Successfully reported this slideshow.

Building Service Project 2 Year 2016 (Taylors University Lakeside Campus)

6

Share

Loading in …3
×
1 of 46
1 of 46

More Related Content

Related Books

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Building Service Project 2 Year 2016 (Taylors University Lakeside Campus)

  1. 1. BUILDING SERVICE SYSTEMS FOR ELDERY CENTER @ TAMAN KANAGAPURAM BUILDING SERVICE BLD 60903/ ARC2423 PREPARED BY : ROY YIEK CHEN HIENG 0317726 ONG SENG PENG 0319016 SONG SUNG HO 0322100 JACK SIA HONG JIE 0323506 SHAM ZHEN WEN 0317733 LEE CZEN SHING 0317832 TUTOR/ LECTURER: DR. SIVARAMAN KUPPUSAMY
  2. 2. Table of Content 1 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 Acknowledgement………………………………………………..................................... 3 Introduction to The Building ……………………………................................................. 4 Findings and Analysis 1.0 Fire Protection System 1.1 Introduction to Fire Protection…………………………………………………….5 1.2 Literature Review for Fire Protection …………………………….........................6 1.3 Components of Passive Fire Protection …………………………………………..7-12 1.3.1 Fire Door and Exit Sign ………………………………………………………. 1.3.2 Means of Escape ……………………………………………………………… 1.3.3 Fire Escape Stairs ………………………………………………………………... 1.4 Components of Active Fire Protection ……………………………………………13-17 1.4.1 Fire Hydrant ………………………………………………………………….. 1.4.2 Dry Riser and Hose Reel System …………………………………………….. 1.4.3 Fire Extinguisher ……………………………………………………………... 1.4.4 Two Stage Fire Alarm System……………………………………………….... 1.4.5 Proposed Fire Protection Layout Plan For Elderly Center ………………….... 2.0 Air Conditioning System 2.1 Introduction to Air Condition System …………………………………………….18-25 2.0.1 UBBL Part III – Space, Light and Ventilation………………………………... 2.2 Literature Review for Air Conditioning System …………………………………. 2.3 Basic Components of Air Conditioning System……………………………………. 2.4 Operation of air conditioning system ………………………………………………. 2.4.1 Type of air-conditioning system for small building ………………………….. 2.5 Proposed Air-Conditioning System Layout Plan …………………………………. 2.6 Proposal for of air conditioning system 3.0 Mechanical Ventilation System 3.1 Introduction to Mechanical Ventilation System …………………………………..26-35 3.2 Literature Review for Mechanical Ventilation System …………………………... 3.3 Component of overall Ventilation System ………………………………………. 3.4 Supply Ventilation System ……………………………………………………….. 3.5 Extract Ventilation system ……………………………………………………….. 3.6 Proposed Mechanical Ventilation Layout Plan For elderly Center ………………. 4.0 Mechanical Transportation System 4.1 Introduction to Mechanical Transportation ……………………………………….36-42 4.2 Literature Review for Mechanical Transport System …………………………...... 4.3 MRL(Machine Room Less )- Hydraulic Elevator System ……………………….. 4.3.1 Component of System ………………………………………………………… 4.3.2 Operation of System ………………………………………………………...... 4.4 Proposed Hydraulic Lift Plan &Section Dwg for Elderly Center ………………... 5.0 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………43 6.0 References ……………………………………………………………………………44-45
  3. 3. Abstract In this report, we are required to choose one of the group member’s design scheme for Semester 4 Design Studio Project, Elderly Center, and perform a throughout study of the UBBL By-laws and analysis of the services systems associated to the chosen building and propose a suitable system for the building. The services that we will look into are :- i. Mechanical Ventilation ii. Air-Conditioning System iii. Passive and Active Fire Protection System iv. Mechanical Transportation After the gathering of information from analysis and researches, a conclusion will be conducted to these services based on our understanding. 2 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  4. 4. Acknowledgement We would like to express our deepest gratitude to each individual that has contributed in any way upon the completion of this report within the given time. This report is the effort and co- operation from our group members, Roy Yiek, Jeff Ong, Sung Ho, Hong Jie, Sham Zhen Wen, and Samantha. We would also like to express our deepest appreciation to our tutor, Dr Siva for providing us with guidance to complete this report and giving us very useful suggestions during our tutorial sessions. By all means, we would like to thank once again to everyone who had contributed in making this report a success. 3 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  5. 5. Introduction to building ELDERY CENTER @ TAMAN KANAGAPURAM, JALAN 18/16 This proposed elderly center is a public building located at Jalan 18/16, Taman Kanagapuram, Old Klang Road. The built-up area for this center is 800 sq meter. The aim of this elderly center is to provide a place that function as a gathering spot for the elder community at Taman Kanagapuram to gather around, having activities and socialize with each other. This center will provide spaces such as office, studio room, kitchen, cafeteria, gallery plaza, game room and etc. 4 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  6. 6. 5 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 1.1 Introduction to fire protection Fire is a chemical reaction comprises of 3 factors: oxygen, fuel and heat, without any of these, fire won’t be produced. Therefore fire protection in a building should be focusing on limiting the interaction of fuels and ignition sources. 1.0 Fire Protection System Fire protection consideration must be involved in every part of the building in order to ensure the safety of the inhabitants from fire and smoke in case of accident. A fire protection system can be divided into two types, namely the active fire protection (AFP) and the passive fire protection system (PFP).  AFP uses systems that take action in putting out the fire, while PFP uses systems that help prevent the spread of fire and smoke. Common fuels that ignites the fire in building could be paper, wood and plastic furnishings, clothes, gases, and other combustible components present in the building. Typical ignition sources could come from electrical and lighting equipment, heating and air-conditioning systems, cigarette use, cooking, office equipment, extension cords, food and beverage preparation, and warming equipment.
  7. 7. 6 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 1.2 Literature Review for Fire Protection Passive fire protection system is an integral component of the structural and fire safety in a building. Passive fire protection systems allow fire to act upon the system itself, to compartmentalize and contain the fire to save lives and protect the structure such as load bearing column and beam from collapsing prematurely in event of fire. Passive fire protection does not rely on the operation of any mechanical device in order to be activated. Active Fire Protection (AFP) is a group of systems that require some amount of action or motion in order to work efficiently in the event of a fire. Actions may be manually operated, like a fire extinguisher or automatic, like a sprinkler, but either way they require some amount of action. AFP includes fire/smoke alarm systems, sprinkler systems, and fire extinguishers as well as firefighters. Fire/smoke alarm systems are used to detect whether there is fire and/or smoke in a building. Sprinkler systems are used to help slow the growth of the fire. Fire extinguishers and firefighters are used to help put out the fire altogether.
  8. 8. 230. (1) Dry rising systems shall be provided in every building in which the topmost floor is more than 18.3 meters but less than 30.5 meters above fire appliance access level.
 (2) A hose connection shall be provided in each firefighting access lobby
 (3) Dry risers shall be minimum “Class C” pipes with fittings and connections of sufficient strength to withstand 21 bars water pressure.
 (4) Dry risers shall be tested hydrostatically to withstand not less than 14 bars of pressure for two hours in the presence of the fire authority before acceptance.
 (5) All horizontal runs of the dry rising systems shall be pitched at the rate of 6.35 millimeters in 3.05 meters.
 
