How to Use This Presentation <ul><li>To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects  </li></ul><ul><li>select  “View...
Chapter Presentation Transparencies Sample Problems Visual Concepts Standardized Test Prep Resources
Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2  Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion ...
Objectives <ul><li>Identify   the conditions of simple harmonic motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain   how force, velocity, a...
Hooke’s Law <ul><li>One type of   periodic motion   is the motion of a mass attached to a spring. </li></ul><ul><li>The di...
Hooke’s Law,  continued <ul><li>At equilibrium: </li></ul><ul><li>The  spring force  and the mass’s  acceleration  become ...
Hooke’s Law,  continued <ul><li>Measurements show that the   spring   force,  or  restoring force,   is   directly proport...
Spring Constant Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion
Sample Problem <ul><li>Hooke’s Law </li></ul><ul><li>If a mass of 0.55 kg attached to a vertical spring stretches the spri...
Sample Problem,  continued Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><ul><li>Unknown: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k...
Sample Problem,  continued Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion 2. Plan Choose an equation or situation:  When th...
Sample Problem,  continued Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion 2. Plan,  continued Rearrange the equation to iso...
Sample Problem,  continued Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion 3. Calculate Substitute the values into the equat...
Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><li>The motion of a vibrating mass-spring system is an example of   simple harmonic motion. </l...
Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion
Force and Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion
The Simple Pendulum <ul><li>A  simple pendulum   consists of a   mass called a bob, which is attached to a fixed string. <...
The Simple Pendulum,  continued <ul><li>The magnitude of the restoring force  ( F g,x  = F g  sin   )   is proportional t...
Restoring Force and Simple Pendulums Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion
Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion
Objectives <ul><li>Identify   the amplitude of vibration. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize   the relationship between period an...
Amplitude, Period, and Frequency in SHM <ul><li>In SHM, the maximum displacement from equilibrium is defined as the   ampl...
Amplitude, Period, and Frequency in SHM <ul><li>The   period   ( T )   is the time that it takes a complete cycle to occur...
Amplitude, Period, and Frequency in SHM,  continued <ul><li>Period and frequency are   inversely related: </li></ul>Chapte...
Measures of Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter  11 Section 2  Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion
Measures of Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter  11 Section 2  Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion
Period of a Simple Pendulum in SHM <ul><li>The  period  of a  simple pendulum  depends on the   length   and on the  free-...
Period of a Mass-Spring System in SHM <ul><li>The  period  of an ideal  mass-spring system  depends on   the   mass   and ...
Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish   local particle vibrations from overall wave motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate   bet...
Wave Motion <ul><li>A   wave   is the motion of a disturbance. </li></ul><ul><li>A   medium   is a physical environment th...
Wave Types <ul><li>A wave that consists of a single traveling pulse is called a   pulse wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever t...
Relationship Between SHM and Wave Motion Chapter  11 Section 3  Properties of Waves As the sine wave created by this vibra...
Wave Types,  continued <ul><li>A   transverse wave   is a wave whose particles vibrate   perpendicularly   to the directio...
Transverse Waves Chapter  11 Section 3  Properties of Waves
Wave Types,  continued <ul><li>A   longitudinal wave  is a wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave...
Longitudinal Waves Chapter  11 Section 3  Properties of Waves
Period, Frequency, and Wave Speed <ul><li>The  frequency of a wave   describes the number of waves that pass a given point...
Characteristics of a Wave Chapter  11 Section 3  Properties of Waves
Period, Frequency, and Wave Speed,  continued <ul><li>The  speed of a mechanical   wave  is constant for any given medium....
Waves and Energy Transfer <ul><li>Waves  transfer energy  by the vibration of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Waves are often ab...
Objectives <ul><li>Apply  the superposition principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate   between constructive and destruct...
Wave Interference <ul><li>Two different material objects can never occupy the same space at the same time. </li></ul><ul><...
Wave Interference,  continued <ul><li>In  constructive interference,   individual displacements on the  same side  of the ...
Wave Interference,  continued <ul><li>In  destructive interference,   individual displacements on  opposite sides  of the ...
Comparing Constructive and Destructive Interference Chapter  11 Section 4  Wave Interactions
Reflection <ul><li>What happens to the motion of a wave when it reaches a boundary? </li></ul><ul><li>At a   free  boundar...
Standing Waves Chapter  11 Section 4  Wave Interactions
Standing Waves <ul><li>A  standing wave   is a wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength,...
