Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Running	
  Head:	
  PRINCIPAL	
  CERTIFICATION	
  PORTFOLIO	
  –	
  ANGELO	
  STATE	
  UNIVERSITY	
  
Title: Principal Cer...
Portfolio: Principal Certification Portfolio – Angelo State University
	
  
Table of Contents
EDG 6345 - Human Relationshi...
Running	
  Head:	
  PRINCIPAL	
  CERTIFICATION	
  PORTFOLIO	
  –	
  ANGELO	
  STATE	
  UNIVERSITY	
  
EDG 6345 - Human Rel...
Running	
  Head:	
  DEVELOPMENT	
  OF	
  YOUR	
  PERSONAL	
  LEADERSHIP	
  VISION	
  
Module 1: Development of Your Person...
Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision
	
  
2	
  
Development of My Personal Leadership Vision
Backgroun...
Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision
	
  
3	
  
community. But, in this case, I have utilized the comm...
Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision
	
  
4	
  
	
  
Figure 1. Connection of my beliefs, based on the ...
Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision
	
  
5	
  
Communicating My Personal Vision:
According to Sterret...
Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision
	
  
6	
  
References
Connelly, G., & Bartoletti, J. (2013). Lead...
Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision
	
  
7	
  
Appendix
1) What things/theories/values/beliefs do I d...
Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision
	
  
8	
  
2) What are your beliefs:
• About leadership? In order...
Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision
	
  
9	
  
• About learning? In order to fulfill our vision…
§ E...
Running	
  Head:	
  NAVIGATING	
  THE	
  “HIDDEN	
  HISTORY”	
  AND	
  BECOMING	
  AN	
  INSIDER	
  
Module 2: Navigating ...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
2	
  
Navigating a School’s “Hidden History”...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
3	
  
Robbins and Alvy (2004) state that “At...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
4	
  
Finally, Bryk and Schneider (2003), af...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
5	
  
According to Robbins and Alvy (2004, p...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
6	
  
In addition to creating a personal lea...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
7	
  
1999). Therefore, as discussed earlier...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
8	
  
Reflected in the message above, “new p...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
9	
  
References
Barth, R. (2002). The cultu...
Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider
	
  
10	
  
Schein, E. (1974). Organizational soc...
Running	
  Head:	
  DEFINING	
  SCHOOL	
  LEADERSHIP	
  SKILLS:	
  KEY	
  SHIFTS	
  
Module 3: Defining School Leadership ...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
2	
  
Defining School Leadership Skills: Key Shifts
Introduction:
"Instru...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
3	
  
Table 1: Key Instructional, Curriculum, and Assessment Shifts (Robb...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
4	
  
Shift 1. Observing quality, meaningful, and engaging student work
W...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
5	
  
using bold, educationally sound, and innovative strategies to firml...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
6	
  
Shift 5: Data-driven assessment decisions.
With respect to data-dri...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
7	
  
Shift 7: Best practices research.
According to Marzano (2003), “Thi...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
8	
  
that I taught, I had three mentors: a peer mentor, who helped me ho...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
9	
  
breakfasts, and action research projects” and that research, accord...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
10	
  
As a teacher, I maintained a professional teaching portfolio of my...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
11	
  
important instructional, curriculum, and assessment trends with my...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
12	
  
References
Cogan, M. (1973). Clinical supervision. Boston: Houghto...
Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills
	
  
13	
  
	
  
Appendix	
  A.	
  
	
  
Shifts
(Robbins & Avery, 2004)
Type o...
Running	
  Head:	
  MANAGING	
  HUMAN	
  AND	
  MATERIAL	
  RESOURCES	
  EFFECTIVELY	
  
Module 4: S.W.O.T. Analysis – Man...
Module 4: Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively
	
  
2	
  
S.W.O.T. Analysis – Managing Human and Material Res...
Module 4: Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively
	
  
3	
  
In The Principal’s Fieldbook (Robbins and Alvy, 200...
Module 4: Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively
	
  
4	
  
on their own analysis, that they are not adequately...
Module 4: Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively
	
  
5	
  
References
Morrison, M. (2009). PESTLE Analysis for...
Running	
  Head:	
  CAMPUS	
  AND	
  CENTRAL	
  OFFICE	
  COLLABORATION	
  
Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaborat...
Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration
	
  
2	
  
Campus and Central Office Collaboration
According the Robbins...
Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration
	
  
3	
  
positive and productive district culture, and most importantl...
Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration
	
  
4	
  
• Keep central office personnel informed about activities wit...
Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration
	
  
5	
  
However, not everything went smoothly with the implementation...
Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration
	
  
6	
  
References
Deal, T., & Peterson, K. (1994). The leadership pa...
Running	
  Head:	
  PARENTS	
  AND	
  THE	
  GREATER	
  COMMUNITY	
  
Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community
Jeff Sha...
Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community
	
  
2	
  
Parents and the Greater Community
Considering All Stakeholders - In...
Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community
	
  
3	
  
As Robbins and Alvy (2004) explain, “Many of the CBOs, businesses, ...
Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community
	
  
4	
  
For example, some of the activities for “bringing families and the ...
Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community
	
  
5	
  
Ultimately, working with CBOs should involve: connecting mutual goa...
Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community
	
  
6	
  
purpose of the projects, project requirements, and allowed parents ...
Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community
	
  
7	
  
“(a) A school district shall provide special notice of each meeting...
Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community
	
  
8	
  
References
Abbott, G. (2014). Open Meetings Act Handbook. Retrieved...
Running Head: WORKING WITH THE MEDIA
Module 7: Working with the Media
Jeff Shaver
Angelo State University
EDG 6345 Human R...
Module 7: Working with the Media
	
  
2	
  
Working with the Media
Five keywords or phrases associated with the importance...
Module 7: Working with the Media
	
  
3	
  
story out,” so that the educational leader can seize opportunities to “showcas...
Module 7: Working with the Media
	
  
4	
  
References
Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. B. (2004). The new principal's fieldbook: S...
Running	
  Head:	
  PRINCIPAL	
  CERTIFICATION	
  PORTFOLIO	
  –	
  ANGELO	
  STATE	
  UNIVERSITY	
  
EDG 6341 - Role of t...
Running	
  Head:	
  EDUCATIONAL	
  LEADERSHIP	
  COMPETENCY	
  CONNECTIONS	
  
Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency...
Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections
	
  
2	
  
Educational Leadership Competency Connections
Standard ...
Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections
	
  
3	
  
Standard 2.0:
“Promoting and maintaining a positive sch...
Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections
	
  
4	
  
Standard 3.0:
“Managing the organization, operations, a...
Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections
	
  
5	
  
Standard 4.0:
“Collaborating with families and other co...
Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections
	
  
6	
  
opinion, families and the community want leaders that t...
Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections
	
  
7	
  
Standard 6.0:
“Articulating, analyzing and describing, ...
Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections
	
  
8	
  
References
Amanchukwu, R. N., Stanley, G. J., & Ololube...
Running	
  Head:	
  PRINCIPAL	
  INTERVIEW	
  –	
  COMMUNICATING	
  YOUR	
  VISION	
  
Module 2: Principal Interview – Com...
Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision
	
  
2	
  
Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision
Colla...
Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision
	
  
3	
  
§ school recognized as a 2012 STEM Lighthouse School...
Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision
	
  
4	
  
Formulating initiatives to motivate your school commu...
Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision
	
  
5	
  
Formulating initiatives to motivate your school commu...
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio

595 views

Published on

Writing Portfolio of the first two Principal Certification courses that I have taken at Angelo State University from August-October, 2016.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Principal Certification - Writing Portfolio