 (6) The dry riser shall be not less than 102 millimeters in diameter in buildings in which the highest outlet is 22.875 meters or less above the fire brigade pumping inlet and not less than 152.4millimeter diameter where the highest outlet is higher than 22.875 meters above the pumping inlet.
 
 232. (1) Where either wet or dry riser system is required, at least one riser shall be installed when the building under construction has reached a height of above the level of the fire brigade pumping inlet with connections thereto located adjacent to a useable staircase.
 
 
 
 UBBL Part VII Fire Requirement: 225. (1) Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws (2) Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 meters from the nearest point of fire brigade access (3) Depending on the size and location of the building and the provision of access for fire appliances, additional fire hydrant shall be provided as may be required by the Fire Authority 227. Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with the relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent positions on exit routes to be visible from all directions and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation. 7 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  9. 9. (2) Such riser shall be extended as construction progresses to within two floors of the topmost floor under construction and where the design height of the building requires the installation of a wet riser system fire pumps, water storage tanks and water main connections shall be provided to serve the riser.
 
 237. (1) Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.
 (2) All premises and buildings with gross floor area excluding car park and storage areas exceeding 9290 square meters or exceeding 30.5 meters in height shall be provided with a two- stage alarms system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert (intermittent signal) be given in adjoining section
 (3) Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action of a master control.
 
 239. There shall be two separate approved continuously electrically supervised voice communication systems, one a fire communications system and the other a public address system between the central control station and the following areas: 
 (a) lifts, lift lobbies, corridors and staircases;
 (b) in every offce area exceeding 92.9 square meters in area
 (c) in each dwelling unit and hotel guest room where the fire brigade system may be combined with the public address system
 