Standing Waves,  continued <ul><li>Only  certain wavelengths   produce standing wave patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>The   end...
Standing Waves Chapter  11 Section 4  Wave Interactions This photograph shows four possible standing waves that can exist ...
Multiple Choice <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Cha...
Multiple Choice <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Cha...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized T...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep C...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep C...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep C...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep C...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep C...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep C...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 14–15 on the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave with an ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 14–15 on the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave with an ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 14–15 on the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave with an ...
Multiple Choice,  continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 14–15 on the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave with an ...
Multiple Choice,  continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 16. Two successive crests of a transverse wave 1.20 m apart...
Multiple Choice,  continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 16. Two successive crests of a transverse wave 1.20 m apart...
Short Response Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 17. Green light has a wavelength of 5.20    10 –7  m and a speed in air...
Short Response Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 17. Green light has a wavelength of 5.20    10 –7  m and a speed in air...
Short Response,  continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 18. What kind of wave does not need a medium through which t...
Short Response,  continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 18. What kind of wave does not need a medium through which t...
Short Response,  continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 19. List three wavelengths that could form standing waves on...
Short Response,  continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 19. List three wavelengths that could form standing waves on...
Extended Response Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 20. A visitor to a lighthouse wishes to find out the height of the to...
Extended Response Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 20. A visitor to a lighthouse wishes to find out the height of the to...
Extended Response,  continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 21. A harmonic wave is traveling along a rope. The oscill...
Extended Response,  continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter  11 21. A harmonic wave is traveling along a rope. The oscill...
Hooke’s Law Chapter  11 Section 1  Simple Harmonic Motion
Transverse Waves Chapter  11 Section 3  Properties of Waves
Longitudinal Waves Chapter  11 Section 3  Properties of Waves
Constructive Interference Chapter  11 Section 4  Wave Interactions
Destructive Interference Chapter  11 Section 4  Wave Interactions
Reflection of a Pulse Wave Chapter  11 Section 4  Wave Interactions
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Hp 11 win

  1. 1. How to Use This Presentation <ul><li>To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects </li></ul><ul><li>select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” </li></ul><ul><li>To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. </li></ul><ul><li>From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. </li></ul><ul><li>From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter Presentation Transparencies Sample Problems Visual Concepts Standardized Test Prep Resources
  3. 3. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 Properties of Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4 Wave Interactions </li></ul>Vibrations and Waves Chapter 11
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the conditions of simple harmonic motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how force, velocity, and acceleration change as an object vibrates with simple harmonic motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the spring force using Hooke’s law. </li></ul>Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter 11
  5. 5. Hooke’s Law <ul><li>One type of periodic motion is the motion of a mass attached to a spring. </li></ul><ul><li>The direction of the force acting on the mass ( F elastic ) is always opposite the direction of the mass’s displacement from equilibrium ( x = 0). </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  6. 6. Hooke’s Law, continued <ul><li>At equilibrium: </li></ul><ul><li>The spring force and the mass’s acceleration become zero. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed reaches a maximum. </li></ul><ul><li>At maximum displacement : </li></ul><ul><li>The spring force and the mass’s acceleration reach a maximum. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed becomes zero. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  7. 7. Hooke’s Law, continued <ul><li>Measurements show that the spring force, or restoring force, is directly proportional to the displacement of the mass. </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F elastic = – kx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spring force = –(spring constant  displacement) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The quantity k is a positive constant called the spring constant. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  8. 8. Spring Constant Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  9. 9. Sample Problem <ul><li>Hooke’s Law </li></ul><ul><li>If a mass of 0.55 kg attached to a vertical spring stretches the spring 2.0 cm from its original equilibrium position, what is the spring constant? </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  10. 10. Sample Problem, continued Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><ul><li>Unknown: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k = ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>m = 0.55 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x = –2.0 cm = –0.20 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>g = 9.81 m/s 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagram: </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sample Problem, continued Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion 2. Plan Choose an equation or situation: When the mass is attached to the spring,the equilibrium position changes. At the new equilibrium position, the net force acting on the mass is zero. So the spring force (given by Hooke’s law) must be equal and opposite to the weight of the mass. F net = 0 = F elastic + F g F elastic = – kx F g = – mg – kx – mg = 0
  12. 12. Sample Problem, continued Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion 2. Plan, continued Rearrange the equation to isolate the unknown:
  13. 13. Sample Problem, continued Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion 3. Calculate Substitute the values into the equation and solve: 4. Evaluate The value of k implies that 270 N of force is required to displace the spring 1 m.