  1. 1. Running  Head:  PRINCIPAL  CERTIFICATION  PORTFOLIO  –  ANGELO  STATE  UNIVERSITY   Title: Principal Certification Portfolio Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6345 Human Relationships in Educational Administration EDG 6341 Role of the Principal August – October, 2016
  2. 2. Portfolio: Principal Certification Portfolio – Angelo State University   Table of Contents EDG 6345 - Human Relationships in Educational Administration: • Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision • Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider • Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills • Module 4: S.W.O.T. Analysis – Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively • Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration • Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community • Module 7: Working with the Media EDG 6341 - Role of the Principal • Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections • Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision • Module 3: Relating Professional Learning Communities to Principal Competencies • Module 4: Optimizing Learning in Mathematics • Module 5: Collaboration – Demographics and Needs Assessment • Module 6: Ethics and Rights Assessment – Promoting Cultural Competency of a School • Module 7: Advocating for Programs and Policies
  3. 3. Running  Head:  PRINCIPAL  CERTIFICATION  PORTFOLIO  –  ANGELO  STATE  UNIVERSITY   EDG 6345 - Human Relationships in Educational Administration Jeff Shaver Angelo State University August – October 2016
  4. 4. Running  Head:  DEVELOPMENT  OF  YOUR  PERSONAL  LEADERSHIP  VISION   Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6345 Human Relationships in Educational Administration August 27, 2016
  5. 5. Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision   2   Development of My Personal Leadership Vision Background: To help me to shape my own personal leadership vision, I found it helpful to research and internalize the strategic plan and vision of a school district that I respect and know, Highline Public Schools in Washington State. Their vision is their promise to their students, families and the community that “every student in Highline Public Schools is known by name, strength, and need, and graduates ready for college, career, and citizenship” (Strategic Plan, 2016). Within their strategic plan, Highline Public Schools has established four pillars to “support [their] instructional vision and guide [their] professional practices” (Strategic Plan, 2016), which are: (1) equitable access to rigorous, standards-based instruction (e.g., personalized learning), (2) results-focused professional learning and collaboration (e.g., professional pathways, communities of practice, leadership for results), (3) strong partnerships with families and community, and (4) a culturally responsive organization (e.g., culture of learning, service, and equity). As stated in their strategic plan, for each pillar they have “articulated professional practices that guide what [they] must do well in every classroom, in every school, across [the] entire district to ensure success for all students, without exception” (Strategic Plan, 2016). I felt that it was necessary to utilize the shared vision of a district and its stakeholders, because it seems as if a personal leadership vision by itself is potentially irrelevant or disconnected from the needs of the community that the leader is serving. However, I do think that it could be possible to create a personal leadership vision that is adaptable to various school
  6. 6. Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision   3   community. But, in this case, I have utilized the community-developed strategic plan and vision of Highline Public Schools to take my first steps at developing my personal leadership vision. To support me in developing my personal leadership vision, I utilized the framework laid out by Robbins and Alvy (2004, p. 1-13) and the five key responsibilities, proposed by The Wallace Foundation (2013), of a principal, which include: 1. Shaping a vision of academic success for all students, one based on high standards. 2. Creating a climate hospitable to education in order that safety, a cooperative spirit and other foundations of fruitful interaction prevail. 3. Cultivating leadership in others so that teachers and other adults assume their parts in realizing the school vision. 4. Improving instruction to enable teachers to teach at their best and students to learn to their utmost. 5. Managing people, data and processes to foster school improvement. Both the framework and a focus on the responsibilities of a principal provided me the foundation for establishing a shared vision for my school community that is centered upon teaching, learning, and assessment (see Figure 1 and Appendix). Framework for the Development of My Personal Leadership Vision: Using the framework from Robbins and Alvy (2004, p. 1-13), in Figure 1, I identified my beliefs (in blue) related to professional development, students, change, curriculum/instruction /assessment, staff members, learning, leadership, communication, supervision, and community building. And, I also organized my beliefs within the six domains of leadership responsibility (Connelly and Bartoletti, 2013, p. 8), including: (1) Professional growth and learning, (2) Student growth and achievement, (3) School planning and progress, (4) School culture, (5) Professional qualities and instructional leadership, and (6) Stakeholder support and engagement.
  7. 7. Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision   4     Figure 1. Connection of my beliefs, based on the template from Robbins and Alvy (2004, p. 1-13), to the six key domains of leadership responsibility (Connelly and Bartoletti, 2013, p. 8), and other resources (Spear, 2003; Strategic Plan, 2016; The Wallace Foundation, 2013). Note, my more detailed are available in the Appendix (p. 7-9) after the References. My Personal Leadership Vision: Utilizing my research on the importance of a principal’s vision that has brevity, clarity, abstractness, challenge, future orientation, stability, and desirability (Kemp, Hardy, and Harris, 2014, p. 54) and my beliefs with respect to a principal’s responsibilities (Figure 1), my personal leadership vision that supports the vision of Highline Public Schools (Strategic Plan, 2016), is: We strive to nurture the academic achievement of all students by continuously improving our instruction and ensuring equitable access to rigorous instruction for all students, cultivating leaders throughout our school community, providing a culturally-responsive and inclusive learning environment, and building strong partnerships with all families and the community.
  8. 8. Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision   5   Communicating My Personal Vision: According to Sterret (2011), “Without action, a vision is just a piece of paper.” Sterret, therefore, recommends making morning announcements, sending daily e-mail to staff, attending community events, and conducting effective meetings to keep everyone focused on the vision. In addition, Sterret emphasizes the importance of visibility, availability, and supporting others with overcoming challenges. Johnson (2008) states, “A principal with a vision and expertise creates a blueprint of how the school can achieve its goals. He or she finds teachers and staff to help make the vision a reality. The principal continually coaches and mentors the staff so that together they can accomplish the desired results” (p. 72). One way that Sterret suggests that a leader can keep others on track and motivated to accomplish the desired results is to “recognize what the organization is doing right and affirming “quick wins” that are already occurring.” Therefore, I plan to communicate my personal vision by making the vision visible (e.g., publish on my principal webpage), communicating the vision often in the context of our day-to- day work (e.g., daily announcements and meetings), highlighting the positive work that we are doing to fulfill our vision (e.g., staff acknowledgements), and ensuring that our vision is a shared vision with our school community and various stakeholders (e.g., be involved in community events).
  9. 9. Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision   6   References Connelly, G., & Bartoletti, J. (2013). Leadership Matters: What the Research Says About the Importance of Principal Leadership. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.naesp.org/sites/default/files/ LeadershipMatters.pdf Johnson, J. (2008). The Principal's Priority 1. Educational Leadership - The Positive Classroom, 66(1), 72-76. Retrieved August 27, 2016, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/ educational-leadership/sept08/vol66/num01/The-Principal's-Priority-1.aspx Kemp, A., Hardy, S., & Harris, P. (2014). The Principal's Vision: Necessity or Non-issue? Journal of Research in Education, 24(2), 51-62. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1098181.pdf Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. (2004). New Principal's Fieldbook: Strategies for Success. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/103019/chapters/Vision- as-the-Compass.aspx Spear, L. (2003). A Principal's Vision. Retrieved August 27, 2016, from http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/Transforming Education/Articles/Vision/ Strategic Plan. (2016). Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.highlineschools.org/ domain/1145 Sterrett, W. (2011). Turning Vision into Reality. Retrieved August 27, 2016, from http:// www.ascd.org/publications/books/112009/chapters/Turning-Vision-into-Reality.aspx The Wallace Foundation. (2013). Five Key Responsibilities - The School Principal as Leader: Guiding Schools to Better Teaching and Learning. Retrieved August 27, 2016, from http://www.wallace foundation.org/knowledge-center/Pages/key-responsibilities-the- school-principal-as-leader.aspx
  10. 10. Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision   7   Appendix 1) What things/theories/values/beliefs do I deeply value? • Equitable access to rigorous instruction for all students (Strategic Plan, 2016) that emphasizes: § Procedural fluency § Conceptual understanding § Relevance and application to real-world problems, issues and scenarios • Results-focused professional learning and collaboration (Strategic Plan, 2016), including: § Professional pathways § Communities of practice § Leadership for results • Strong partnerships with families and the community (Strategic Plan, 2016), including: § Higher education § Workforce § For-profit, non-profit, and community organizations • Culturally-responsive and inclusive learning community (Strategic Plan, 2016), including: § Culture of learning § Service § Equity • Coherence of vision across the district, school, and community
  11. 11. Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision   8   2) What are your beliefs: • About leadership? In order to fulfill our vision… § Cultivating leadership in others so that teachers and other adults assume their parts in realizing the school vision (The Wallace Foundation, 2013, p. 9) • About students? In order to fulfill our vision… § Shaping a vision of academic success for all students, one based on high standards (The Wallace Foundation, 2013, p. 7) • About staff members? In order to fulfill our vision… § Managing people, data and processes to foster school improvement (The Wallace Foundation, 2013, p. 14) • About community building? In order to fulfill our vision… § Class meetings to work on community (Spears, 2003) § Creating a climate hospitable to education in order that safety, a cooperative spirit and other foundations of fruitful interaction prevail (The Wallace Foundation, 2013, p. 8) • About curriculum, instruction, and assessment? In order to fulfill our vision… § Grade level teams planning and working together (Spears, 2003) § Frequent assessments used to inform instruction and decision making (Spears, 2003) § Highly trained teachers working closely with instructional facilitators (professional developers) in their classrooms to improve teaching and learning.
  12. 12. Module 1: Development of Your Personal Leadership Vision   9   • About learning? In order to fulfill our vision… § Every one is engaged in learning, students and staff (Spears, 2003) § Constructivist teaching (Spears, 2003) § Attention to common vocabulary (Spears, 2003) § Collaborative, cooperative and active-based learning episodes § An absolute focus on the essential academic learning requirements (Spears, 2003) § Writing across the curriculum (Spears, 2003) § Improving instruction to enable teachers to teach at their best and students to learn to their utmost (The Wallace Foundation, 2013, p. 11) • About professional development? In order to fulfill our vision… § A certificated model of student support and professional development (Spears, 2003) • About supervision? In order to fulfill our vision… § Managing people, data and processes to foster school improvement (The Wallace Foundation, 2013, p. 14) • About communication?: In order to fulfill our vision… § Effective, efficient, and continuous communication and collaboration is required among all within our school community § A clear vision, responsive support, and engagement • About change?: In order to fulfill our vision… § Fulfill our shared vision of academic success for all students (Strategic Plan, 2016), by improving instruction (The Wallace Foundation, 2013, p. 11)
  13. 13. Running  Head:  NAVIGATING  THE  “HIDDEN  HISTORY”  AND  BECOMING  AN  INSIDER   Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6345 Human Relationships in Educational Administration September 4, 2016