 241. In places where there are deaf persons and in places where by nature of the occupancy audible alarm system is undesirable, visible indicator alarm signals shall be incorporated in addition to the normal alarm system. 8 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  10. 10. 9 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 1.3 Components of Passive Fire Protection 1.3.1 Fire Doors and Exit Sign Passive Fire Protection System Passive fire protection system plays a crucial role in preventing and slowing down the rate of spread of fire and also helps protecting the occupants int the building during the event of a fire emergency. Emergency exit routes plays a crucial role and have to be arranged and designed precisely to enable the occupants to safely escape the building to the open assembly point outside the building during the event of a fire emergency. UBBL - Section162 - Fire doors in compartment walls and separating walls 1) Fire doors of the appropriate FRP shall be provided. 3) Openings in protecting structures shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of not less than half the requirement for the surrounding wall specified in the Ninth Schedule to these By- laws but in no case less than half hour. 4) Openings in partitions enclosing a protected corridor or lobby shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of half an hour.
  11. 11. UBBL - Section 173 - Exit Doors 1) All exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort. 2) Exit doors shall close automatically when released and all door devices including magnetic door holders, shall release the doors upon power failure or actuation of the fire alarm. 10 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS Emergency exit signs play an important role as they act as an exit indication for the occupants during a fire evacuation. These emergency exit signs has to be illuminated 24/7 to ensure the occupants in the buildings, visibility in the dark during the event of a fire emergency. Although the electrical supply in the building would be cut off, the emergency exit signs would still emit light to lead the occupants to the outdoor area of the assembly point. Emergency exit signs can be found above all the fire rated door, exits, fire staircases and doorways to ensure that the emergency exit is clea. UBBL- Section 172-Emergency Exit Signs (1) Storey exits and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs and shall not be obscured by any decorations, furnishings or other equipment. (2) A sign reading ‘KELUAR’ with an arrow indicating the direction shall be placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach the nearest exits is not immediately apparent. (3) Every exit sign shall have the word “KELUAR” in a plainly legible letters not less than 150mm high with the principle strokes of the letters not less than 18mm wide. (4) All exit signs shall be illuminated continuously during periods of occupancy. (5) Illuminated signs shall be provided with two electric lamps of not less than fifteen watts each
  12. 12. 11 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS Based on ‘Guide to Fire Protection in Malaysia 2006’ : i) An escape route should lead to a place of safety. The ultimate place of safety is the open air outside the building, clear from the effects of the fire. ii) In large complexes where this is not possible, it should be possible to reach a place of reasonable safety such as protected staircase or a protected corridor from where people can travel in relative safety to a final exit. iii) For this to be possible, protected staircase and protected corridor must not contain combustible materials and are designed to keep out flame, smoke an gases. iv) The maximum permissible distance of an unprotected escape route is worked out by the period a person exposed to fire and smoke can reasonably be expected to endure when escaping a fire. 1.3.2 Means of Escape UBBL By Laws Section 167- Storey Exits 1. Except as provided for in by-law 194, every compartment shall be provided with at least two storey exits located as far as practical from each other in no case closer than 4.5 meters and in such position that the travel distance specified in the seventh schedule to these by-laws are not exceeded. 2. The width of storey exits shall be in accordance with the provisions in the seventh schedule to these by-laws. Spaces Passive Fire Components Playroom 4 Toilets Kitchen Waiting Room Office Fire Doors ‘KELUAR’ Signs 1 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 2
  13. 13. 12 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS Several fire emergency staircases can be found in the building and are accessible for the occupants from the above floors. It leads them to the escape route which leads them to the outdoor assembly point through the main entrance. The emergency exit routes, have to be kept clear at all times to prevent any obstructions during the event of a fire emergency that may disturb the process of evacuation and cause unforeseen injuries. The emergency exit routes have to be wide enough in accordance to the dimensions accessible for all the occupants including the disabled to escape without interference. 1.3.3 Fire Escape Stairs UBBL - Section 168 - Staircases 1. Except as provided for in by-law 194 every upper floor shall have means of egress via at least two separate staircases. 3. The required width of a staircase shall be the clear width between walls but hand rails may be permitted to encroach on this width to a maximum of 75mm. 5. Doors giving access to staircases shall be positioned that their swing shall at no point encroach on the required width of the staircase or landing. Figure:
