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Social marketing

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Social marketing

  1. 1. This thing called social marketing What it adds to ‘the party’ – Dr. Rowena Merritt Social Marketing Workshop 16th May 2007 www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  2. 2. Content summary What is social marketing? Defining behavioural goals ‘Insight’ generation Segmentation ‘Exchange theory’ ‘Competition’ Ethical considerations www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  3. 3. 1: What is marketing? www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  4. 4. Marketing • • • • Product Price Place Promotion Known as the ‘4 P’s’ www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  5. 5. 2: What is social marketing? www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  6. 6. The roots of social marketing ‘two parents’ Social policy Marketing & social sciences social reform social campaigning commercial & public sector SOCIAL MARKETING Both areas contribute valuable expertise, skills, techniques and theory www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  7. 7. Defining social marketing “the systematic application of marketing alongside other concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioural goals, for a social or public good” French, Blair-Stevens 2006 marketing alongside other concepts and techniques systematic application for ‘social good’ behavioural goals www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  8. 8. Social marketing ‘customer triangle’ A simple devise for highlighting some of the key features of social marketing www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  9. 9. ‘Total Process Planning’ – TPP model Scope Develop Implement Evaluate Follow-up A systematic and staged process A deliberately simple and straight-forward process to help ‘managing the complexity’ within each stage & keep the process ‘on-track’ www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  10. 10. 3: Why has social marketing become increasingly important? www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  11. 11. Poor measurable impact on behaviour being addressed Increasing recognition that traditional communications and ‘message-based’ approaches are only having a very limited impact on people’s actual behaviour Increasing evidence showing effective social marketing can improve impact & effectiveness of interventions ‘It’s our health!’ independent review report 2006 www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  12. 12. Policy drivers www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  13. 13. www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  14. 14. 5 core recommendations 1: Enhance consumer-focused approach based on social marketing principles 2: Better mobilise available assets & developing a diverse resource base 3: Enhance leadership, prioritisation & development of expert commissioning 4: Build capacity and skills to integrate social marketing within existing intervention methods 5: Reconfigure research & evaluation www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  15. 15. Key attributes of Social Marketing 1: BEHAVIOUR & BEHAVIOURAL GOALS 2: CUSTOMER UNDERSTANDING / RESEARCH 3: THEORY BASED & INFORMED 4: ‘INSIGHT’ 5: ‘EXCHANGE’ 6: ‘COMPETITION’ 7: SEGMENTATION 8: INTERVENTION & MARKETING MIX National Benchmark Criteria www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  16. 16. 4: Defining behavioural goals www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  17. 17. Establishing and sustaining behaviour • The dynamic nature of behaviour, its multiple influences and determinants, and susceptibility to change of time (i.e. in a day, week, month, year, lifetime) • The need to re-focus on establishing & sustaining positive behaviour over time, not the more limited focus on changing behaviour as a one off event • The need to look equally at the positive and the problematic behaviour – looking to understand patterns & trends, & key influences / influencers www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  18. 18. Behavioural analysis Incentives & barriers nt C iv RE es A & SE re w ar ds Focusing on BOTH the positive and the problematic behaviour ba R rr E ie M rs O & VE bl oc ks in ce IN positive BEHAVIOUR in VE wa O re EM & R es tiv n ce negative E ks S A loc E R &b C N ers I s rd i rr ba www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  19. 19. IN ba R rr E ie M rs O & VE bl oc ks positive in ce nt C iv RE es A & SE re w ar ds 1 Exercise: Choose a behaviour you want to address and work through each of the boxes 2 BEHAVIOUR ? TARGET AUDIENCE? in VE wa O re EM & R es tiv n ce 3 negative © nsms © nsmc E ks S A loc E R &b C N ers I s rd i rr ba www.nsmcentre.org.uk 4