  14. 14. Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><li>The motion of a vibrating mass-spring system is an example of simple harmonic motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple harmonic motion describes any periodic motion that is the result of a restoring force that is proportional to displacement. </li></ul><ul><li>Because simple harmonic motion involves a restoring force, every simple harmonic motion is a back-and-forth motion over the same path. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  15. 15. Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  16. 16. Force and Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  17. 17. The Simple Pendulum <ul><li>A simple pendulum consists of a mass called a bob, which is attached to a fixed string. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion The forces acting on the bob at any point are the force exerted by the string and the gravitational force. <ul><li>At any displacement from equilibrium, the weight of the bob ( F g ) can be resolved into two components. </li></ul><ul><li>The x component ( F g,x = F g sin  ) is the only force acting on the bob in the direction of its motion and thus is the restoring force. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Simple Pendulum, continued <ul><li>The magnitude of the restoring force ( F g,x = F g sin  ) is proportional to sin  . </li></ul><ul><li>When the maximum angle of displacement  is relatively small (<15°), sin  is approximately equal to  in radians. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><li>As a result, the restoring force is very nearly proportional to the displacement . </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the pendulum’s motion is an excellent approximation of simple harmonic motion. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Restoring Force and Simple Pendulums Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  20. 20. Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  21. 21. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the amplitude of vibration. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the relationship between period and frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the period and frequency of an object vibrating with simple harmonic motion. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion
  22. 22. Amplitude, Period, and Frequency in SHM <ul><li>In SHM, the maximum displacement from equilibrium is defined as the amplitude of the vibration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pendulum’s amplitude can be measured by the angle between the pendulum’s equilibrium position and its maximum displacement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a mass-spring system, the amplitude is the maximum amount the spring is stretched or compressed from its equilibrium position. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The SI units of amplitude are the radian (rad) and the meter (m). </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion
  23. 23. Amplitude, Period, and Frequency in SHM <ul><li>The period ( T ) is the time that it takes a complete cycle to occur. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SI unit of period is seconds (s). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The frequency ( f ) is the number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SI unit of frequency is hertz (Hz). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hz = s –1 </li></ul></ul>Chapter 11 Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion
  24. 24. Amplitude, Period, and Frequency in SHM, continued <ul><li>Period and frequency are inversely related: </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><li>Thus, any time you have a value for period or frequency, you can calculate the other value. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Measures of Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter 11 Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion
  26. 26. Measures of Simple Harmonic Motion Chapter 11 Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion
  27. 27. Period of a Simple Pendulum in SHM <ul><li>The period of a simple pendulum depends on the length and on the free-fall acceleration. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><li>The period does not depend on the mass of the bob or on the amplitude (for small angles). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Period of a Mass-Spring System in SHM <ul><li>The period of an ideal mass-spring system depends on the mass and on the spring constant. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><li>The period does not depend on the amplitude. </li></ul><ul><li>This equation applies only for systems in which the spring obeys Hooke’s law. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish local particle vibrations from overall wave motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between pulse waves and periodic waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret waveforms of transverse and longitudinal waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the relationship among wave speed, frequency, and wavelength to solve problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate energy and amplitude. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  30. 30. Wave Motion <ul><li>A wave is the motion of a disturbance. </li></ul><ul><li>A medium is a physical environment through which a disturbance can travel. For example, water is the medium for ripple waves in a pond. </li></ul><ul><li>Waves that require a medium through which to travel are called mechanical waves. Water waves and sound waves are mechanical waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic waves such as visible light do not require a medium. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  31. 31. Wave Types <ul><li>A wave that consists of a single traveling pulse is called a pulse wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever the source of a wave’s motion is a periodic motion, such as the motion of your hand moving up and down repeatedly, a periodic wave is produced. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave whose source vibrates with simple harmonic motion is called a sine wave. Thus, a sine wave is a special case of a periodic wave in which the periodic motion is simple harmonic. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  32. 32. Relationship Between SHM and Wave Motion Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves As the sine wave created by this vibrating blade travels to the right, a single point on the string vibrates up and down with simple harmonic motion.