  14. 14. Road Fire hydrant is a water supply point for fireman to access to deal with buildings caught on fire. It should not be more than 30 m away from the breeching inlet for the building, not less than 6m from the building. It should be spaced not more than 90m apart access road, while mini mum width of access road is 6m. Fireman attaches a hose to the fire hydrant, then opens a valve on the hydrant to provide a powerful flow of water. They can attach this hose to a fire engine, which can a powerful pump to boost the water pressure and possibly split it into multiple streams. If a fire hydrant is close or open too quickly, it could cause a water hammer, which may damage nearby pipes and equipment. (Related law: UBBL 225; M.S. 1489, 1395) 1.4 Components of Active Fire Protection 1.4.1 Fire Hydrant 13 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  15. 15. Although the building doesn’t exceed 18.3m in height, it is still good to have an easier access of water for firemen to put out the fire. (Related law: 230, M.S. 1489, 1210) Dry Riser is formed by air vent, landing valve, breeching inlet, and riser pipe. It transports water to upper floors, from fire hydrant when needed, work a form of internal hydrant for fireman. After transporting to upper floor, a hose reel is connected at the landing valve of the floor. Pipe length is usually 30m, and the coverage of putting out fire is 800 square meter. Fire Hose Reels usually located at a strategic and accessible place in a building to provide controlled water supply to combat a potential fire risk. A fully extended fire hose can reach 36 meter s with 19mm diameter. Fire Hose Reel are designed to deliver a minimum of 0.33L of water per second. The operators are able to control the direction and flow of water with a control nozzl e attached to the end of the hose. All fire hose reels come with a unique ball valve shut-off device, a plastic or solid brass hose reel nozzle and mounting bracket. The system pressure loss will activate the pump ensuring adequate water flow and pressure to provide a water jet of typically a minimum of 10 meter from the nozzle. 1.4.2 Dry Riser and Hose Reel System 14 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  16. 16. 15 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 1.4.3 Fire Extinguisher Fire extinguisher is a portable device that can be used by public, intended for initial outbreak of fire, prevent escalation into full scale fire. It should not be more than 20m away from potential fire hazard, like kitchen, in this building and should be also be placed where can be easily spotted by anyone. For this building, the main potential fire hazard is the kitchen, so a foam type(yellow) fire extinguisher should be placed there. Other than that, there are one dry powder type(blue) fire extinguisher for each floor. Because it could be used by elderly, a lighter type (4kg instead of 6kg) is picked for them. (Related law:227) Fire extinguisher location
  17. 17. 1.4.4 Two Stage Fire Alarm System When manual call point or smoke detector is alerted, how two stage alarm works is before activating the actual alarm, it will notify the control room first. The staffs may go check and confirm the situation, then actual alarm will be activated. Two stage alarm is picked to minimize the chance of false alarm, which will distress the occupants. A fire alarm is a notification appliance which uses audible, visible to alert the occupants of a fire. Most of the models will produce sound vary from 40 to 120 db. For the building, audio visual alarm is chosen as some of the elderly may have hearing problems. (Related law: 237, 239) Fire Alarm Layout 16 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  18. 18. 1.4.5 Two Stage Fire Alarm System 17 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  19. 19. 2.0 Air conditioning system 2.1 Introduction to Air Conditioning System Malaysia’s hot and humid climate, combine with the risk of air pollution, air-conditioning system are almost inevitable for a comfortable and health living. Air conditioner removes heat in a confined place, thus cooling the air and removing humidity in air. 2.0.1 UBBL Part III – Space, Light and Ventilation Figure: Haze covering Kuala Lumpur city. 41. ( 1 ) Wi nd o w s a nd o p e ni ngs a l l o wing uni nte r r up te d air passage is not necessary if the toilets is equipped with mechanical ventilation or air-conditions. (2) In case of air-conditioning failure there should be alternative ways to introduced fresh air into the room within half an hour. (3) This provision apply to building with mechanically ventilated or air-conditioning. (4) Windows and openings allowing uninterrupted air passage is not necessary if the toilets is equipped with mechanical ventilation or air conditions. 18 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  20. 20. 19 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 2.2 Literature Review for Mechanical Ventilation System Air conditioners use refrigeration to chill indoor air, taking advantage of a remarkable physical law: When a liquid converts to a gas (in a process called phase conversion), it absorbs heat. Air conditioners exploit this feature of phase conversion by forcing special chemical compounds to evaporate and condense over and over again in a closed system of coils. The compounds involved are refrigerants that have properties enabling them to change at relatively low temperatures. Air conditioners also contain fans that move warm interior air over these cold, refrigerant-filled coils. In fact, central air conditioners have a whole system of ducts designed to funnel air to and from these serpentine, air-chilling coils. Air conditioner have outdoor and indoor unit. Outdoor unit dissipate heat collected by refrigerant to the outdoor environment. Indoor unit circulates and cool indoor air while dehumidify and cleaning the air in the process. There are two types of air-conditioning system suitable for the elderly center. Central air- conditioning systems use ducts to distribute cooled air throughout the house. Huge spaces are required to place all the ducting system and an air -handling unit (AHU). Split ductless systems have an outside condenser and one to four indoor blower units mounted high on the wall. Tubing connects these parts and circulates refrigerant. Each indoor unit cools the room and the system can be controlled on its own. Split ductless systems need no ductwork, making them easier to add to buildings. Split ductless system are chosen for the elderly home for its functionality and flexibility. Figure: Refrigerant gas used in the air-conditioner. Figure: Indoor unit Figure: Outdoor unit