  20. 20. Key attributes of Social Marketing 1: BEHAVIOUR & BEHAVIOURAL GOALS 2: CUSTOMER UNDERSTANDING / RESEARCH 3: THEORY BASED & INFORMED 4: ‘INSIGHT’ 5: ‘EXCHANGE’ 6: ‘COMPETITION’ 7: SEGMENTATION 8: INTERVENTION & MARKETING MIX National Benchmark Criteria www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  21. 21. 5: Customer understanding www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  22. 22. Difference of approach Communications & ‘message based’ approach crafting ‘our messages’ accurate / relevant / clear communicating the messages creative / clever / funny / impactful / interesting / attention grabbing / etc Customer based social marketing approach understanding the customer generating ‘insight’ what ‘moves & motivates’ directly informing intervention options (intervention mix & marketing mix) Starts with the customer and what’s important to them www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  23. 23. Example: Young people & smoking: Communications & ‘message based’ approach crafting ‘our messages’ accurate / relevant / clear communicating the messages creative / clever / funny / impactful / interesting / attention grabbing / etc What we see as benefits: Communications: Health benefits: Media: Life expectancy, illness & disease, lungs, heart, etc Posters & adverts Leaflets and flyers TV, radio, press (papers / mags) Internet / email / phones / viral marketing Financial benefits: Cost, disposable income Other benefits: Smell, attractiveness to others, not damaging others (eg children) Settings: Schools / youth clubs / cinemas etc www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  24. 24. Example: Young people & smoking: ‘Customer based’ social marketing approach understanding the customer generating ‘insight’ what ‘moves & motivates’ directly informing intervention options (intervention mix & marketing mix) What’s going on? ‘what moves & motivates’: Basic insights: - Own views not those received from ‘authority’ - Self-perception of maturity: ‘an adult’ not ‘a child’ - Move away from parents influence and teachers - Importance of peer views & approval - Fun, social benefits, enjoying attention & ‘causes’ - Questioning, challenging, rebellion, streetwise - Living in ‘the now’ less concern for distant future Selling of ‘health’ and longer term benefits, or ‘being good’ very unmotivating – avoid (can be counter motivating) Connect to ‘own views’, not being conned, link to a cause & rebellion, ensure social & fun benefits are strong eg: ‘Truth’ campaign approach www.wholetruth.com www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  25. 25. Key insight Tobacco was a “significant, visible and readily available way to signal that they are in control!! Like piercing or dying hair, using tobacco was a tool of rebellion” Hicks, Crispin, Porter & Bogusky www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  26. 26. Key campaign message You want to rebel? Our job is to give you a chance to rebel!! www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  27. 27. Key attributes of Social Marketing 1: BEHAVIOUR & BEHAVIOURAL GOALS 2: CUSTOMER UNDERSTANDING / RESEARCH 3: THEORY BASED & INFORMED 4: ‘INSIGHT’ 5: ‘EXCHANGE’ 6: ‘COMPETITION’ 7: SEGMENTATION 8: INTERVENTION & MARKETING MIX National Benchmark Criteria www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  28. 28. 6: Segmentation www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  29. 29. What is segmentation? ‘…the process of subdividing a market into distinct subsets of customers that behave in the same way or have similar needs.’ • Commercial companies usually segment according to one or more key criteria: – – – – – Geography Demographics Psychographics Behavioural characteristics Benefits sought www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  30. 30. Segmentation Demographic Age Gender Family Size Income Occupation Geographic Education Religion Race Generation Nationality Behavioural World, region or country Country region Postcode City / inhabitants size Density – urban / rural Climate Psychographic Occasions – regular, social Benefits – quality, service, convenience User status – non-user, ex-user, potential Usage rate Loyalty status Readiness stage Attitude towards product Attitudes Motivations Personality Values Beliefs Social Class Lifestyle Adapted from Kotler, Roberto, Lee (2002) www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  31. 31. Segmentation YUPPIES Young Upwardly Mobile Professional People DUMP Destitute Unemployed Mature Professional PIPPIE Person Inheriting Parents Property SCUM Self Centred Urban Male SILKY Single Income Loads of Kids SINBAD Single Income No Boyfriend Absolutely Desperate LOMBARD Loads Of Money But A Right Dickhead www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  32. 32. Behavioral goals whole population analysis and segmentation eg: Smoking behaviour BEHAVIOURAL GOALS SEGMENTATION e.g. by relationship to ‘smoking behaviour’ “never smoked, never will” Behaviour allies Positive behaviour promotion current non-smokers Behaviour reinforcement, Maintenance support “susceptible to pressure to smoke” “recent quitter – potential to restart” dynamic interface Behaviour ‘change’ current Behaviour controls smokers www.nsmcentre.org.uk “would like to quit but finding it hard” “strong entrenched resisters”
  33. 33. Segmentation: Obesity 6 subsegments of the UK population 1 3 2 not engaged with unhealthy weight poor household diet, resistance to healthy eating practical barriers dominate (expense and time) as a health risk rejecting on grounds of too challenging parental influence over children an issue dieting AND over indulging knowledgeable about healthy eating and believe they do enough exercise 5 traditional parents with strong family values reject many health messages on grounds of price. low physical activity levels 4 6 highly controlled food habit controlling children’s healthy eating and exercise strong family exercise group consumption of food above average but burning calories through exercise www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  34. 34. Cluster BMIs Body Mass Index 30 obese 23.8 25 24.4 over20 weight 15.8 13.7 15 14.8 14.1 10 5 0 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5 Cluster 6 % Children above 95th percentile % Children above 85th percentile % of Adult Female Parent - Overweight / Obese % of Adult Male Parent - Overweight / Obese www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  35. 