  14. 14. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   2   Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider School Culture: Past and Present – Uncovering and Understanding “Hidden History” According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “A critical leadership competency is the ability to understand, read, and shape school culture” (p. 14). And, Roland Barth (2002) states that “probably the most important and most difficult job of an instructional leader is to change the prevailing culture of the school” and every culture has a “hidden history” (Peterson, 1982). With respect to the hidden history of a school’s culture, Robbins and Alvy (2004), states that a new principal “quickly learns about sacred cows, land mines, and traditions as he or she begins to interact with the network of organizational members” (p. 14). Robbins and Alvy (2004), also states that “culture [a “school’s unique personality”] is created as organizational members create meaning within the walls where they spend their lives. It affects how people feel, think, and act. It influences how they interact, do their work, make decisions, solve problems, cope with tragedies, and celebrate successes” (p. 16). Therefore, a new educational leader must prioritize and respect the efforts needed to learn how and why a school functions in the way that it does, and to understand and embrace the culture and values of their new school community. During this process, it might be that some of these functions will need to be changed, but not until the “hidden history” has been necessarily unveiled. School Culture: Future – Changing School Culture with Knowledge and Tools Peterson and Deal (2002) note that “the unwritten tablet of social expectations found in a culture influences almost everything that happens,” and Robbins and Alvy (2004), emphasizes that it is important for a new principal to “understand the culture before trying to shape it” (p. 17) and to identify whether the culture is cohesive or fragmented.
  15. 15. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   3   Robbins and Alvy (2004) state that “At the heart of every culture is a set of values and beliefs. In cohesive cultures, common values and beliefs are held by all organizational members. In fragmented cultures, each subculture’s members may have their own set of beliefs and values” (p. 17). And, “To begin to shape new values, new traditions must be blended with the old” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 17-18), which involves patience and strategic planning. To give focus for the strategic planning needed to shape school culture, Jon Saphier and Matthew King (1985) identified 12 norms of school culture that need to be strong to create a healthy school culture that is ripe for change: 1. Collegiality 2. Experimentation 3. High expectations 4. Trust and confidence 5. Tangible support 6. Reaching out to the knowledge base 7. Appreciation and recognition 8. Care, celebration, and humor 9. Involvement and decision making 10. Protection of what’s important 11. Traditions 12. Honest, open communication According to Saphier and King (1985), “If these norms are strong, improvements in instruction, for example, will be significant, continuous, and widespread…however, if these norms are weak, improvements will be infrequent, random, and slow.” And, “three of the norms—collegiality, experimentation, and reaching out to the knowledge base—have the strongest correlation between changing the school environment and improving student achievement” (Saphier, 1996). Also, according to Robbins and Alvy (2004, p. 23) a healthy school culture promotes, among other things, • collaboration over competition • optimists over naysayers • continuous improvement over the status quo
  16. 16. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   4   Finally, Bryk and Schneider (2003), after a 10-year study of Chicago school reform, have concluded that schools with a high degree of ‘relational trust’ are more likely to make the kind of changes that help raise student (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 38). Therefore, a supported culture of collegiality, experimentation, and reaching out to the knowledge base, among other norms, can help to build ‘relational trust’ and improve the likelihood of an instructional leader in institutionalizing student-centered educational changes that will promote the success of all students. Organizational Socialization: The Stages According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “The process of learning the organizational ropes—the roles, values, expected behaviors, and social knowledge of an organization—is referred to…as “organizational socialization” (Schein, 1974; Louis, 1980)” (p. 44), and involves three stages or phase: anticipatory socialization, encounter state, and the insider stage” (p. 44). During the anticipatory socialization phase, a new principal would develop “expectations about the new role and organization they are going to enter” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 44). The encounter state is “when newcomers begin the role and enter the organization” and the insider state is “when a [new principal is] comfortable with [his or her] role and accepted in the organization” (p. 44). Robbins and Alvy (2004) state that “each new principal seeks to become an insider as soon as possible” and that Duke et al (1984) found that “reaching the insider stage usually takes a few months and, in some cases, up to a year” (p. 46). And that ultimately, it is important to “remember that teachers, classified staff, and parents want their principals to succeed” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 46).
  17. 17. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   5   According to Robbins and Alvy (2004, p. 46), the following are indicators that a new principal has reached the insider stage. He or she: • Understands the values, norms, and routines that make up a school’s culture • Is accepted by students and the community • Takes control of one’s schedule • Knows the names of a good number of students • Effectively handles daily routines or the big school events • Has learned how the informal school network operates • Successfully networks with colleagues at regional, state, or national conferences • Has gotten to know the veteran principals who are the expert practitioners Organizational Socialization: Becoming an Insider and Affecting Change According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “it is important for new principals to develop a “strategic sense,” or a personal vision to direct their actions during the first year. At the same time that a personal vision is being constructed, a newcomer needs to relate to the organizational vision” (p. 54-55; Hall and Mani, 1992). Therefore, an instructional leader needs to simultaneously and continuously shape his/her personal leadership vision based on his/her growing understanding of the organizational culture and vision. One of the challenges of developing a personal leadership vision is to have a broad viewpoint of the organizational needs. Robbins and Alvy (2004) state that “the challenge is to reconsider a viewpoint and attitude that worked when the boundary of responsibilities was limited” (p. 55). What the authors are saying is that our experience as educators (e.g., science teacher) cannot overly influence our leadership and result in a narrow perspective. An educational leadership must develop a broad perspective that encompasses the needs of all of his/her stakeholders.
  18. 18. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   6   In addition to creating a personal leadership vision based on a broad perspective, Robbins and Alvy (2004) also emphasize the importance of “coping with the steep learning curve” as a new educational leader. The authors state that “developing effective strategies to cope with the situations that bring on this feeling [e.g., doubt] is the important next step” (p. 56). Therefore, it is important for an educational leader to work towards aligning his/her personal leadership vision based on a deep understanding of their school culture and organizational vision; however, he/she must be patient and know that there is a lot to learn. Robbins and Alvy (2004), continue by saying that “the challenge for new principals is to take the time to absorb the culture and learn about the values, norms, and routines of the school before making any significant culture-shaping decisions” and that part of understanding the school culture is “effectively using the informal school and district network” (e.g., school secretary). The authors state that “a visionary principal must examine the informal network and implement changes if students and staff are not meeting important goals” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 56). Additionally, effective education leaders support their staff in utilizing: data-driven decision making, action research, critical friends group, crisis management strategies - bullying prevention and anti-terrorism, family support services, to support the school community, and to develop and maintain a healthy school culture (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 57). Robbins and Alvy (2004) recognize that “often new principals accept the job because they want to make more of a difference for individuals than they could in the classroom. Yet school policy can lead to complex and troublesome decisions when the needs of an individual student seem to contrast or conflict with the school policy.” The authors state the “ethical dilemmas of “right vs. right” can make it very difficult for the principal who wants to help the individual student and the whole school” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 58; Kidder & Born, 1998–
  19. 19. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   7   1999). Therefore, as discussed earlier, educational leaders must be patient and work through doubts, but remain focused and determined to support both the individual needs of their students and the school community as a whole. And, that educational leaders should embrace the fact that new educational leaders “shape the organization as the organization is shaping them” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 59; Hart, 1993). Organizational Socialization: Building Relationships and Affecting Change According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “If the first year of the principalship is an indicator of future success, then it is important for the newcomer to pursue a student-centered vision right from the start. But if that vision does not include first trying to understand the school culture, then a degree of organizational instability can occur, making it all but impossible for the new principal to develop a trusting relationship with the faculty” (p. 59). Therefore, as the authors also emphasize, it is difficult but also imperative that a new educational leader strikes “a balance between maintaining stability and serving as a change agent” and that “leading a smooth transition characterized by stability and meaningful change is indeed challenging” but necessary and possible (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 59). As Robbins and Alvy (2004) clearly and accurately state, “Meaningful and quality human relationships are a key to any successful organization. Until those relationships are established in a school, day-to-day energy and long-range meaningful goals are difficult to pursue with passion” (p. 59). And, “a new leader cannot fully communicate the message below on the first day of school—but must start on the first day” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 60). “I am a caring person, and I am here to make sure you are challenged academically and engaged in meaningful work. I am here, also, to make sure you behave appropriately, care for classmates and adults, and respect learning and the school facility.”
  20. 20. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   8   Reflected in the message above, “new principals must make it clear from the outset that they are firm and resolute with regard to violence, harassment, intimidation, bullying, and bigotry” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 60). And, as mentioned previously, the school community wants a new principal to be successful, but they also want their educational leader to be clear and concise in their vision for collective success and defense of collective culture and values. In support of collective culture, values and student success, “principals must convey that they honor constructive two-way conversation to provide the best education possible for the student” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 63). Another example of how an educational leader can support a student-center approach is encouraging “teachers and other administrators to make the appropriate arrangements, even during the school day, to attend activities in which one’s own child appears” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 63). Efforts like this make it clear that a principal values all students, and leads through words and action. Below are additional and more specific examples based on “important leadership themes” of effective educational leadership, how to articulate a student-centered vision, and how an educational leader can demonstrate that he/she is an “insider” and positioned to affect change (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 64). Important leadership themes: • keeping students at the heart of organizational actions, • being a learning leader, • building quality relationships, • dedicating oneself to instructional leadership, and • orchestrating school– community partnerships Articulate a common vision based on: • agreed-upon learning goals; • high expectations for all students; • an emphasis on meaningful, quality, and engaging student work; • successful relationships with parents; • monitoring of student success; • respect for instructional time; • leadership throughout the organization; • collaboration among faculty about teaching and learning; and • a safe and orderly school environment