  21. 21. 1. Evaporator is a cooling coils remove heat and humidity from the air using refrigerant. 2. Blower (or fan) circulates air over the evaporator, dispersing the chilled air. 3. Condenser is a ot coils release heat into the outside air. 4. Compressor is a pump that moves refrigerant between the evaporator and the condenser to chill the indoor air 5. The Fan blows air over the condenser to dissipate the heat outside. 6. Filter Located in the air conditioning unit to remove particles from the air. 7. Thermostat, control system to regulate the amount of cool air that is distributed. 8. Refrigerant piping, a copper tube insulated by rubber hose transferring the refrigerant. 2.3 Basic Components of Air Conditioning System 8 20 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  22. 22. •The refrigerants used in the air-conditioning system is the compounds that have properties enabling them to change at relatively low temperatures, such as the hydro-fluorocarbon (HCFC). •The refrigerants circulate the compressed liquid inside the copper tube connecting the indoor and outdoor unit. •On the indoor unit, warm air from the room is sucked in through a grille with air filter. •The air flows over some cooling coil-evaporator through which a refrigerant is circulating. • It cools down the incoming air and a dehumidifier removes any excess moisture. •Refrigerant flows through the chiller pipes absorbs heat from the air blowing past the pipes and evaporates, turning from a cool liquid into a hotter gas. •It carries this heat from inside the room to the outside of the building, where it gives up its heat to the outside air. •The coolant flows through a compressor unit and some condensing pipes, which turn it back into a cool liquid ready to cycle round the loop again. •In the unit outside the building, there are lots of metal plates that dissipate the heat to the atmosphere. An electric fan blows air pass them to accelerate the process. •Over time, the heat inside the building gradually pumps away to the outside. 2.4 Operation of air conditioning system 21 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  23. 23. Central air-conditioning systems distribute cooled air throughout the building through the duct system. Copper tubing with refrigerant connect outside condenser is connected to air handling unit (AHU), where it distribute cool air throughout the house via the duct system. Figure: Outdoor units of central Figure: Ductwork sample diagram Air-conditioning system Split ductless systems have an outside condenser and one to four indoor blower units mounted high on the wall. Copper tubing connects these parts and circulates refrigerant. The tubing, along with an electric and drain line, covered by rubber insulator, is run through about a 3-inch hole hidden behind each indoor unit. Each indoor unit cools the room in which it's installed and has its own control system. Split ductless systems need no ductwork, making them easier to install. Option 1: Central air conditioning Option 2: Split ductless systems Figure: Diagram of split ductless system. Figure: VRV system can connect more than 1 indoor units. 2.4.1 Type of air-conditioning system for small building. Proposed system Split ductless system is proposed for the elderly centre because the area of air-conditioned room is small and are separated from each other. 22 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  24. 24. 23 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 2.5 Proposed Air-Conditioning System Layout Plan
  25. 25. 24 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 2 VRV multi-split system proposed and 1 Single split system are proposed for the selected building. • 1 cassette type unit proposed for cafeteria and 3 cassette type indoor unit proposed for studio room. All of which connected to a VRV multi-split system outdoor unit. Total floor area of the covered room is 159m². The capacity needed for the system is around 30000 btu/hr. • 2 Wall mounted indoor unit proposed for office and waiting room which connected to 1 VRV multi-split system outdoor unit. The floor area of the space is 35m². Around 7000 btu/hr capacity needed for the system • Playroom is installed with the single split system. • Both indoor and outdoor unit should be mounted away from direct water and sunlight to avoid hindrance of heat dissipation. Positioning of air conditioning unit 2.6 Proposal for of air conditioning system Table: cooling capacity for room size
  26. 26. Indoor Unit Figure: Ceiling recessedcassette (4 way) unitFigure: Wall-mounted air conditioner • The indoor unit is located inside the room at the location from where the air can be distributed evenly throughout the room. • The wall mounted indoor unit should be located at the height of about 8 to 10 feet from the floor so that that most of the chilled air is used for cooling the room and not merely for cooling the hot roof. • The indoor unit should be accessibleeasilyso that one can conveniently clean the filter every fortnight. • The distance between the indoor and the outdoor units should be kept minimum to increase efficiency. Maximum distance can be about 15 meters. Outdoor Unit Figure: VRV system outdoor unit • The outdoor unit should be located in the well ventilated space so that the air can flow freely over the compressor and the condenser. • The surface on which the outdoor unit is to be installed should be rigid enough to avoid its vibration and noise 25 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  27. 27. 3.0 Mechanical Ventilation System 3.1 Introduction to Mechanical Ventilation System The selected building has a main structure with 2 segregated blocks to accommodate office and play room respectively. This would mean there would be several air handling units in each different units places if all the ductwork and equipment want to be hidden from the users. Air supply system is proposed as the main service in the building as this system can guarantee a consistent supply to the user without using air -conditioning. As this building will be mainly used by the old folks, long exposure to air-conditioning is not good for their health. However, there are some except to the choice of utility. In the area such as kitchen where there is unwanted smell or odours, extract system will be applied to keep the odour away from spreading to other spaces. This Mechanical ventilation system can provide fresh air together with the ceiling fan or other standalone fan to create air movement, to achieve thermal comfort level. Comparing this to extract system, indoor air still can be replenished Example of supply ventilation system, air is extract from an air inlet then filtered before supplying to the indoor spaces. U B B L Pa rt III S p a c e Lig h t a n d Ve n t ila t io n 41. ( 1 ) Wi nd o w s a nd o p e ni ngs a l l o wing uni nte r r up te d air passage is not necessary if the toilets is equipped with mechanical ventilation or air-conditions. (2) In case of air-conditioning failure there should be alternative ways to introduced fresh air into the room within half an hour. (3) This provision apply to building with mechanically ventilated or air-conditioning. (4) Windows and openings allowing uninterrupted air passage is not necessary if the toilets is equipped with mechanical ventilation or air conditions. 