  33. 33. Wave Types, continued <ul><li>A transverse wave is a wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction of the wave motion. </li></ul><ul><li>The crest is the highest point above the equilibrium position, and the trough is the lowest point below the equilibrium position. </li></ul><ul><li>The wavelength (  ) is the distance between two adjacent similar points of a wave. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  34. 34. Transverse Waves Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  35. 35. Wave Types, continued <ul><li>A longitudinal wave is a wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling. </li></ul><ul><li>A longitudinal wave on a spring at some instant t can be represented by a graph. The crests correspond to compressed regions, and the troughs correspond to stretched regions. </li></ul><ul><li>The crests are regions of high density and pressure (relative to the equilibrium density or pressure of the medium), and the troughs are regions of low density and pressure. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  36. 36. Longitudinal Waves Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  37. 37. Period, Frequency, and Wave Speed <ul><li>The frequency of a wave describes the number of waves that pass a given point in a unit of time. </li></ul><ul><li>The period of a wave describes the time it takes for a complete wavelength to pass a given point. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between period and frequency in SHM holds true for waves as well; the period of a wave is inversely related to its frequency. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  38. 38. Characteristics of a Wave Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  39. 39. Period, Frequency, and Wave Speed, continued <ul><li>The speed of a mechanical wave is constant for any given medium. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of a wave is given by the following equation: </li></ul><ul><li>v = f  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wave speed = frequency  wavelength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This equation applies to both mechanical and electromagnetic waves. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  40. 40. Waves and Energy Transfer <ul><li>Waves transfer energy by the vibration of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Waves are often able to transport energy efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate at which a wave transfers energy depends on the amplitude. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The greater the amplitude, the more energy a wave carries in a given time interval. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a mechanical wave, the energy transferred is proportional to the square of the wave’s amplitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The amplitude of a wave gradually diminishes over time as its energy is dissipated. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  41. 41. Objectives <ul><li>Apply the superposition principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between constructive and destructive interference. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict when a reflected wave will be inverted. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict whether specific traveling waves will produce a standing wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify nodes and antinodes of a standing wave. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  42. 42. Wave Interference <ul><li>Two different material objects can never occupy the same space at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Because mechanical waves are not matter but rather are displacements of matter, two waves can occupy the same space at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination of two overlapping waves is called superposition. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  43. 43. Wave Interference, continued <ul><li>In constructive interference, individual displacements on the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to form the resultant wave. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  44. 44. Wave Interference, continued <ul><li>In destructive interference, individual displacements on opposite sides of the equilibrium position are added together to form the resultant wave. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  45. 45. Comparing Constructive and Destructive Interference Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  46. 46. Reflection <ul><li>What happens to the motion of a wave when it reaches a boundary? </li></ul><ul><li>At a free boundary, waves are reflected. </li></ul><ul><li>At a fixed boundary, waves are reflected and inverted. </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions Free boundary Fixed boundary
  47. 47. Standing Waves Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  48. 48. Standing Waves <ul><li>A standing wave is a wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere. </li></ul><ul><li>Standing waves have nodes and antinodes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A node is a point in a standing wave that maintains zero displacement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An antinode is a point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest displacement occurs. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  49. 49. Standing Waves, continued <ul><li>Only certain wavelengths produce standing wave patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>The ends of the string must be nodes because these points cannot vibrate. </li></ul><ul><li>A standing wave can be produced for any wavelength that allows both ends to be nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>In the diagram, possible wavelengths include 2 L (b), L (c), and 2/3 L (d). </li></ul>Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  50. 50. Standing Waves Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions This photograph shows four possible standing waves that can exist on a given string. The diagram shows the progression of the second standing wave for one-half of a cycle.
  51. 51. Multiple Choice <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 1. In what direction does the restoring force act? A. to the left B. to the right C. to the left or to the right depending on whether the spring is stretched or compressed D. perpendicular to the motion of the mass
  52. 52. Multiple Choice <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 1. In what direction does the restoring force act? A. to the left B. to the right C. to the left or to the right depending on whether the spring is stretched or compressed D. perpendicular to the motion of the mass
  53. 53. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 2. If the mass is displaced –0.35 m from its equilibrium position, the restoring force is 7.0 N. What is the spring constant? F. –5.0  10 –2 N/m H. 5.0  10 –2 N/m G. –2.0  10 1 N/m J. 2.0  10 1 N/m
  54. 54. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 2. If the mass is displaced –0.35 m from its equilibrium position, the restoring force is 7.0 N. What is the spring constant? F. –5.0  10 –2 N/m H. 5.0  10 –2 N/m G. –2.0  10 1 N/m J. 2.0  10 1 N/m
  55. 55. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 3. In what form is the energy in the system when the mass passes through the equilibrium point? A. elastic potential energy B. gravitational potential energy C. kinetic energy D. a combination of two or more of the above
  56. 56. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 3. In what form is the energy in the system when the mass passes through the equilibrium point? A. elastic potential energy B. gravitational potential energy C. kinetic energy D. a combination of two or more of the above
  57. 57. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 4. In what form is the energy in the system when the mass is at maximum displacement? F. elastic potential energy G. gravitational potential energy H. kinetic energy J. a combination of two or more of the above
  58. 58. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 4. In what form is the energy in the system when the mass is at maximum displacement? F. elastic potential energy G. gravitational potential energy H. kinetic energy J. a combination of two or more of the above
  59. 59. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 5. Which of the following does not affect the period of the mass-spring system? A. mass B. spring constant C. amplitude of vibration D. All of the above affect the period.