  21. 21. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   9   References Barth, R. (2002). The culture builder. Educational Leadership, 59 (8), 6–11. Bryk, A., & Schneider, B. (2003). Trust in school: A core resource for school reform. Educational Leadership, 60 (6), 40–44. Duke, D., Isaacson, N., Sagor, R., & Schmuck, R. (1984). Transition to leadership . Portland, OR: Lewis and Clark College, Educational Administration Program. Hall, G., & Mani, M. (1992). Entry strategies: Where do I begin? In F. Parkay & G. Hall (Eds.), Becoming a principal (chap. 2). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Hart, A. (1993). Principal succession . Albany: State University of New York Press. Kidder, R., & Born, P. (1998–1999). Resolving ethical dilemmas in the classroom. Educational Leadership , 56 (4), 38–41. Louis, M. (1980). Surprise and sense making: What newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings. Administrative Science Quarterly , 25 , 226–251. Peterson, K. (1982). Making sense of principals’ work. Australian Administrator, 3 (3), 1–4. Peterson, K., & Deal, T. (2002). The shaping school culture fieldbook . San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. (2004). New Principal's Fieldbook: Strategies for Success. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/103019/chapters/Vision- as-the-Compass.aspx Saphier, J., & King, M. (1985,). Good seeds grow in strong cultures. Educational Leadership, 42 (6), 67–74. Saphier, J. (1996). The skillful teacher: Building your teaching skills. Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching.
  22. 22. Module 2: Navigating a School’s “Hidden History” and Becoming an Insider   10   Schein, E. (1974). Organizational socialization and the profession of management. In D. Kolb, I. Rubin, & J. McIntyre (Eds.), Organizational psychology (pp. 1–26). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  23. 23. Running  Head:  DEFINING  SCHOOL  LEADERSHIP  SKILLS:  KEY  SHIFTS   Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6345 Human Relationships in Educational Administration September 11, 2016
  24. 24. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   2   Defining School Leadership Skills: Key Shifts Introduction: "Instructional leadership is a moral responsibility, where leaders are unwaveringly committed to student success and teacher growth” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 88). With respect to teacher growth, Carol Dweck (TED, 2014) would likely agree that it is not only the responsibility of an educational leader to ensure all teachers “create growth mindset classrooms,” but that they also ensure their teachers have a growth mindset, with respect to their own professional practice, rather than a fixed mindset. However, an educational leader must also have a growth mindset, and know that “their job performance can help a marginal teacher become skilled or an average teacher become exceptional” (p. 88) and know that he or she “can affect student success by helping teachers be the best they can be” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 88). And, therefore, “if we want students to grow [and have a growth mindset] and develop their skills, then we must want the same for teachers” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 89). According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “effective instructional leadership is a longstanding component of the effective schools research” (Glickman, Gordon, & Ross-Gordon, 2001), and requires the examination of the “instructional, curriculum, and assessment shifts” (Robbins & Alvy, 2003) that effective educational leaders need to understand, study, and “support as instructional leaders” (p. 90). These key “instructional, curriculum, and assessment shifts” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004; Appendix A) include:
  25. 25. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   3   Table 1: Key Instructional, Curriculum, and Assessment Shifts (Robbins and Alvy, 2004) 1. Observing quality, meaningful, and engaging student work (p. 91-93). Shift Type: I, C 2. Offering quality, meaningful, and engaging work for all students (p. 93-94). Shift Type: I, C 3. Formative and summative teacher supervision focusing on state standards (p. 94-97). Shift Type: I, C, A 4. Refocusing the clinical supervision process (p. 97-102). Shift Type: I, C, A 5. Data-driven assessment decisions (p. 102-104). Shift Type: A 6. State-level and alternative assessments (p. 104-105). Shift Type: A 7. Best practices research (p. 105-108). Shift Type: I, C 8. Differentiated supervision customized for novice, experienced, and at-risk teachers (p. 108). Shift Type: A 9. Continuous teacher growth (p. 109). Shift Type: I, C, A 10. Collaborative professional development practices led by teachers (p. 109-110). Shift Type: L 11. Teacher reflection, self-reflection, and goal setting (p. 110). Shift Type: I, C, A 12. Building-level teacher leadership (p. 111). Shift Type: L As you can see from Table 1 above, each of the 12 shifts have been identified with a “shift type” that can include one or more of the following: Shared Leadership (L), Instruction (I), Curriculum (C), or Assessment (A). Even though shared leadership isn’t specifically called out in Robbins and Alvy (2004), it is clear that two of the shifts (10 and 12): 10. Collaborative professional development practices led by teachers, 12. Building-level teacher leadership; deal specifically with educational leaders sharing school leadership roles with their teachers.
  26. 26. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   4   Shift 1. Observing quality, meaningful, and engaging student work With respect to observing student work, according to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “Previously, supervisors concentrated primarily on the teacher delivery system” (p. 91). Now, however, Robbins and Alvy (2004), state that “principals, other supervisors, and teachers involved in peer observation and lesson study groups are observing the teacher delivery system and students engaged in meaningful work” (p. 91). Based on my own experience, I would agree that my supervisors observed and reflected with me on how I facilitated lessons, but also the work that my students were doing and their understanding of the purpose and objective of their work. And, according to Schlechty (2001), the following are a few of the qualities or attributes that likely make schoolwork more engaging for student, and have often been reflected on with my supervisors: • Content, substance, and organization of knowledge • Authentic work and tasks with clear product standards and objectives • A climate that promotes risk-taking and supports “failure” • Includes others and the community • Provides a range of learning opportunities and student choice Shift 2: Offering quality, meaningful, and engaging work for all students. According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), the objective of this shift is “success for all as the goal,” but is “more than a moral imperative; it is a component of the effective schools research— all students can learn” (Glickman et al., 2001; Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 93), which is reinforced by growth minds of students, teachers, and educational leaders. As a teacher and a future educational leader, I believe that all students can learn and succeed, therefore, as Robbins and Alvy (2004) state it, we “can facilitate this ideal by working collaboratively with others and
  27. 27. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   5   using bold, educationally sound, and innovative strategies to firmly pursue a vision of success for all students” (p. 94). However, fulfilling this shift will not be easy, and will require a lot of productive perseverance. Shift 3: Formative and summative teacher supervision focusing on state standards. This shift, focuses on using state standards as a focal point for both formative and summative teacher supervision, which can still be done using a clinical supervision process model consisting of a: pre-observation conference, observation, reflection, and post-observation conference (Robbins and Alvin, 2004; Cogan, 1973). And, during the pre-observation conference the alignment of the lesson, to be observed, to course curriculum and state standards/benchmarks can be addressed (Robbins and Alvin, 2004, p. 95). In my teaching experience, at one school in particular, my advisor utilized a clinical supervision process model, and we discussed how my lessons aligned to our science curriculum but not state standards. However, I’m guessing that now, since Washington State is utilizing the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), they are discussing the alignment of lessons to NGSS during their pre-conferences. Shift 4: Refocusing the clinical supervision process. According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “The process, formerly used primarily to observe the teacher delivery system, is now used to engage teachers in a conversation about quality student work, standards, data-driven decisions, and assessment strategies” (p. 97). As previously mentioned, one of my former supervisors effectively utilized the clinical supervision process with me, and we often examined student work as part of the reflection and post-observation phase of the process. I plan to incorporate this process with my teachers as a principal.
  28. 28. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   6   Shift 5: Data-driven assessment decisions. With respect to data-driven assessment decisions that influence supervision and evaluation, Robbins and Alvy (2004) state that "In general, a positive aspect of assessing is the process of disaggregating data and searching for group or individual student trends or patterns to help teachers pinpoint needs. In theory, if needs are pinpointed, teachers can modify their practices to meet the needs of individual students or groups of students” (p. 102). As a teacher, I have lead efforts to utilize data to pinpoint student needs, however, this is very delicate work that requires patience, thoughtfulness, and collaboration. As an educational leader, I will plan to work collaboratively with other administrators and teachers to develop and implement a clear and thoughtful plan for analyzing our student data, and taking appropriate next steps. Shift 6: State-level and alternative assessments. In short, this shift focuses on state-level assessments (usually criterion-referenced, in contrast to norm-referenced) and alternative assessments, such as: portfolios, performances, and exhibitions (e.g., senior projects) that “are increasingly valued by educators and the general public” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 104-105). At one of my previous schools, students were required to maintain an online academic portfolio, which fulfilled their requirement of a senior project and was required to graduate. In addition, students were also required to pass district- level end of course exams (EOCs) and state-level assessments to qualify for graduation. Therefore, as you might imagine, not all students and families (or teachers) were a fan of both state- and district-level assessments, in addition to alternative assessment requirements.
  29. 29. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   7   Shift 7: Best practices research. According to Marzano (2003), “Thirty-five years of research provides remarkably clear guidance as to the steps schools can take to be highly effective in enhancing student achievement” and, in fact, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock’s (2001) have identified nine “best practice” instructional strategies that promise to “significantly affect student achievement” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 106). These strategies include: (1) comparing and contrasting, (2) summarizing and notetaking, (3) giving praise, (4) homework and practice, (5) multiple, nonlinguistic representations, (6) cooperative learning, (7) setting clear objectives and providing meaningful feedback, (8) generating and testing hypotheses, and (9) advanced organizers (Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock’s, 2001). As a new principal, I will do as Robbins and Alvy (2004) suggest, and “share this information with the faculty in a supportive manner to demonstrate a commitment to important research with practical application” (p. 106). Of the strategies listed above, as a teacher I have really focused on comparing and contrasting, notetaking, homework and practice, cooperative learning, setting clear objectives and providing meaningful feedback, and generating and testing hypothesis, but I could still work on providing appropriate and needed praise, using advanced organizers, and have students use a variety of nonlinguistic representations. As an educational leader, I won’t evaluate my teachers by going doing this list as a checklist for good teaching, but rather will help my teachers identify gaps and areas for improvement. Shift 8: Differentiated supervision customized for novice, experienced, and at-risk teachers. In my teaching, I have benefits from mentor teachers and peer-coaching at both of my former school districts. As Robbins and Alvy (2004), my former school districts used “the strengths of their best teachers to help new or veteran teachers” (p. 108). At the very first district
