Historical Inquiry


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Historical Inquiry

  1. 1. Jeff Whipple ED 6902
  2. 2. ed6902. wikispaces .com
  3. 3. Historical Inquiry <ul><li>1812 </li></ul>1867 1497 1917 1984 1945
  4. 4. Historical Inquiry Too much past to remember all of it. Historical research has evolved to provide a systematic way to locate, evaluate, harvest, synthesize and create new understandings
  5. 5. Finding Historical “Truth” “ You got your history, I got mine” Henry Ford History is subjective - debate over ability to find “truth”
  6. 6. Finding Historical “Truth” <ul><li>discovery / heurestic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>constructivist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>criticism of sources </li></ul><ul><li>synthesis and exposition </li></ul>Three Major Operations in historical inquiry
  7. 7. The “stories” lead to the “question” <ul><li>researchers curious about history, review artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>the research question most often arises from the content </li></ul>
  8. 8. Critical Analysis <ul><li>“ Tyranny of the printed page” </li></ul>
  9. 9. SCIM Method <ul><li>Historical Inquiry </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Government of Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>The Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec City, October 16, 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Prime Minister, </li></ul><ul><li>During the last few days the people of Quebec have been greatly shocked by the kidnapping of Mr. James R. Cross, representative of the </li></ul><ul><li>British Government in Montreal, and the Hon. Pierre Laporte, Minister of Labour and Manpower and Minister of Immigration of Quebec, as well </li></ul><ul><li>as by the threats to the security of the state and individuals expressed in communiqués issued by the Front de Liberation du Quebec or on its </li></ul><ul><li>behalf, and finally by all the circumstances surrounding these events. </li></ul><ul><li>After consultation with authorities directly responsible for the administra tion of justice in Quebec, the Quebec Government is convinced that </li></ul><ul><li>the law , as it stands now, is inadequate to meet this situation satisfactorily. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the circumstances, on behalf of the Government of Quebec, I request that emergency powers be provided as soon as possible so that </li></ul><ul><li>more effective steps may be taken. I request particularly that such powers encompass the authority to apprehend and keep in custody </li></ul><ul><li>individuals who, the Attorney General of Quebec has valid reasons to believe, are determined to overthrow the government through violence </li></ul><ul><li>and illegal means. According to the information we have and which is available to you, we are facing a concerted effort to intimidate and </li></ul><ul><li>overthrow the government and the democratic institutions of this province through planned and systematic illegal action, including insurrection. </li></ul><ul><li>It is obvious that those participating in this concerted effort completely reject the principle of freedom under the rule of law. </li></ul><ul><li>The Quebec Government is convinced that such powers are necessary to meet the present emergency. Not only are two completely innocent </li></ul><ul><li>men threatened with death, but we are also faced with an attempt by a minority to destroy social order through criminal action; it is for those </li></ul><ul><li>reasons that our government is making the present request. </li></ul><ul><li>The government is confident that, through such powers, it will be able to put an immediate stop to intimidation and terror and to ensure peace </li></ul><ul><li>and security for all citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Please accept, Mr. Prime Minister, my very best regards. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Bourassa, Premier </li></ul>link
  11. 11. Collaborating <ul><li>After SCIM </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize data to create story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities and differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions drawn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional information or sources necessary </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Benchmarks <ul><li>Key Components of Historical Thinking </li></ul>http://www.histori.ca/benchmarks/
  13. 13. Benchmark # 1 <ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul><ul><li>What can it tell us about a larger story? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reliability of Sources
  15. 15. <ul><li>Primary Source Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>The Litter of History </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for Evidence, not information </li></ul>Benchmark # 2
  16. 16. Reliability of Sources <ul><li>Indications of originality of source </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological proximity to event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older is better! </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Reliability of Sources <ul><li>If various sources contain same message, credibility increased </li></ul><ul><li>Indication of tendency , or a motivation for bias </li></ul>
  18. 18. Criticism: Reliability <ul><li>Time : When was source produced? </li></ul><ul><li>Localization : Where was it produced? </li></ul><ul><li>Authorship : Who produced it? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Criticism: Reliability <ul><li>Analysis : From what pre-existing materials was it produced </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity : What was it’s original form? </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility : evidential value </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>and Change </li></ul>Benchmark # 3 View history as change over time, NOT a series of dates, events
  21. 21. <ul><li>Cause & Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>What were the actions, beliefs and circumstances that led to events </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals / groups promote, shape and resist change </li></ul>Benchmark # 4
  22. 22. <ul><li>Historical Perspective </li></ul>Benchmark # 5 “ The past is a foreign country” Understanding the social, cultural and intellectual settings that shaped lives “ Historical empathy”
  23. 23. <ul><li>Moral Dimensions </li></ul>Benchmark # 6 To what extent should we make moral judgements? Do historical events place responsibilities upon us today? If story is meaningful, we should expect to learn something.
  24. 24. Application of the Benchmarks Primary Sources Historical Significance Continuity and Change Cause and Consequence Historical Perspective Moral Consequences
  25. 25. Artifact Review Activity ed6902.wikispaces.com
  26. 26. Artifact 1
  27. 27. Artifact 2 A New Way of Life
  28. 28. Artifact 3 &quot;A great many canoes filled with the Natives were about the ships all day, and a trade commenced betwixt us and them, which was carried on with the Strictest honisty on boath sides. Their articles were the Skins of various animals, such as Bears, Wolfs, Foxes, Dear, Rackoons, Polecats, Martins and in particular the Sea Beaver, the same as is found on the coast of Kamtchatka.&quot;
  29. 29. Artifact 4
  30. 30. Engaging in Historical Inquiry <ul><li>S ummarizing </li></ul><ul><li>C ontextualizing </li></ul><ul><li>I nferring </li></ul><ul><li>M onitoring </li></ul>
  31. 32. The Last Spike <ul><li>Book published in 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Inquiry / narrative format </li></ul><ul><li>Historian & Author Pierre Burton </li></ul><ul><li>Documents the political, cultural, social and economic stories of the building of the railway across western Canada. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Data Collection <ul><li>Used Primary sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public archives (federal and provincial), parliamentary library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpublished personal papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters, diaries in CPR archives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used Secondary sources to support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles from newspapers, magazines and periodicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Data Collection <ul><li>Used contacts and assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various sources and connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPR refused Burton access to all files, said it wasn’t in the “public interest” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Assessment of study <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustive primary source materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide-spread audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong historical significance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertaining narrative form may detract from legitimacy </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Assessment of study <ul><li>Ethical Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial nature of the published form, later formed partial basis for CBC film </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contribution to the Field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made Canadian history “popular” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustive narrative of a critical component to growth of Canada </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Historical Inquiry <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Thinking - Benchmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Sources & Other Evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCIM - Interpreting History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration - Constructing a Story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge of authenticity and provenance of understandings </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Dr. Ted Christou, Faculty of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Evie Plaice, Faculties of Education & Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Heidi Ryder, History Teacher, James M. Hill High School, Miramichi </li></ul>