26 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  28. 28. 3.2 Literature Review for Mechanical Ventilation System Ventilation is necessary in buildings to remove ‘stale’air and replace it with ‘fresh’ air. A good ventilation will ensure the comfort of the users and it also: • Help replenishing the air in a room, also the air inside to be ‘filtered’, reducing the accumulation of bacteria, dust, smoke, and odours as well as the moisture in air. • Moderate internal temperature to improve thermal comfort of the occupants by creating air movement. Ventilation in building is categorized into two types, which is natural and mechanical ventilation. In a hot and humid country like Malaysia, natural ventilation is preferable to mechanical ventilation as it will have lower operational and maintenance cost. Using mechanical means to achieve comfort would be highly unsustainable to the environment in the long run. However there are conditions where natural air cannot reach to the interior spaces or the stale air inside the room cannot escape effectively. It is where the mechanical ventilation system will come into place. Example of air handling unit. Image source: https://engfac.cooper.edu/pages/mel ody/uploads/i/AHUschemwithrecirc_ 728x431.jpg A mechanical ventilation system mainly uses powered fans or blowers, also known as ‘air handling units (AHU), connected to ductwork within the building to supply fresh air to and extract air from the interior. The advantage of mechanical ventilation over natural ventilation is that, the occupants can get to decide the kind of air quality they want. For instance, by installing proper equipment such as humidifier or dehumidifier in the ventilation systems, a desired air humidity level can be achieved. 27 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  29. 29. 3.3 Component of Mechanical Ventilation System 3.3.1 Air Handler Air Handler is a blower, or a mechanism that contains a fan that serves to circulate the air throughout the building’s ductwork. There are mainly three types of fan: Mechanical Fan • Propeller Fan does not create much air pressure and has limited effect in ductwork. Ideal for use at air openings in windows and walls. Reason of selection: This fan will be suitable to apply in small area such as the toilet. • Axial Flow Fan can develop high pressure and is used for moving air through long sections of ductwork. Reason of selection: The fan is integral with the run of ducting and does not require a base. This fan will be applied • Centrifugal Fan can produce high pressure and has the capacity for large volumes of air. Most suited to larger installations such as air conditioning systems. It may have one or two inlets. Various forms of impeller can be selected depending on the air condition. Variable impellers and pulley ratios from the detached drive motor make this the most versatile of fans. 28 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  30. 30. 3.3.2 Filter The filter is generally incorporated together with the fan which is within the air handling unit. Depending on the requirement of the occupants and the activities, specific type of filter will be used among the 3 which is: • Dry filter generally use materials such ascotton wool, glass fibre, cotton fabric, treated paper, foamed polyurethane as the cleaning medium. The contaminant are to be collected in the filter medium consistently to ensure a good indoor air quality. The efficiency of the filter depends largely upon the area of medium offered to the air stream and for this reason the filter can be arranged in a ‘V’ formation which increases the area. • Reason of selection: Dry filter will be the selection of type as it is suitable to be installed in the small size building. Specifically, panel type filter will be chosen together with the 29 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  31. 31. • Viscous filter, is used when filter of oil or industrial chemical is needed. It has a large dust- holding capacity and are therefore often used in industrial areas where there is a high degree of atmospheric pollution. The filter medium is coated with a non- inflammable, non-toxic and odourless oil, which the contaminants adhere to as they pass through the filter. There are two types of viscous filters such as cell type and automatic type. • Electrostatic filter, in which the contaminants are positively charged with electricity and collected on negative earthed plates. These types of filters have three main components: ionizer, metal collector and electrostatic power pack. The various air contaminants are given a positive electrostatic charge by an ionizer screen which is the first part of the filter. • The screen consists of a series of fine wires possessing an electrostatic charge produced by a direct current potential of 13 kV. • The wires are spaced alternatively with rods or tubes which are at earth potential. 30 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  32. 32. 3.3.3 Air inlet/ outlet Openings that allow flow of air inside and outside of the building. There are mainly three types of them, mainly: • Grilles is any air outlet/ inlet either is square, rectangle or other shape that is made up of louvers, used to deflect the air. • Register, similar to grilles its louvre can be adjusted, thus enable the amount of air flow to be adjusted. • Diffuser usually used to mount on the ceiling, the air equally diffusing to the side also the fresh air equally mixed within the room. Reason of selection: It is selected so that the air can evenly distributed from ceiling. 3.3.4 Terminal units Terminal units is an electrical automated damper to control the amount of air which is delivered to a room or region. It consist of 1 or more blade which can be used to control the amount of air flow through a duct. It is regulated by a thermostat which could sense the temperature and determine the amount of air flow to the interior. 3.3.5 Flexible non-metallic air duct A standard air duct applied in many public building, it is the main passage way for air-channelling throughout the system. Its insulation allow the temperature to maintain in an optimum level when channelling. 3.3.6 Thermostat It is a component which senses the temperature of a system so that the system’s temperature is maintained near a desired set point. 31 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  33. 33. 