  30. 30. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   8   that I taught, I had three mentors: a peer mentor, who helped me hone my growth mindset for teaching and establish effective classroom management; a science coach, who helped to ensure that my pedagogical knowledge and practices were in-tune with my colleagues, that I had access to and was utilizing our curricular materials and science equipment, and supporting me by co- teaching with me from time-to-time and observing my teaching; and my assistant principal, who utilized a clinical supervision process (as discussed above) throughout the school year to help me to improve incrementally, little-by-little. Shift 9: Continuous teacher growth. As discussed previously, having a growth mindset (in mind and action) as an educational leader is essential for promoting a growth mindset in teachers and students (Ted, 2014). As Robbins and Alvy (2004) put it, continuous teacher growth “in contrast to mastery, is a more suitable approach for addressing the complexities of teaching, learning, and assessment” (p. 109). There is a lot to know and do in teaching, and it’s hard to keep up with necessary improvements in instruction, curriculum, assessment, and classroom management. Therefore, it is really important, as an educational leader, to provide teachers with constructive feedback and reflection on their practice so that they can focus on areas where improvement is needed. And, it’s imperative that, as an educational leader, I’m transparent with my staff as to the areas where I will be focusing on my own improvement. Shift 10: Collaborative professional development practices led by teachers. With respect to collaborative teacher-led professional development, Robbins and Alvy (2004) state that “teachers are initiating and directing practices such as peer-coaching teams, mentoring, critical friends and lesson study groups, teacher curricular and instructional
  31. 31. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   9   breakfasts, and action research projects” and that research, according to Newmann & Wehlage (1995), indicates “supporting a shift toward a collaborative model firmly indicates that when the faculty functions as an effective learning community, student success is enhanced” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 110). As both a teacher presenter and a teacher that participated in teacher-led professional development, I found it very useful to teach and learn from my peers. For example, I have worked with teachers in Kenya to develop water quality curriculum for their students, and to guide student independent research projects. In terms of the list presented in the paragraph above, I have: participated in peer-coaching, had a teacher mentor, participated in lesson studies and an action research project. My action research project was focused on researching, developing, and implementing more effective was to engage with my students in order to increase student engagement, motivation, and academic performance. In all honesty, it’s difficult to try and do everything, but I have benefited greatly by learning with my colleagues. Shift: 11: Teacher reflection, self-reflection, and goal setting. With the support of a supervisor, teachers can maintain a reflective journal or portfolio, which Robbins and Alvy (2004) say “can be an effective vehicle for reflecting on [a teacher’s] professional practice” (p. 110). A few of the things that may constitute a professional teacher portfolio include: a multi-week lesson plan, instructional plan for a single lesson, sample assessments, videotape of a class, sample student work, lesson reflections, family contact log, participation in school or district-related projects, professional development log, professional contributions, a list of possible action research activities, pictures of meaningful school events, or notes from students and families (Danielson, 1996; Robbins and Alvy, 2004).
  32. 32. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   10   As a teacher, I maintained a professional teaching portfolio of my own, however, it was a bit more of a scrapbook rather than something that I formally did with my supervisors support. But, I can see this being a really enjoyable and productive thing to do with teachers and to encourage teachers to do with their colleagues. Shift 12: Building-level teacher leadership. According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), focusing on building-level teacher leadership involves expanding instructional, curricular, and assessment decisions to teacher leaders or site- based management (SBM) teams” (p. 111). And, Robbins and Alvy (2004) state that “SBM teams are often responsible for developing and implementing a school improvement plan (SIP)” that are “designed to improve how a school functions and operates, with the intent of increasing and enhancing teaching and learning; often required by state departments of education and local school districts” (Morrison, 2003; Robbins and Alvy, 2004). In my experience, at both of the schools where I taught, we had an SBM and SIP. At one of the schools I was on the SBM team, and at the other school I wasn’t. The focus of the SBM team that I was a member of was to support our schoolwide project-based learning (PBL) implementation in all grades and across all subjects. I found it very useful and empowering to work alongside my colleagues, school leaders, and community members to improve our students’ success and learning experience. Conclusion: According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “New principals must support these shifts to succeed as 21st century instructional leaders” (p. 90-91). This chapter has helped me explore how I, as a future educational leader, can promote student success by examining these
  33. 33. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   11   important instructional, curriculum, and assessment trends with my teachers. As an educational leader, I will ensure that staff professional development is appropriately targeted to support our shared school and district goals and vision by empowering my teachers to be educational leaders with me and working with them to design and implement curricula that promotes effective instruction and student learning; align our curriculum and instruction with assessments; and develop varied formative and summative assessments that more accurately assess student performance.
  34. 34. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   12   References Cogan, M. (1973). Clinical supervision. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Glickman, C., Gordon, S., & Ross-Gordon, J. (2001). Supervision and instructional leadership (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Marzano, R. (2003). What works in schools . Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Morrison, G. (2003). Teaching in America (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Newmann, F., & Wehlage, G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin. Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. (2003). The principal’s companion (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. B. (2004). The new principal's fieldbook: Strategies for success. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Schlechty, P. (2001). Shaking up the schoolhouse: How to support and sustain educational innovation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [TED]. (2014, November). Carol Dweck: The power of believing that you can improve. [Video File]. Retrieved September 11, 2016, from https://www.ted.com/talks/carol_dweck_the_ power_of_believing_that_you_can_improve?language=en
  35. 35. Module 3: Defining School Leadership Skills   13     Appendix  A.     Shifts (Robbins & Avery, 2004) Type of Shift Shared Leadership (L) Instructional (I) Curriculum (C) Assessment (A) 1. Observing quality, meaningful, and engaging student work (p. 91-93). ✔ ✔ 2. Offering quality, meaningful, and engaging work for all students (p. 93-94). ✔ ✔ 3. Formative and summative teacher supervision focusing on state standards (p. 94-97). ✔ ✔ ✔ 4. Refocusing the clinical supervision process (97-102). ✔ ✔ ✔ 5. Data-driven assessment decisions (p. 102-104). ✔ 6. State-level and alternative assessments (p. 104-105). ✔ 7. Best practices research (p. 105- 108). ✔ ✔ 8. Differentiated supervision customized for novice, experienced, and at-risk teachers (p. 108). ✔ 9. Continuous teacher growth (p. 109). ✔ ✔ ✔ 10. Collaborative professional development practices led by teachers (p. 109-110). ✔ 11. Teacher reflection, self- reflection, and goal setting (p. 110). ✔ ✔ ✔ 12. Building-level teacher leadership (p. 111). ✔
  36. 36. Running  Head:  MANAGING  HUMAN  AND  MATERIAL  RESOURCES  EFFECTIVELY   Module 4: S.W.O.T. Analysis – Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6345 Human Relationships in Educational Administration September 13, 2016
  37. 37. Module 4: Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively   2   S.W.O.T. Analysis – Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively According to Morrison (2009), “A SWOT Analysis for schools is a tool that can provide prompts to…staff involved in the analysis of what is effective and less effective in [a] schools systems and procedures.” In the SWOT Analysis template below (see Figure 1), the factors (e.g., people, resources) for evaluating the internal strengths and weaknesses of the school have been added, and elements within the PRIMO-F Model (Morrison, 2009). Additionally, in the SWOT Analysis template, the factors (e.g., political, economic) for evaluating the external opportunities and threats for a school are included, and elements within a PESTLE analysis (Morrison, 2009).   Figure  1.  A  modified  SWOT  Analysis  template  that  includes  internal  and  external  factors  from  the  Primo-­‐F  Model  and   PESTLE  analysis,  respectively  (Morrison,  2009).
  38. 38. Module 4: Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively   3   In The Principal’s Fieldbook (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 144-182), the authors present the key areas of focus (e.g., Protecting Quality Classroom Time; see Table 1, Areas of Focus) for a principal to ensure that the human and material resources of the school are managed to promote a thriving school and ultimately success for all students. Table 1. A pre-SWOT analysis template for identifying and analyzing areas of focus. Areas of Focus Internal Factor Strength or Weakness? External Factor Opportunity or Threat? Protecting Quality Classroom Time (p. 145-146) Operations Instructional Leadership (p. 146-148) Operations Management (p. 148-149) Operations Students (p. 149-150) People Personnel (p. 150) People Parents (p. 150-151) People Broader Community Stakeholders (p. 151) Social Principal Time Management (p. 151-157) Operations Desegregation (p. 161) Operations Legal Gender Equity (p. 162) Operations Legal Serving Students with Disabilities (p. 162-163) Operations People Legal Serving Students with Limited English Proficiency (p. 163- 164) Operations People Legal Safety, Negligence, and Child Abuse Issues (p. 164-165) Operations Legal Free Speech and Censorship (p. 165) Operations Legal Student Discipline: Due Process and Search and Seizure Laws (p. 166-167) Operations Legal Intimidation, harassment, and bullying (p. 167-168) Operations Legal Legal Issues After September 11th (e.g., cell phones policies, prayer, terrorism, tolerance) Operations Legal Working with Unions (p. 169-172) People Operations The School Budget (p. 172-175) Finance Political Maintaining a Facility that Accentuates Pride (175- 176) People Operations Social Air Quality in School (p. 176-177) Operations Environ- ment Table 1 can serve as a template to list all areas of focus to be analyzes for a school’s management strengths or weaknesses (internal factors) and opportunities or threats (external factors). However, with respect to our current list of focus areas, a school may determine, based
  39. 39. Module 4: Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively   4   on their own analysis, that they are not adequately serving students with disabilities. Therefore, they would identify the focus area of “Serving Students with Disabilities” as an internal weakness. Additionally, not serving students with disabilities could likely be an external threat, because it poses a potentially major legal issue. Note, in addition to the areas of focus identified in Robbins and Alvy (2004), you can fill-in the template with additional areas of focus. Once the pre-SWOT analysis template (Table 1) has been completed, then the areas of focus can be placed in the SWOT analysis template (Figure 1), see example below, for further analysis.
  40. 40. Module 4: Managing Human and Material Resources Effectively   5   References Morrison, M. (2009). PESTLE Analysis for Schools or Education. Retrieved September 13, 2016, from https://rapidbi.com/pestle-analysis-for-schools-and-education/ Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. B. (2004). The new principal's fieldbook: Strategies for success. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  41. 41. Running  Head:  CAMPUS  AND  CENTRAL  OFFICE  COLLABORATION   Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6345 Human Relationships in Educational Administration September 21, 2016
  42. 42. Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration   2   Campus and Central Office Collaboration According the Robbins and Alvy (2004), there are several reasons that principals might not take advantage of central office personnel and material resources, which include: • Thinking that it’s a sign of weakness to ask for help • Perceiving the central office as an overwhelming bureaucracy • Competition between the central office and school • Trying to succeed without the help of central office (p. 229-230) With respect to principals trying to succeed on their own, Schlechty (2001) advises principals to “learn to see yourself as a member of the district-level team as well as the head of your own team at the building level” and to “recognize that your school is…part of a larger system.” Additionally, Schlechty (2001) states that “other schools and other principals are not – or should not be – your competition” and “principals will be more effective when they learn to use the district and the community, just as district level officials will be more effective once they learn to be more responsive to the needs of principals.” With the support of the superintendent, Deal and Peterson (1994) suggest that “principals should realize that the central office folks could get them out of a lot of jams” and help with “curriculum, personnel and budgetary issues.” And, Grove (2002) states, “Vitally important, central office staff members provide the support and consistency necessary for a high-quality instructional program” and that: (1) “all staff want to be part of the school success story” and (2) “central office wants to assist and celebrate student success.” Therefore, a superintendent should take steps to ensure that the principals see the value in working with central office personnel, and that central office personnel are providing the necessary supports and services to principals that ensure high-quality instructional programs, a