  60. 60. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 5. Which of the following does not affect the period of the mass-spring system? A. mass B. spring constant C. amplitude of vibration D. All of the above affect the period.
  61. 61. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 6. If the mass is 48 kg and the spring constant is 12 N/m, what is the period of the oscillation? F. 8  s H.  s G. 4  s J.   s
  62. 62. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 1–6 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A mass is attached to a spring and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. 6. If the mass is 48 kg and the spring constant is 12 N/m, what is the period of the oscillation? F. 8  s H.  s G. 4  s J.   s
  63. 63. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A pendulum bob hangs from a string and moves with simple harmonic motion. 7. What is the restoring force in the pendulum? A. the total weight of the bob B. the component of the bob’s weight tangent to the motion of the bob C. the component of the bob’s weight perpendicular to the motion of the bob D. the elastic force of the stretched string
  64. 64. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A pendulum bob hangs from a string and moves with simple harmonic motion. 7. What is the restoring force in the pendulum? A. the total weight of the bob B. the component of the bob’s weight tangent to the motion of the bob C. the component of the bob’s weight perpendicular to the motion of the bob D. the elastic force of the stretched string
  65. 65. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A pendulum bob hangs from a string and moves with simple harmonic motion. 8. Which of the following does not affect the period of the pendulum? F. the length of the string G. the mass of the pendulum bob H. the free-fall acceleration at the pendulum’s location J. All of the above affect the period.
  66. 66. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A pendulum bob hangs from a string and moves with simple harmonic motion. 8. Which of the following does not affect the period of the pendulum? F. the length of the string G. the mass of the pendulum bob H. the free-fall acceleration at the pendulum’s location J. All of the above affect the period.
  67. 67. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A pendulum bob hangs from a string and moves with simple harmonic motion. 9. If the pendulum completes exactly 12 cycles in 2.0 min, what is the frequency of the pendulum? A. 0.10 Hz B. 0.17 Hz C. 6.0 Hz D. 10 Hz
  68. 68. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A pendulum bob hangs from a string and moves with simple harmonic motion. 9. If the pendulum completes exactly 12 cycles in 2.0 min, what is the frequency of the pendulum? A. 0.10 Hz B. 0.17 Hz C. 6.0 Hz D. 10 Hz
  69. 69. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A pendulum bob hangs from a string and moves with simple harmonic motion. 10. If the pendulum’s length is 2.00 m and a g = 9.80 m/s 2 , how many complete oscillations does the pendulum make in 5.00 min? F. 1.76 H. 106 G. 21.6 J. 239
  70. 70. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 7–10 on the information below . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 A pendulum bob hangs from a string and moves with simple harmonic motion. 10. If the pendulum’s length is 2.00 m and a g = 9.80 m/s 2 , how many complete oscillations does the pendulum make in 5.00 min? F. 1.76 H. 106 G. 21.6 J. 239
  71. 71. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 11. What kind of wave does this graph represent? A. transverse wave C. electromagnetic wave B. longitudinal wave D. pulse wave
  72. 72. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 11. What kind of wave does this graph represent? A. transverse wave C. electromagnetic wave B. longitudinal wave D. pulse wave
  73. 73. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 12. Which letter on the graph represents wavelength? F. A H. C G. B J. D
  74. 74. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 12. Which letter on the graph represents wavelength? F. A H. C G. B J. D
  75. 75. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 13. Which letter on the graph is used for a trough? A. A C. C B. B D. D
  76. 76. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 11–13 on the graph . </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 13. Which letter on the graph is used for a trough? A. A C. C B. B D. D
  77. 77. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 14–15 on the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave with an amplitude of 0.75 m has the same wavelength as a second wave with an amplitude of </li></ul><ul><li>0.53 m. The two waves interfere. </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 14. What is the amplitude of the resultant wave if the interference is constructive? F. 0.22 m G. 0.53 m H. 0.75 m J. 1.28 m