3.4 Supply Ventilation System The system works by pressurizing the interior with the supply of air forcing out the stale air in the room. When the current is switched on, the fan rotation will then suck in the outdoor air. The air will be filtered by a medium before it reaches the room and then pass by the cooling coil to lower down the air temperature so that the fresh air that is providing to the user is comfortable. To solve the unwanted air distribution to the whole area, the installation of terminal unit will help regulate the amount of air flow wanted depending on the user needs and the room temperature. Thermostat is work together with terminal unit to control the amount of air flow into the building produced from mechanical ventilation system. Once the air is filtered and cooled, it will supply into the rooms. In the foreign country will have both cooling and heating coil for allowing the occupant to adjust the room temperature depending on the season. Spaces in the elderly center that requires Supply Ventilation System are the studio room that located at the first floor as these spaces accommodate long hour activities such as the studio room for the elderly people to do their indoor hobbies. 32 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  34. 34. As mentioned earlier as the building has a segregated room units, this system with air handling unit is proposed to be installed in the areas that has relatively larger room area which are located in the main building. Its main function be supplying of fresh air instead of cooling the temperature as air-condition is installed in every room of the building, however, old folks is prone to sickness to if exposed to much of cool conditioned air, that’s why this system is proposed as the substitution for air-conditioning. Curtain air is another supply system that will be installed as well at the door way of the dining area. Beside these area like kitchen and toilet will be proposed with extract system to remove the unwanted smell. Curtain air works by blowing the wind from top of the entrance to downward forming a natural barrier from outside hot air, dust and insect from entering to the interior space. This air barrier will ensure the room is cool and comfortable. 33 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  35. 35. 3.5.2 Extract Ventilation System Kitchen stove exhaust hood An exhaust hood, extractor hood, or range hood is a device containing a mechanical fan that hangs above the stove or cooktop in the kitchen. It removes airborne grease, combustion products, fumes, smoke, odours, heat, and steam from the air by evacuation and filtration of the air. It is proposed to be applied in kitchen area. Extract fan in toilet This exhaust fan works together with the grilles, serves to remove the stink air in the toilet. It is electrically powered, switched on once the bathroom light is switched on. Extract Ventilation Systems provide continuous ventilation. The centralized systems draw moisture-laden air from multiple wet rooms of a property. 34 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  36. 36. 3.6 Proposed Ventilation System Plan for Elderly Center 35 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
  37. 37. 4.0 Mechanical Transportation System 36 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 4.1 Introduction to Mechanical Transportation System Mechanical transport systems are the systems that carries people or goods horizontally or vertically from floors to floors or long distance in a building. The aim of the mechanical transport is to save user’s energy from climbing, walking and running & assist disabled or elderly around the building. It also assists disabled on a wheelchair to move easily and safely around and ease the transportation of heavy goods that carry from floors to floors. Example of mechanical transport systems, are lifts or elevators and escalator.
  38. 38. 37 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 4.2 Literature Review MS 2021-1, Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts – Part 1 : Electric lifts. 5.2.2.2.1 Emergency doors shall be capable of being self-closing. 5.7.3.2 If there is an access door the pit, other than the bottom terminal landing door, it shall comply with the requirements of 5.2.2. MS 81-1:2012-Clause 15.4.1. – A notice bearing the following minimum inscription: “BILIK JENTERA LIF BAHAYA DILARANG MASUK TANPA KEBENARAN” should be provided. UBBL 1984 124 – For all non-residential buildings exceeding 4 stories above or below the main access level at least one elevator shaft be provided. 152 (1) – Every opening in an elevator shaft or elevator entrance shall open into a protected lobby unless other suitable means of protection to the opening to the satisfaction of the local authority is provided. These requirements shall not apply to open type industrial and other special building as may be approved by D.G.F.S. 153 (1) – All elevator lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors 155 (2) – If mains power is available all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or landing calls, overriding the emergency stop button inside the car, but not any other emergency or safety devices, and park with doors open. 155 (3) – The fire lifts shall then be available for use by the fire brigade on operation of the fireman’s switch. 155 (4) – Under this mode of operation, the fire lifts shall only operate in response to car calls but not to landing calls in a mode of operation in accordance with by-law 154. Emergency mode of operation in the event of mains power failure. 154 (1) – On failure of mains power of lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or landing calls and park with doors open.
  39. 39. 38 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS Elevator Regulation -The minimum internal space of elevator, allowing for one wheelchair passenger alone, are 1.00 m x 1.30 m -The door opening should not be less than 0.80 m. -The inside of the elevator should have a handrail on three sides mounted 0.80 to 0.85 m from the floor (figure 2). -The maximum tolerance for stop precision should be 20mm. -For ease of reach of the control panel, it must be mounted 0.90 m to 1.20 m from the floor. -Control buttons should be in an accessible location and illuminated. Their diameter should be no smaller than 20mm. -Tactile numerals should be placed on both sides of the door jambs at an approximate height of 1.50 m to help a lone sightless passenger to identify the floor reached (figure 4). -The elevator hall signal should be placed at an approximate height of 1.80 m (figure 4). -The elevator should signal arrival at each floor by means of a bell and a light to alert sightless and hearing-impaired passengers simultaneously.  