  43. 43. Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration   3   positive and productive district culture, and most importantly success for all students (see Figure 1). For example, as Robbins and Alvy (2004) state, principals should be supported in identifying “which central office contacts are critical” and a superintendent should put in place “a formal mentoring program” for new principals. Additionally, a superintendent can encourage “professional development activities [e.g., book club] in which the central office personnel interact with the principals and vice principals” in order to “create a bond among school leaders” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 232).   Figure  1.  A  variety  of  central  office  services  that  promote  high-­‐quality  instructional  programs,  a  positive  and  productive   district  culture,  and  student  success.    Based  on  information  presented  in  Robbins  and  Alvy  (2004,  p.  231)  and  Grove   (2002). As mentioned previously, central office staff want to celebrate in student successes (Grove, 2002), but do not often have the opportunity to do so. Therefore, according to Robbins and Alvy (2004), a superintendent can encourage principals to: • Invite central office personnel to the schools for assemblies and special programs or to visit classes
  44. 44. Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration   4   • Keep central office personnel informed about activities with a formal calendar of events • Stop by the central office on occasion to interact with central office colleagues • Have the central office display student work from the schools, which could be facilitated by assigning different parts of the central office to specific schools • Participate in a central office mentoring program or take a systematic tour of the central office facility that includes a detailed review of individual central office personnel responsibilities • Keep central office administrators informed about any potential problems (p. 233- 234) Though I do not currently work in a school district, I can speak to an experience of effective and ineffective interactions between central office personnel and school leaders around the implementation of a new program. As a Career and Technical Education (CTE) science teacher in a very large school district in Washington State, my CTE Director and staff specialist supported me through some of the recommendations presented earlier, including their: (1) development and review of our biomedical sciences program of study, (2) observations of me as a teacher and community engager, (3) support of me attending conferences and participating in teacher professional development, (4) assistance in analyzing student achievement data from our program, (5) management of grants to fund our biomedical science program, and completion of necessary reports, (6) organizing of community activities and program committee meetings associated with our biomedical science program, and (7) support of biomedical sciences program informational sessions for students and parents. Additionally, I ensured that my central office CTE colleagues celebrated in the success of our students by visiting the central office often with students, inviting our students to present at school board meetings in support of their CTE programs, and keeping the central office up-to-date on school activities and community events.
  45. 45. Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration   5   However, not everything went smoothly with the implementation of our biomedical science program. From the beginning there was definitely tension and a sense of competition between my school leaders and the central office CTE staff. Additionally, there was ineffective communication and collaboration around the budgeting and ordering of essential equipment for our biomedical science program. For example, in our first year of implementation I did not have any of the necessary biomedical sciences equipment until mid-year, and I was required to work with a community organization to acquire loaned equipment for my hands-on biomedical sciences labs. Also, none of my biomedical sciences classes were to have more than 25 students enrolled; however, due to scheduling conflicts and other unforeseen challenges, I had two classes of nearly 50 students. All in all, the superintendent was aware of all the positives and challenges that we were facing in the implementation of our new biomedical sciences program, but seemed hesitant to intervene due to personnel conflicts and potentially other factors. In my opinion, it would have been helpful if our superintendent had intervened and worked to help create a more collaborative and non-competitive culture around our CTE biomedical sciences program. Additionally, it would have been productive to have us all celebrate together in our students’ successes within our program, but often these celebrations were fragmented and not inclusive of all stakeholders. In hindsight, there might have been more that I could have done as the teacher to facilitate a more positive relationship between my school leaders and CTE colleagues; however, I have often found it very difficult for teachers to be the buffers. As a school- or district-level administrator I will try and be attentive to similar situations that I have just described, and work to ensure that central office and school personnel are continually improving in their abilities to collaborate and deliver high-quality instructional programs that promote student success, within a positive and productive district culture.
  46. 46. Module 5: Campus and Central Office Collaboration   6   References Deal, T., & Peterson, K. (1994). The leadership paradox. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Grove, K. (2002, May). The invisible role of the central office. Educational Leadership, 59 (8), 45–47. Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. B. (2004). The new principal's fieldbook: Strategies for success. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Schlechty, P. (2001). Shaking up the schoolhouse: How to support and sustain educational innovation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  47. 47. Running  Head:  PARENTS  AND  THE  GREATER  COMMUNITY   Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6345 Human Relationships in Educational Administration September 30, 2016
  48. 48. Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community   2   Parents and the Greater Community Considering All Stakeholders - Interacting with Community-Based Organizations According to Robbins and Alvy (2004), “Community-based organizations (CBOs) include community organizations and clubs; professional associations; and local, state, and federal agencies,” and “these organizations, devoted to social service assistance, can help shoulder the social work role” of a school (see Table 1). In Table 1, the most frequently used school-linked services are correlated with some specific community-based support efforts (Morrison, 2003; Robbins and Alvy, 2004). School-linked Services Community-based Support Efforts 1. Education (including Job training and Community engagement) • 4-H Youth Development, and Boy and Girl Scouts • Community Colleges and Teachers’ union • Zoos, libraries, museums and art organizations • Newspapers, television networks, and radio stations • Youth sports organizations 2. Health and Emergency • Fire, police, and emergency service personnel • Hospitals and health clinics, including dental care 3. Child Welfare and Family welfare (including Housing, Substance abuse, Psychological, Teen pregnancy, and Juvenile probation services) • Alcoholics Anonymous • Child care • Clothing and Food banks • Disability resource centers • Habitat for Humanity • Neighborhood and Religious organizations • Salvation Army Family Emergency Centers • Sexual assault crisis lines • Temporary shelters • YWCA therapeutic child development programs
  49. 49. Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community   3   As Robbins and Alvy (2004) explain, “Many of the CBOs, businesses, and industrial organizations partner with school-career education programs often referred to as school-to-work (STW) programs” that “link classrooms with authentic work environments.” In my experience, the schools that I taught at did a great job of working with social services and community- focused organizations, but could have done a better job of working with job training, workforce, and industry-focused organizations. Also, I do not recall either of the schools I taught at making any specific effort to celebrate the role of fire, police, medical, and other emergency service personnel in your community. However, in Seattle, where I taught a biomedical sciences course, the students did explore various professions throughout the course that related to specific topics the students were studying. And, therefore, in some cases students interviewed local professionals or invited them to speak to our class or school. With respect to workforce and industry-focused training for students, in Seattle our school worked very closely with the YWCA to provide in-class and after-school support and training for our students, however, our school struggled to establish a working relationship with the Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center, which was offering an 8-week summer intensive, paid opportunity for 16 of our high-achieving, high poverty students in authentic science research projects. Ultimately, our failure was in reaching an agreement on which students should qualify for the program. Therefore, our school lacked a shared vision with the Fred Hutch, and ultimately with other organizations interested in providing our students with intensive, rigorous, and authentic STEM experiences and training. Of course, this was very frustrating and disappointing to me. However, I’m hoping to learn from my teaching experiences, and apply my experiences and continuous learning to be the most effective educational leader possible.
  50. 50. Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community   4   For example, some of the activities for “bringing families and the business community to school” proposed by Robbins and Alvy (2004) that are of particular interest to me as a future school leader, are: • Holding Open House for families, businesses, fire, police and emergency workers, CBOs, and the media to celebrate in community, school, and student successes. • Inviting community businesses, senior citizens, and parents to math, science, and technology exhibitions. • Reaching out to the community to create career and expertise database resources for career days, class presentations and projects, and STW programs. • Conducting “Saturday Morning Parent Institutes” (e.g., how to support student learning at home; college admissions process; personalized learning; exploring educational and career pathways; and math, science, reading and writing support). • Inviting the community to view a display of projects made by students during service, STW activities, or in-school project-based learning (PBL) projects. With respect to working with CBOs, it is important for school leaders to facilitate, manage, and at times lead meaningful collaborations and partnerships with CBOs. Therefore, it might be best for a school community to have a CBO task force (i.e., committee) or site-based management (SBM) team that include school staff and other stakeholders within the community. And, the responsibility of this task force or SBM team is to ensure that all CBO collaborations and partnerships support the shared vision of the school community. Note, Epstein (2002) warns that new school leaders “need to view their role on these committees as that of facilitators, welcoming parents and other stakeholders into the picture to help with programs, policy, budgetary, and instructional decisions.”
  51. 51. Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community   5   Ultimately, working with CBOs should involve: connecting mutual goals for student success, integrate school and community resources to accomplish these goals, and facilitate parent involvement. Because, as Wherry (2010) reports, research finds that “the best predictors of student achievement” include: • “Parents high expectations for achievement and future careers” (e.g., their child’s involvement with CBOs), and • “Parents being involved in a child’s education. Also, according to Epstein (2002), successful parent involvement can be done in six different ways, including shared support in: (1) Parenting, (2) Communication, (3) Volunteering, (4) Learning at Home, (5) Decision Making, and (6) Collaborating with the Community. Successful Parent Involvement At both of the schools where I taught in the greater Seattle area, we engaged with parents and families during: (1) open houses, (2) parent-teacher conferences, and (3) parent days (i.e., there were various days throughout the year when parents could join their son or daughter at school to observe their classes or to meet with administrators and teachers), where high expectations for student achievement, and future educational and career pursuits were shared. Additionally, I engaged with parents and family during sporting events and other extracurricular activities, science fairs, and project planning meetings. For example, at one of my former schools, each year I supported 25-30 students in STEM projects for a regional biosciences-focused regional competition, called Student BioExpo. These projects required students to work with professional mentors (e.g., research scientists, medical professionals) to support them in their research and project development. Therefore, each year I invited all the students, mentors, and families to evening sessions that introduced everyone to the
