impact of R&D activities, human capital quality, past experience in innovation and public subsidies on probability of firms to innovate; whereas, ownership structure has a negative impact . Innovation and R&D Investment of Tunisian Firms: A Two-Regime Model with Selectivity Correction, MOHAMED KRIAA and ZOUHOUR KARRAY, The Journal of Business Inquiry 2010, </li></ul><ul><li>They also suggest that firms with high export intensity and significant foreign capital participation are found to be less innovating than partially exporting firms with low foreign capital share. Innovation in Tunisia, Empirical Analysis for Industrial Sector, Moez El Elj, Décembre 2010. </li></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    26. 26. CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    27. 27. Back t o Basics! CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    28. 28. The Four Pillars of The Knowledge Economy <ul><li>Education & Training </li></ul><ul><li>I nformation Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Incentive & Institutional Regime </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation Systems </li></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    29. 29. … Visibility! University Government Industry Cal Tech (1) NSF Apple KAIST (94) KISTI Samsung Univ. of Helsinki (91) TEKES Nokia
    30. 30. … does it make sense!? CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    31. 31. Why is it so? CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    32. 32. Knowledge Flow Diagram (Pasteur’s Quadrant) Improved Basic Understanding Improved/New Technology Existing theoretical Understanding Existing Technology Socio-Economic Needs t+1 t 12/11/2011 CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille Basic Research Use Inspired Research Applied Research
    33. 33. The Innovation Chain CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    34. 34. “ Systemic” approach to understanding Innovation’s impact on development CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    35. 35. Back t o Tunisia CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    36. 36. Finnish NIS CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille Tunisian NIS v.s. 12/11/2011
    37. 37. Tunisia’s Research and Innovation Weaknesses <ul><li>Lack of a global mutually shared vision </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the isolated successes, the “system” didn’t deliver </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of global coherence led to a systemic failure </li></ul><ul><li>Despite industrial modernization programs, the innovation dimension remains weak </li></ul><ul><li>Even with the necessary cooperation projects, the synergies still missing </li></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    38. 38. The problems of the world cannot be solved with the same kind of thinking that created them. Albert Einstein CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    39. 39. Lessons & Vision <ul><li>Lessons: </li></ul><ul><li>Long term process requires engagement and continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue and coordination is of fundamental importance </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities setting aligned with a holistic approach are key to success </li></ul><ul><li>Further networking of all subsystems </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking out of the Box is a must, </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>The vision is to establish the National Innovation System (NIS) with an internationally competitive position in a number of strategically-prioritized areas. The NIS will be globally-recognized for its multi-disciplinary research and education, attractive business conditions, open and internationally-collaborative innovation environments, and high quality of life. </li></ul>CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    40. 40. NIS Framework: Increased Coherence & Efficiency Info Out Info In Cooperation Coordination Holistic Management Prioritization Needs/Results Oriented Policy Mix Resources Info In Disturbances/Uncertainties Innovation (Goods/Services/Well being) Info Out “ Heterogeneous” Components 12/11/2011 CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille Emergence of Novelty & Variety Growth Tunisia’s Innovation System
    41. 41. This is Still N O T Enough! CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille 12/11/2011
    42. 42. Gerschenkron and catch up: extending the framework <ul><li>O'Brien, 1998: The key insight from Gerschenkron’s thesis is of a systemic nature, which is the necessity to integrate and simultaneously coordinate all components of the targeted economic activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ industrialization process begins only if the industrialization can proceed, as it were, along a broad front, starting simultaneously along many lines of economic activities.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fruits of industrial progress in certain lines are received as external economies by other branches of industry whose progress in turn accords benefit to the former.” </li></ul></ul>12/11/2011 CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille
    43. 43. Extending & reverse engineering Gerschenkron catch up strategy <ul><li>Restructuring our industry through new technological niches </li></ul><ul><li>(work in progress!): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic and dynamic “ Low Cost ” technology, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High value added technology and large spectrum industries/services spillover, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires highly skilled manpower, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating and inspiring pilot project, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bestows National and international visibility, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficiently available training infrastructure and know how, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely available potential manpower, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong and enduring political back up, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul></ul>12/11/2011 CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille
    44. 44. Integrated Capabilities Accumulation 12/11/2011 CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille Higher Edu. Spin-Offs Ind. Niche R&D H. Edu. Tightly coordinated and managed targeted projects Gerschenkron Extended Gerschenkron
    45. 45. CMI-Villa Valmer, Marseille … back to modern wisdom! 12/11/2011 Education is a social process; education is growth; education is not a preparation for life but is life itself . John Dewey The skill a student acquires in a craft, and the habit he attains, correspond to the quality of instruction and the habit of the teacher . A. Ibnou Khaldoun

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