35. 7: ‘Competition’ www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  36. 36. ‘Competition’ Spotting the competition? Often seen in simplistic terms: ‘the goodies’ ‘the baddies’ Less about a specific company and much more about what is being offered to people… fun/pleasure/enjoyment/taste/ affordability/speed/convenience However those trying to promote different positive behaviours (aka ‘the goodies’) can also be ‘the competition’ CB-S 2006 www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  37. 37. ‘Competition’ our messages repo rt do viole mestic nce safer sex HIV/Aids e phy xercise sica l ac / tivit y get child immunised gs & avoid dru l ho limit alco im cla my attention ? e ring th e helplin !’ hi nk ‘T road eed sp ty don’t safe e ri v nk d ri rt n’t d repo e ly do af e ds crim a ro ’ ss rat ro c a t on ‘ra t re t a x u rn don’ t s smoke use NRT www.nsmcentre.org.uk its nef be ay’ 5 -a - d t & v e g ‘ frui resh eat f park & ride ‘the environme nt’: conserve energ y & recycle u se p tran ublic sp o vote rt vo lu nt ee r
  38. 38. ‘Competition’ mus everyday life ! adu l / m thood atu rity com pute r ga mes excitement ic mobile phones n/ ugs for fu d take dr stere & get pla drink hair, nails, complexion / ars es c ik nce ie torb ven mo con ng n taki / sk ratio ri a ed ssed r hil t c su / ex d ee pee str ise / s tw ee str sex internet / riends f l life socia my attention ? peer approval rs , b u rg e s, crisp ce food eat n venie c on st uy late b clothes available time / boredom sugar / swee ts you th club smoke www.nsmcentre.org.uk fa m som ilie for ethin child s & g not ren hi n g
  39. 39. turity dulthood / ma a mobile ife HIV/Aidsocial l phones safer sex s report domestic s/ d its ien benef eg fr violence m provaluit & v usi peer ap h fr sex com intern laim c c s exe et put t fre rc phy ea s, sica ise / er ga ay’ u rg e r -d ,b me l ac ‘5-a eat crisps ce food s tivit y i en nven excitement co st uy late b get child fun / enjoyment park clothes & ride immunised my available time / take drugs for fun / attention boredom drink & get plastered ‘the environme ? nt’: avoid drugs & conserve energ y limit alcohol satisfaction sug & recycle hair, nails, ar / rs / s you ca ike’ sw e th complexion torb k! ets club ed encemo Thin fety vote u se ’t sp donvenie rive ‘ d sa p fa m a som tran ublic con drink dg il ro sp o n’t takin afely n for ethin chi ies & d / ed rt do isk e ss smoke r ldre g not r oad s ratio vo t c su n h e lu ta x i n g s r xhila tre se / e s nt use ros / e don’ t c re t t’ ee w i cr i m t a u rn r a r tree NRT t eed smoke sp s s or on p ‘rat re happiness pleasure ‘Competition’ www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  40. 40. Key attributes of Social Marketing 1: BEHAVIOUR & BEHAVIOURAL GOALS 2: CUSTOMER UNDERSTANDING / RESEARCH 3: THEORY BASED & INFORMED 4: ‘INSIGHT’ 5: ‘EXCHANGE’ 6: ‘COMPETITION’ 7: SEGMENTATION 8: INTERVENTION & MARKETING MIX National Benchmark Criteria www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  41. 41. 8: ‘Exchange’ theory The exchange of resources or values between two or more parties with the expectation of some benefits www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  42. 42. COSTS www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  43. 43. A balancing act costs benefits www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  44. 44. A balancing act 1: Giving up smoking 2: Immunisation 3: Condom use 1: Loss of enjoyment 1: Saves me money 2: Fear of doing harm 2: Peace of mind that my child is protected 3: Lost of ‘the moment’ 3: Free from risk of pregnancy costs benefits www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  45. 45. Example Going for a Mammogram • Fear of finding cancer • Offer counselling • Going to the hospital • GP surgeries • Waiting for the results • Reduce wait time • Finding a parking place • Provide adequate parking costs benefits www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  46. 46. The Stacker Quad Burger “We’re satisfying the serious meat lovers by leaving off the produce and letting them decide exactly how much they can handle” “A typical buyer isn’t driving in there with a BMW and an expense account. They’ve got a couple of bucks in their pocket and their big objective is to get full” Denny Marie Post Chief Concept Officer Burger King “Healthy eating is more a state of intention than it is of action” Burger King “We listened to consumers who said they wanted to eat fresh fruit – but apparently they lied.” “Anti fast-food backlash” Wendy’s Spokesperson Research – plenty of it! • Industry monitoring • Social climate monitoring • Consumer research • Family shopping behaviour www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  47. 47. Key attributes of Social Marketing 1: BEHAVIOUR & BEHAVIOURAL GOALS 2: CUSTOMER UNDERSTANDING / RESEARCH 3: THEORY BASED & INFORMED 4: ‘INSIGHT’ 5: ‘EXCHANGE’ 6: ‘COMPETITION’ 7: SEGMENTATION 8: INTERVENTION & MARKETING MIX National Benchmark Criteria www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  48. 48. 9: Ethical considerations www.nsmcentre.org.uk www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  49. 49. Road Crew 17% fall in alcohol related crashes Self sustaining & cost effective www.nsmcentre.org.uk
  50. 50. Thank you working to realise the potential of effective social marketing 20 Grosvenor Gardens, London, SW1W 0DH www.nsmcentre.org.uk Phone: 0207 881 3045 Fax: 0207 730 5851 Email: nsmc@ncc.org.uk Website: www.nsmcentre.org.uk

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