  52. 52. Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community   6   purpose of the projects, project requirements, and allowed parents to meet and engage with the professional mentors who would be working with their son or daughter. And, in some cases, the parents had expertise that could contribute to their child’s project or other students’ projects. Therefore, I made the point of including parents in the education of their child both inside and outside the classroom. In my experience, I have also successfully engaged with parents by phone (rarely email). But, by far, the most meaningful parent engagement is in-person, however, it is not always possible to meet with every parent in-person at the school. Therefore, in the future, I will try and do a better job as an educational leader to go out into the community to meet and engage with parents and families. However, on several occasions, I invited students (with their parents in attendance) to speak on behalf of our school programs (e.g., CTE biomedical sciences program) at school board meetings. Though speaking in front of the school board was nervous for both my students and I, I think that it was a great experience for us all. Steps to Legal Compliance – School Board Meetings (Open Meetings Act of Texas) With respect to school board meetings, according to the Open Meetings Handbook (Abbott, 2014, p. 24-38), the school board shall “give written notice of the date, hour, place, and subject of each meeting” (p. 24). See the following four ‘steps’ for a school board to be in compliance, with respect to school board meetings: (1) Notice: The notice of a school board meeting “must be posted in a place readily accessible to the general public at all times for at least 72 hours before the scheduled time of the meeting” (p. 27-28), and a “school district shall post notice of each meeting on a bulletin board at a place convenient to the public in the central administrative office of the district” (p. 30). Additionally, with respect to special notice to the news media (p. 30-31):
  53. 53. Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community   7   “(a) A school district shall provide special notice of each meeting to any news media that has: (1) requested special notice; and (2) agreed to reimburse the district for the cost of providing the special notice. (b) Notice shall be by telephone, facsimile transmission, or electronic mail.” (2) Convening: A school board meeting “may not be convened unless a quorum…is present in the meeting room.” And, the meeting must be “held in a location accessible to the public” and be “physically accessible to individuals with disabilities” (p. 36). (3) Open Meeting: A school board meeting that is “open to the public” is “one that the public is permitted to attend,” however, this “does not entitle the public to choose the items to be discussed or to speak about items on the agenda” (p. 36). But, the school board may “give members of the public an opportunity to speak” at the school board meeting. Additionally, if the school board does so, “it may set reasonable limits on the number, frequency and length of presentations before it, but it may not unfairly discriminate among speakers for or against a particular point of view” (p. 36). And, members of the public or school board may “raise a subject that has not been included in the notice for the meeting, but any discussion of the subject must be limited to a proposal to place the subject on the agenda for a future meeting” (p. 37). (4) Board Decisions: A school board’s “final action, decision or vote on any matter within its jurisdiction may be made only in an open session held in compliance with the notice requirements” (p. 38). And, the school board “may not vote in an open session by secret written ballot” or “take action by written agreement without a meeting” (p. 38).
  54. 54. Module 6: Parents and the Greater Community   8   References Abbott, G. (2014). Open Meetings Act Handbook. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from https://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov/files/og/openmeeting_hb.pdf Epstein, J. (2002). Six types of parent involvement, in Leading learning communities: Standards for what principals should know and be able to do (p. 73). Alexandria, VA: NAESP. Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. B. (2004). The new principal's fieldbook: Strategies for success. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Wherry, J. (2010). Parent Involvement: Nine Truths You Must Know Now. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from http://www.esc16.net/users/0020/docs/NineTruths.pdf
  55. 55. Running Head: WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Module 7: Working with the Media Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6345 Human Relationships in Educational Administration October 8, 2016
  56. 56. Module 7: Working with the Media   2   Working with the Media Five keywords or phrases associated with the importance of an educational leader establishing a positive working and professional relationship with the media are: (I) alliance, (II) focus, (III) proactive leadership, (IV) news releases, and (V) crisis management. (I) Alliance Three things that are important to an educational leader creating a collaborative, professional alliance and partnership with the news media, include: • inviting the news media to “special events on a routine basis” • keeping the news media “informed about new [school or district] programs” • respectfully communicating with the media when dissatisfied with a story (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 260). (II) Focus In order to protect the interests of your school community, while remaining honest with the news media, four pieces of information are important to keep in mind, which include the educational leader focusing his/her discussions with the media on “[1] the school mission, [2] teaching and [3] learning, and [4] student safety” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 257). (III) Proactive Leadership One interesting and important thing that I learned about being a proactive leader is assessing the news coverage of the school or district by conducting “a newspaper, television, and radio audit to discern positive and negative coverage, coverage accuracy, and capability to get a
  57. 57. Module 7: Working with the Media   3   story out,” so that the educational leader can seize opportunities to “showcase student work and performance” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 259). (IV) News Releases In addition to insuring that the information contained within a news release is accurate, jargon-free, no longer than a page, and well structured (i.e., addresses the who – what – when – where – why with most important information in the first paragraph, use “END” or “more” at the bottom of the page, and providing a date line, release date, contact person, and release date), one interesting and important that that I learned about new releases is that “if only a cameraperson shows for a story, make sure that he or she gets a copy of your news release” (Robbins and Alvy, 2004, p. 262). (V) Crisis Management Robbins and Avery (2004, p. 264-265) provide lots of great information about how an educational leader should engage with the media during a crisis (e.g., identifying and maintaining a media staging area, not saying “no comment” or speculating, obtaining consent from staff members before agreeing to allow the media to interview them, and not letting students under the age of 18 be interviewed without parental consent); however, one remaining question that I have is how to handle a situation when a member of my school has engaged with the media in a non-productive way that is not in the best interests of our school community.
  58. 58. Module 7: Working with the Media   4   References Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. B. (2004). The new principal's fieldbook: Strategies for success. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  59. 59. Running  Head:  PRINCIPAL  CERTIFICATION  PORTFOLIO  –  ANGELO  STATE  UNIVERSITY   EDG 6341 - Role of the Principal Jeff Shaver Angelo State University August – October 2016
  60. 60. Running  Head:  EDUCATIONAL  LEADERSHIP  COMPETENCY  CONNECTIONS   Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6341 Role of the Principal August 25, 2016
  61. 61. Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections   2   Educational Leadership Competency Connections Standard 1.0: “Facilitating the articulation, formulation, and dissemination of a school or district vision of learning supported by the school community” (Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 2002, p. 4). Reflective paragraph: Educational leaders must be able to articulate the vision of their schools to all stakeholders, involve various stakeholders in reformulating the vision if and when needed, and to hold all stakeholders accountable to the shared vision. In my experience, being involved in the examination and reformulating of the school vision has been extremely helpful to me in creating a better sense of community and collective accountability. Connection to theory of educational research: According to Amanchukwu, Stanley, and Ololube (2015), most theories of leadership “can be classified as one of Charry’s eight major type”. These include: (1) “Great Man” Theory, (2) Trait Theory, (3) Contingency Theories, (4) Situational Theory, (5) Behavioral Theory, (6) Participative Theory, (7) Transaction/Management Theory, and (8) Relationship/ Transformational Theory (Amanchukwu, Stanley & Ololube, 2015, p. 8; Charry, 2012). Based on my understanding of these theories, I think that Standard 1.0 is reflected in the Relationship/Transformational Theory because “relationship or transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance of the task [school or district vision]” (Amanchukwu, Stanley & Ololube, 2015, p. 9).
  62. 62. Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections   3   Standard 2.0: “Promoting and maintaining a positive school culture for learning, by promoting effective instructional programs, by applying best practices to student learning, and by designing and implementing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff” (Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 2002, p. 4). Reflective paragraph: In my opinion, Standard 2.0 is one of the most important standards because it expects educational leaders to honor the diversity and needs of all staff and students in order to promote a positive school culture and learning community, and ensure that instructional programs utilize curricular materials, pedagogy, and technology that results in student success for all students. In my experience, doing this well involves a lot of shared expertise, communication and collaboration, teamwork, and determination. I am a proponent of inclusive classrooms, which I think gets at the heart of Standard 2.0. Connection to theory of educational research: Standard 2.0, particularly the implementation of comprehensive professional growth plans for staff, seems to be reflected by the Participative Theory, where “participative leaders encourage participation and contribution from group members and help group members to feel relevant and committed to the decision-making process” (Amanchukwu, Stanley & Ololube, 2015, p. 9). Thus, a participative leader would likely involve staff in developing and implementing his/her own personal comprehensive professional growth plan, and evaluating and reflection on his/her progress.
  63. 63. Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections   4   Standard 3.0: “Managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment” (Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 2002, p. 5). Reflective paragraph: Standard 3.0 really emphasizes that effective educational leaders must manage tools and resources to optimize learning and student success by involving all staff in setting and implementing normative instructional practices to which all are held accountable. An example of this from my teaching experience is that as a school we implemented project-based learning (PBL) to support student success for all students in all subjects. Our principal, therefore, had to ensure that all staff members were provided position-appropriate professional development in PBL. Our principal, among other things, had to also work thoughtfully and respectfully with resistant faculty, set appropriate and realistic benchmarks and timelines for PBL implementation, and evaluate and reflect on our progress and success based on student outcomes. Connection to theory of educational research: Since Standard 3.0 seems to involve a combination of managerial and leadership roles, which require different decision-making process (e.g., autocratic, collaborative or democratic) for any given circumstance or situation, this standard seems to be reflected in Situational Theory (Amanchukwu, Stanley & Ololube, 2015, p. 8). According to Amanchukwu, Stanley, and Ololube (2015), situational theory “proposes that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational conditions or circumstances” and “different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for different types of decision-making” (Amanchukwu, Stanley & Ololube, 2015, p. 8).
