Visualizing Data

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Talk I gave on April 9, 2013 for a post-doc position. Intended to be a lecture from an undergraduate level political science introductory statistics course.

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Visualizing Data

  1. 1. Visualizing Data Jeff Arnold April 9, 2013 Emory University, Atlanta
  2. 2. Data Viz is Everywhere Business / Economics Weather Sports Finance
  3. 3. Outline Examples1.  Florence Nightingale2.  Challenger Explosion What is it? How does it work? When doesnt it work?
  4. 4. Examples
  5. 5. Florence Nightingale
  6. 6. Challenger Explosion
  7. 7. What is DataVisualization?
  8. 8. Grammar of Graphics
  9. 9. Grammar of Graphics
  10. 10. Grammar of Graphics Geometric Shapes points lines bars text Aesthetics: convey information x position y position size of elements shape of elements color of elements
  11. 11. Data and Aesthetics
  12. 12. How does it work? PATTERNS PATTERNS PATTRESN PATTERNS
  13. 13. Anscombe Quartet
  14. 14. Looking for Patterns
  15. 15. Plots are ComparisonsActual Data Expected Data
  16. 16. When (and why) does it not work? 1.  Too many variables 2.  Too many observations 3.  Perceptual biases 4.  Understanding randomness
  17. 17. Too Many Variables
  18. 18. Too Many Observations (I)
  19. 19. Too Many Observations (II)
  20. 20. Too Many Observations (III)
  21. 21. Visual Perception BiasesQ: What is the value of a ­ b? Does it change?
  22. 22. Visual Perception Biases A: a ­ b = 2 everywhere.
  23. 23. Visual Perception Biases
  24. 24. Visual Perception Biases
  25. 25. Understanding RandomnessQ: In which plot were the points selected from a uniform random distribution?
  26. 26. Understanding Randomness A: The plot on the right. 
  27. 27. ConclusionData visualization and statistics are complementary Data visualization intuitive cognitive biases Statistical methods un­intuitive overcome our cognitive biases
  28. 28. Questions?
  29. 29. ReferencesNightingale receiving the Wounded at Scutari, By Jerry BarrettDiagram of the Causes of Mortality in the Army in the East, by Florence NightingaleSpace Shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after take­off.Plot of GE vs. SP500 from Yahoo! FinanceKimmo Soramaki, Morten L. Bech, Jeffrey Arnold, Robert J. Glass and Walter E. Beyeler (2007). "The Topology of urlInterbank Payment Flows", Physica A.  urlHadley Wickham (2010). "A Layered Grammar of Graphics", Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. 

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