  78. 78. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 14–15 on the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave with an amplitude of 0.75 m has the same wavelength as a second wave with an amplitude of </li></ul><ul><li>0.53 m. The two waves interfere. </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 14. What is the amplitude of the resultant wave if the interference is constructive? F. 0.22 m G. 0.53 m H. 0.75 m J. 1.28 m
  79. 79. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 14–15 on the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave with an amplitude of 0.75 m has the same wavelength as a second wave with an amplitude of </li></ul><ul><li>0.53 m. The two waves interfere. </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 15. What is the amplitude of the resultant wave if the interference is destructive? A. 0.22 m B. 0.53 m C. 0.75 m D. 1.28 m
  80. 80. Multiple Choice, continued <ul><li>Base your answers to questions 14–15 on the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>A wave with an amplitude of 0.75 m has the same wavelength as a second wave with an amplitude of </li></ul><ul><li>0.53 m. The two waves interfere. </li></ul>Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 15. What is the amplitude of the resultant wave if the interference is destructive? A. 0.22 m B. 0.53 m C. 0.75 m D. 1.28 m
  81. 81. Multiple Choice, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 16. Two successive crests of a transverse wave 1.20 m apart. Eight crests pass a given point 12.0 s. What is the wave speed? F. 0.667 m/s G. 0.800 m/s H. 1.80 m/s J. 9.60 m/s
  82. 82. Multiple Choice, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 16. Two successive crests of a transverse wave 1.20 m apart. Eight crests pass a given point 12.0 s. What is the wave speed? F. 0.667 m/s G. 0.800 m/s H. 1.80 m/s J. 9.60 m/s
  83. 83. Short Response Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 17. Green light has a wavelength of 5.20  10 –7 m and a speed in air of 3.00  10 8 m/s. Calculate the frequency and the period of the light.
  84. 84. Short Response Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 17. Green light has a wavelength of 5.20  10 –7 m and a speed in air of 3.00  10 8 m/s. Calculate the frequency and the period of the light. Answer: 5.77  10 14 Hz, 1.73  10 –15 s
  85. 85. Short Response, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 18. What kind of wave does not need a medium through which to travel?
  86. 86. Short Response, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 18. What kind of wave does not need a medium through which to travel? Answer: electromagnetic waves
  87. 87. Short Response, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 19. List three wavelengths that could form standing waves on a 2.0 m string that is fixed at both ends.
  88. 88. Short Response, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 19. List three wavelengths that could form standing waves on a 2.0 m string that is fixed at both ends. Answer: Possible correct answers include 4.0 m, 2.0 m, 1.3 m, 1.0 m, or other wavelengths such that n  = 4.0 m (where n is a positive integer).
  89. 89. Extended Response Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 20. A visitor to a lighthouse wishes to find out the height of the tower. The visitor ties a spool of thread to a small rock to make a simple pendulum. Then, the visitor hangs the pendulum down a spiral staircase in the center of the tower. The period of oscillation is 9.49 s. What is the height of the tower? Show all of your work.
  90. 90. Extended Response Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 20. A visitor to a lighthouse wishes to find out the height of the tower. The visitor ties a spool of thread to a small rock to make a simple pendulum. Then, the visitor hangs the pendulum down a spiral staircase in the center of the tower. The period of oscillation is 9.49 s. What is the height of the tower? Show all of your work. Answer: 22.4 m
  91. 91. Extended Response, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 21. A harmonic wave is traveling along a rope. The oscillator that generates the wave completes 40.0 vibrations in 30.0 s. A given crest of the wave travels 425 cm along the rope in a period of 10.0 s. What is the wavelength? Show all of your work.
  92. 92. Extended Response, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 11 21. A harmonic wave is traveling along a rope. The oscillator that generates the wave completes 40.0 vibrations in 30.0 s. A given crest of the wave travels 425 cm along the rope in a period of 10.0 s. What is the wavelength? Show all of your work. Answer: 0.319 m
  93. 93. Hooke’s Law Chapter 11 Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion
  94. 94. Transverse Waves Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  95. 95. Longitudinal Waves Chapter 11 Section 3 Properties of Waves
  96. 96. Constructive Interference Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  97. 97. Destructive Interference Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions
  98. 98. Reflection of a Pulse Wave Chapter 11 Section 4 Wave Interactions

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