  64. 64. Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections   5   Standard 4.0: “Collaborating with families and other community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources” (Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 2002, p. 5). Reflective paragraph: Standard 4.0 emphasizes that effective educational leaders are willing and able to respectfully engage and collaborate with all members of the school community. For example, at one of my previous schools many of our students were first-generation Americans from Eastern Africa and Muslim. The challenge that faculty faced is that some of our Muslim students stated that at particular times during the school year and at certain times of day they needed to be free to leave class to pray, and faculty were concerned that these students were missing valuable class time but did not want to limit the students’ religious freedoms. In order to address faculty concerns, our principal consulted with the local East African Community Organization and Muslim parents to come up with a suitable and respectful resolution. Ultimately, we learned that students didn’t need to miss class to pray, but the process resulted in a stronger community. Connection to theory of educational research: Due to variety of stakeholders that are identified in Standard 4.0, it seems fitting that a combination of leadership theories should be considered. These theories might include contingency, situational, behavioral, and relationship/transformational theories. However, if we specifically consider the role of effective educational leaders in collaborating with families and the community, Standard 4.0 seems to be reflected in behavioral theory, which is “based on the belief that great leaders are made, not born” and “focuses on the actions of leaders not on intellectual qualities or internal states” (Amanchukwu, Stanley & Ololube, 2015, p. 8). In my
  65. 65. Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections   6   opinion, families and the community want leaders that they have confidence in, but also want leaders that make the effort to connect with them and are visibly involved in both the school community and the community at large. Standard 5.0: “Demonstrating a respect for the rights of others and by acting responsibly” (Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 2002, p. 6). Reflective paragraph: Standard 5.0 really emphasizes the importance of an effective educational leader being a role model, and leading by example. There are lots of ways that I have experienced educational leaders doing this, but I think that one of the simplest and most effective ways for educational leaders to exemplify Standard 5.0 is to support students and staff both inside and outside of the school (e.g., attend extracurricular activities and community events, and be involved with charities and participate in community service). Connection to theory of educational research: Standard 5.0 is reflected in relationship/transformational theory, because “in these theories, leadership is the process by which a person engages with others and is able to “create a connection” that results in increased motivational morality in both followers and leaders” (Amanchukwu, Stanley & Ololube, 2015, p. 8). In other words, a leader must do what is right, fair, and equitable to support student success for all and lead his/her staff in doing the same.
  66. 66. Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections   7   Standard 6.0: “Articulating, analyzing and describing, and communicating the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context and advocating for all students” (Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 2002, p. 6). Reflective paragraph: Standard 6.0 appears to be one of the most difficult standards, because what seems right might not always be what is reflected by politics, laws, or cultural and community norms. But, it suggests that the keys are to provide clarity, knowledge and transparency, with the emphasis and focus being on equity and access for all students. For example, at one of my previous schools we had to adopt new teacher evaluation standards that required all teachers to report and reflect on student outcomes based on designated student demographics (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender), and to propose solutions for addressing any gaps. Our data revealed that certain demographics of students were underperforming in multiple subject areas, so we collaborated as a school on how we could collectively address this issue, in partnership with families, to work towards ensuring that all students are served and to fulfill our moral, ethical, and legal obligations. Connection to theory of educational research: In my opinion, transactional/management theory in isolation does not seem to reflect the best approach to educational leadership; however, these theories do reflect the reality that schools and districts are accountable and measured in their ability to promote and improve student success. According to Amanchukwu, Stanley, and Ololube (2015), these theories “base leadership on a system of rewards and punishment” and it’s the “leader’s job to create structures that make it abundantly clear what is expected of followers and the consequences (rewards and punishments)” (Amanchukwu, Stanley & Ololube, 2015, p. 8; Charry, 2012).
  67. 67. Module 1: Educational Leadership Competency Connections   8   References Amanchukwu, R. N., Stanley, G. J., & Ololube, N. P. (2015). A Review of Leadership Theories, Principles and Styles and Their Relevance to Educational Management. Management, 5(1), 6-14. doi:10.5923/j.mm.20150501.02 Charry, K. (2012). Leadership Theories – 8 Major Leadership Theories. Retrieved August 23, 2016 from https://www.verywell.com/leadership-theories-2795323 Educational Leadership Constituent Council (2002). Standards for Educational Leaders. Retrieved August 23, 2016 from http://soe.unc.edu/academics/requirements/ standards/NCDPI-ELCC_ Educational_Leaders_Standards.pdf
  68. 68. Running  Head:  PRINCIPAL  INTERVIEW  –  COMMUNICATING  YOUR  VISION   Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision Jeff Shaver Angelo State University EDG 6341 Role of the Principal September 2, 2016
  69. 69. Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision   2   Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision Collaborating with an Administrator to Determine Effective Communication Strategies Disseminating administrative policies to stakeholders According to the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (2002), a vital competency (Standard 1) for effective educational leaders is to facilitate the “articulation, formulation, and dissemination of a school or district vision of learning supported by the school community” (p. 4). In order to gain the perspective of an administrator in the field, on how to effectively communicate the school or district vision to stakeholders, I interviewed Trevor Greene, the former principal at Toppenish High School (Toppenish, WA) and current Instructional Leadership Executive Director (ILED) in Highline Public Schools (Burien, WA). As one of Highline’s ILEDs, Trevor supports and supervises secondary principals throughout the district. Trevor is a great leader and mentor to many, including me, and has more accomplishments then I can possibly list. However, I have shared a few of his accomplishments here: • Named the Washington State High School Principal of the Year for 2012 and National High School Principal of the Year for 2013 by the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP). • Taught middle school and high school levels and served as principal and later as instructional leader at Toppenish High School. • While principal at Toppenish High School, § increased the graduation rate to 94% § implemented nationally certified engineering and biomedical programs
  70. 70. Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision   3   § school recognized as a 2012 STEM Lighthouse School by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction I hope you can see, from his many accomplishments, why I chose to interview Trevor on how he has communicated his vision both at Toppenish High School and within Highline Public Schools. Now, getting down to business, one of the indicators (i.e., Indicator 4) of Standard 1 (Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 2002) states that educational leaders must be able to “disseminate administrative polices and practices by communicating effectively with all stakeholders concerning implementation and realization of the vision” (p. 4). Based on his time as the principal at Toppenish High School, T. Greene stated that “They [administrative policies] were presented to the board, and then during another meeting on a different month, they were finalized. There was no intentionality of distributing policy information other than what occurred at the monthly board meeting” (personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix A). T. Greene also stated, based on his current position as Instructional Leadership Executive Director for Highline Public Schools, that “policies are communicated through the actual board meetings, board minutes, and are accessible on our website. There is always an initial reading, followed by time in between for community members to organize and/or prepare responses. They are then finalized at a later board meeting” (personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix B). Therefore, in Trevor’s experiences, the dissemination of policy information was primarily done via board meeting proceedings and minutes.
  71. 71. Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision   4   Formulating initiatives to motivate your school community – Toppenish High School Another indicator (i.e., Indicator 3) of Standard 1 (Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 2002) states that educational leaders must be able to “formulate the initiatives necessary to motivate staff, parents, students, board and community members to achieve the school or district’s vision by involving all stakeholders in collaborative discussions.” (p. 4). While principal at Toppenish High School, T. Greene stated that “initiatives were formed either at the district level or started in the grassroots level in buildings” but that “when things happen at the schools, then the parents and community are more actively involved” (personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix A). Therefore, in order to get more involvement in district level initiatives, it is important “to be very intentional when starting new initiatives or programs” (T. Greene, personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix A). T. Greene further explained that being more intentional meant that “the topic is researched, data is gathered, and community/teacher groups come together to analyze and discuss the process back to rollout/adoption” and that “facilitation was always handled by administrators in the district” (personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix A). Finally, according to Trevor, “The involvement of multiple stakeholders, and the process of conversing about topics naturally motivates participants to want to learn more and contribute more to the system. One important thing to remember, is the need to always keep your community engaged. This requires intentional share-outs on progress and active media manipulation” (T. Greene, personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix A). Therefore, according to Trevor, initiatives at the school or district level require a different focus and intentionality, and that the involvement of stakeholders in meaningful discourse can be motivating and increase everyone’s engagement and contributions.
  72. 72. Module 2: Principal Interview – Communicating Your Vision   5   Formulating initiatives to motivate your school community – Highline Public Schools With respect to his current role in Highline Public Schools, Trevor explained that his district “is currently at the end of the three-year strategic plan” and that “the original organization/approval of the plan was an endeavor that included the entire community” (T. Greene, personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix B). He goes on to explain that the “strategic plan is shared with every new employee during the orientation process” and “is also published on the website and updated with achieved benchmarks yearly” (T. Greene, personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix B). Additionally, he said that “an actual hard copy of their strategic plan and completed goals, or progress toward, is distributed to all families in the district” (T. Greene, personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix B). Additionally, Trevor explains that Highline Public Schools has “bold goals” and that “they range from mastery at grade 3 to a goal of zero suspensions, and…every student bilingual by 2026” (T. Greene, personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix B). In sharing this, he emphasized that “all of these [bold goals] can be found on our website” (T. Greene, personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix B). He concludes by saying that “we [Highline Public Schools] also have an overarching promise, which is to know "every student by name, strength, and need…" The Highline promise, and the progress towards meeting our strategic plan goals, are regularly called out on social media, as well” (T. Greene, personal communication, September 1, 2016; Appendix B). Therefore, as Trevor explains, Highline Public Schools involved the community in creating their shared strategic plan, the strategic plan and achievement of benchmarks is shared with all employees and families, and that the strategic plan involves “bold goals” focused on students successes that are valued by the community.

×