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  • Figure 1 of Dozier, Eos AGU Trans, 2011
  • Faculty to Faculty

    1. 1. Water from the mountains, The Fourth Paradigm, and the color of snow(photo T. H. Painter)
    2. 2. Snow contributions to annual precipitation 140 6 120 5 100 SWE 4 Arizona/New Mexico: 39% Average Monthly SWE(in) FlowAverage Monthly Flow (1000AF) 80 3 Utah: 60% 60 2 Colorado: 63% 40 1 Sierra Nevada: 67% 20 0 -1 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Month Most runoff & recharge come from snowmelt (Serreze, WRR, 1999) 2
    3. 3. Snow-pillow data for Leavitt Lake, 2929 m, Walker R drainage, near Tuolumne & Stanislaus basins 3
    4. 4. Measurement of snow water equivalent with snow pillow or (Calif DWR) 4
    5. 5. [Bales etal., WRR, 2006] 5
    6. 6. April-July 2011 forecast, Tuolumne River 3.5 historical max 3.0 upper bound actual 2.5 *April-July forecast, km3 lower bound 2.0 historical avg 1.5 1.0 historical min 0.5 0.0 February March April May 6
    7. 7. 7
    8. 8. Snow sensors don’t cover the highest elevations (K. Rittger) 8
    9. 9. Snow redistribution(D. Marks) 9
    10. 10. Differential ablation (E. H. Bair) 10
    11. 11. Sierra Nevada, trends in 220 long-term snow courses (> 50 years, continuing to present) 11
    12. 12. SWE 2007, 3 methods 12 (K. Rittger)
    13. 13. SWE 2011, 3 methods 13 (K. Rittger)
    14. 14. Reconstruction of heterogeneous snow in a grid cell z x yDaily potential melt fSCA Reconstructed SWE (A. Kahl Homan et al., Hyd Proc 2011) 14
    15. 15. Fractional snow-covered area, Sierra Nevada (MODIS images available daily)
    16. 16. Snow is one of nature’s most colorful materials (e.g., Landsat snow & cloud)Bands 3 2 1 (red, green, blue) Bands 5 4 2 (swir, nir, green) 16
    17. 17. Spectra with 7 MODIS “land” bands (500m resolution, global daily coverage) 17
    18. 18. Pure endmembers, 01 Apr 2005 100% Snow 100% Vegetation 100% Rock/Soil MODIS image 18
    19. 19. Validation of fSCA w Landsat ETM+ 19
    20. 20. Example of satellite data management issue: blurring caused by off-nadir view 20
    21. 21. 21
    22. 22. Net shortwave radiation: Tuolumne-Merced River basins March 1, 2006 12:00 S1/8° ¯ NLDAS2 S100m ¯ Spatially Integrated S100m ¯ Corrected for elevation S100m ¯ Corrected for topography Cosgrove et al., 2003; Pinker et al., 2003; Erbs et al., 1982; Dozier and Frew, 1990 Dubayah and Loechel., 1997 Mitchell et al., 2004 Olyphant et al., 1984S100m ¯, Corrected for vegetation a, Snow Albedo S100m - Qns 100m Link and Marks, 1999; Painter et al., 2009; S -= a S ¯ Qns = S ¯ +S - Garren and Marks, 2005 Dozier et al., 2008 M p j = mQ Rd + a rTD 22
    23. 23. 1. Thousand years ago — experimental science Data Description of natural Acquisition & Modeling phenomena 2. Last few hundred years —theoretical science Newton’s Laws, Maxwell’s Collaboration &Disseminate & Visualization Equations . . . Share Archiving & Preservation 3. Last few decades — computational science Jim Gray, 1944-2007 Simulation of complex phenomena Analysis & Data Mining 4. Today — data-intensive science Model/data integration (J. Frew, T. Hey) Data mining http://fourthparadigm.org Higher-order products, sharing 23
    24. 24. Information about water is more useful as we climb the value ladder Forecasting Reporting Done poorly, Analysis but a few notable counter-examples Integration Distribution Done poorly to moderately, Aggregation not easy to find Quality assurance Sometimes done well, Collation generally discoverable and available,Monitoring but could be improved (I. Zaslavsky & CSIRO, BOM, WMO) 24
    25. 25. Example from medical literature Cardiac Disease LiteratureCo-author path TagueCo-author path KolstadCo-author graphCitation graph Immunology Literature Shared Function (Phil Bourne) 25
    26. 26. Alternative forms of scholarshipThe Right Thing To Do RewardAccessible data (Phil Bourne) 26
    27. 27. Stuff to do 27
    28. 28. SWE model comparison, 2006 July June May 1 April11 28
    29. 29. Modeled vs observed SWE, April 1, 2006(K. Rittger) 29
    30. 30. Net longwave radiation: Tuolumne-Merced River basins March 1, 2006 12:00L1/8° ¯ NLDAS2 a e 100m ¯ Spatially Integrated a L100m ¯ Corrected for elevation a L100m ¯ Corrected for topography ae 1/8° ¯ a Dubayah and Loechel, 1997 La ¯ = e as Ta4 (z) Dozier and Frew, 1990 e 1/8° = L1/8° s Ta1/8° a a L100m ¯, Corrected for vegetation ac L100m - Qnl 100m Link and Marks, 1999; L - = e ss Ts4 + (1- e s )L ¯ Qnl = L ¯ +L - Garren and Marks, 2005 M p j = mQ Rd + a rTD 30
    31. 31. fSCA corrected for vegetation (not validated) 31
    32. 32. 32
    33. 33. Hindu Kush 33
    34. 34. 34
    35. 35. Better graphics!SWE, cm 450 250 190 130 60 1 04/10/05 35
    36. 36. Finis ―the author of all books‖ – James Joyce, Finnegan’s Wake36 http://www.slideshare.net/JeffDozier
    37. 37. 37
    38. 38. Backup slides 38
    39. 39. Orographic effect varies (Tuolumne-Merced River basins example) 39
    40. 40. PRISM 40
    41. 41. 41
    42. 42. [D. Marks] 42
    43. 43. Alternative forms of scholarshipReviews Curation Research [Grants] Journal Poster Article Session Conference Paper Blogs Data (Phil Bourne) 43
    44. 44. SWE 2005, 3 methods 44

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