  40. 40. 39 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS Above Ground Cylinder MRL Hydraulic elevators are usually used for low-rise applications of 2 to 8 stories such as apartment, office, etc. The operational components are located in the hoistway, eliminating the need for a machine room. Hydraulic elevators are supported by a piston at the bottom of the elevator which pushes the elevator upwards as electric motor forces oil or another fluid into the piston. The elevator descends as a valve released the fluid from the piston. It is suitable for elderly home because low-rise buildings typically use hydraulic elevator and has lower initial cost. Advantages of Above Ground Cylinder MRL Hydraulic elevator: • Removal of the superstructure machine room which allows better utilization of the space and lower installation cost. • Low installation & lower maintenance cost. • Longer useful life because the elevator’s system function in hydraulic oil. • The possibility of emergency lowering if the electricity is interrupted. • Single time 3 phase power used in up – direction only. • Safety, comfort and low noise levels. • Eco-friendly - Hydraulic fluid undergoes 100% recycling after 5-10 years of operation. • In earthquake endangered areas, the hydraulic elevator has proven itself to be clearly the safer option. Due to the threat presented by swinging counterweights and also because the car is suspended from the top of the hoistway 4.3 Above Ground cylinder MRL(Machine Room Less )- Hydraulic Elevator
  41. 41. 40 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 4.3.1 Component of System • Cylinder, is a device that transfers fluid or electrical energy into mechanical energy. The actuator could be piston because it moves upwards and downwards. • Valve, let Liquid move out of the system, keep the pressure low when it’s open and it increases pressure when it’s closed. • Pump, main function of a pump is constantly pushing Liquid into the cylinder to lift the elevator. • Propeller Fan does not create much air pressure and has limited effect in ductwork. Ideal for use at air openings in windows and walls.
  42. 42. 41 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 4.3.2 Operation System A. Pump forces fluid from the tank into a pipe leading to the cylinder. B. As the fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston upwards, lifting the elevator car. C. When the car arrives near the floor, the control system sends a signal to the electric motor to gradually turn off the pump. With the pump off, there is no more fluid flowing into the cylinder, but the fluid that is already in the cylinder remains inside which make piston rests on the fluid so that the car stays on the floor. D. To lower the car, the elevator control system sends a signal to the valve. The valve is operated electrically by a basic solenoid switch (Actuator). When the solenoid opens the valve, the fluid that has collected in the cylinder will flow out into the fluid reservoir. The weight of the car and the cargo pushes down on the piston, which drives the fluid into the reservoir. The car gradually descends. E. To stop the car at a lower floor, the control system closes the valve again. Operation of System
  43. 43. 42 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS 4.4 Proposed Hydraulic Lift Plan &Section Drawing for Elderly Center
  44. 44. Conclusion 43 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS In conclusion, the building services in the bungalow we designed is both sufficient and efficient. Most of the components adhere to their basic requirements and obeyed the Uniform By-Law codes and the MS 1525 requirements. Throughout this project, we manage to gain our knowledge on knowing how to identify the different types of systems and components involved. The types of building services are the fire protection system, mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning system and mechanical transportation system. We also then learned how to identify the estimated dimensions of the components and the spaces required for all the different types of components.
  45. 45. Fire Protection List of Reference: -https://www.fpoa.bc.ca/Association/Annual%20Seminar/2012/Speaker%20Files/Sean %20Tracey/Two%20Stage%20Alarm%20presentation.pdf -http://abodefireextinguisher.com/ -http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/articles/2000/10/an-introduction-to-fire-safety.aspx -http://www.lifesafetyservices.com/active-vs-passive-fire-protection-2/ Air Conditioning List of Reference: 44 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/central-air-conditioning/buying-guide.htm -http://home.howstuffworks.com/ac1.htm - https://www.energystar.gov/products/heating_cooling/air_conditioning_room - http://www.brighthubengineering.com/hvac/45249-indoor-and-outdoor-installation-of-split- air-conditioners-deciding-the-location/ - http://actoday-fl.com/how-air-conditioning-works.htm - https://www.daikin.com/products/ac/lineup/split_multi_split/index.html
  46. 46. Mechanical Transport list Reference: -http://siteexplorer.info/domain/rockmill.co.uk - http://discoverykids.com/articles/how-do-elevators-work/ -http://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2012/04/basic-elevator-components-part- one.html -http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/designm/AD2-02.htm -http://www.schumacherelevator.com/elevators/hydraulic-elevators/holeless- machine-roomless-mrl-hydraulic-elevators.aspx Mechanical Ventilation List of Reference: -http://beodom.com/en/education/entries/taking-care-of-the-air-you-breathe-or-all-about-ventilat -http://www.hometips.com/how-it-works/ventilation-systems-exhaust.html -https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Building_Services/Ventilation/Mechanical -https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Mechanical_ventilation_of_buildings -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fqvo7bSr6t8 -http://www.slideshare.net/nosuhaila/lec-7-air-flow-rate -http://www.house-energy.com/House/SupplyVsExhaust.html -http://www.ventilation-system.com/cat/typical-smoke-control-system-solution/ -http://uol-ventilation.weebly.com/mechanical.html -https://www.scribd.com/doc/37904241/Ubbl-Part-III -http://www.slideshare.net/NooruleInieOsman/ventilation-system-25941705 -http://www.lotusfilters.com.au/blog/your-kitchen%E2%80%99s-exhaust-system-explained- diagram 45 BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 60903) PROJECT 2 : BUILDING SERVICES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

×