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  1. 1. Antonius ChikyBetricia Yuniaringtyas Clara Cleodora Yuvita
  2. 2. Will
  3. 3. One of the most common ways to talk about the future iswith will, for example: I will call you tonight. We often callthis the "future simple tense", but technically there are nofuture tenses in English. In this construction, theword will is a modal auxiliary verb.• Form: (Will + Infinitive)• Examples: •Affirmative sentences: He will play football. Hell play football. •Negative sentences: He will not play football. He wont play football. or Hell not play football. •Questions: Will he play football?
  4. 4. Here are the three main ways that we use will to talk about the future. No plan We use will when there is no prior plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision at the time of speaking. Look at these examples: -Hold on. Ill get a pen. -We will see what we can do to help you. -Maybe well stay in and watch television tonight. In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision was made at the time of speaking. We often use will with the verb think: -I think Ill go to the gym tomorrow. -I think Ill have a holiday next year. -I dont think Ill buy that car.
  5. 5.  Prediction We often use will to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples: -It will rain tomorrow. -People wont go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. -Who do you think will get the job? Be The verb be is an exception with will. Even when we have a very firm plan, and we are not speaking spontaneously, we can use will with be. Look at these examples: -I will be in London tomorrow. -There will be 50 people at the party. -The meeting will be at 9.30 am.
  6. 6. May/Might
  7. 7. May We can use may to ask for permission. However this is rather formal and not used very often in modern spoken English -May I borrow your pen? -May we think about it? -May I go now? We use may to suggest something is possible -It may rain later today. -I may not have time to do it today. -Pete may come with us
  8. 8. Might We use might to suggest a small possibility of something. Often we read that might suggests a smaller possibility that may, there is in fact little difference and might is more usual than may in spoken English. -She might be at home by now but its not sure at all. -It might rain this afternoon. -I might not have time to go to the shops for you. -I might not go. For the past, we use might have. -He might have tried to call while I was out. -I might have dropped it in the street.
  9. 9. May and Might There are two exceptions to this rule. First, might is the past tense of may. So you have to use might when you are referring to the past. For example, even if its likely that Annie went to a party last night, Dean shouldnt say, “Annie may have gone to the party’; he should say, “Annie might have gone to the party.” The second exception is when youre talking about something not happening, it can be better to use might because people could think youre talking about permission if you use may. This is clearer with an example. If you arent sure whether youll go to the party, and you say, "We may not go to the party," it can be misinterpreted to mean you dont have permission to go to the party, particularly in writing, where voice inflections dont help guide the meaning. But if you say, "We might not go to the party," then your meaning is clear. Its the safer bet.
  10. 10. Similarly, we can use the modal auxiliaries may or might to say that there is a chance that something is true or may happen.May and might are used to talk about present or future events. They can normally be used interchangeably, although might may suggest a smaller chance of something happening. Compare the following: I may go into town tomorrow for the Christmas sales. And James might come with me! What are you doing over the New Year, Ann? ~ Oh, I maygo to Scotland, but there again, I might stay at home. If you go to bed early tonight, you may / might feel better tomorrow. If you went to bed early tonight, you might feel better tomorrow. One of my New Year resolutions is to go to the gym twice a week! ~ And pigs might fly!
  11. 11. Modal Example UsesMay May I have Asking for another cup of permission coffee? China may Future possibility become a major economic power.Might Wed better phone Present possibility tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now. They might give us Future possibility a 10% discount.
  12. 12. Present Continuous
  13. 13.  FORM: [am/is/are + present participle] Examples: -You are watching TV. -Are you watching TV? -You are not watching TV.Use 1: Now Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.
  14. 14.  Use 2: Longer Actions in Progress Now In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.
  15. 15.  Use 3: Near Future Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future. Use 4: Repetition and Irritation with "Always“ The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."
  16. 16. Functions and Examples We use the present continuous to talk about something that is happening at the time of speaking. The action is not finished. He is speaking to John. What is she doing? We use the present continuous to talk about temporary situations. I am living in London at the moment. Why is she moving house? We use the present continuous to talk about changing situations. Youre getting taller and taller every day. The weathers getting warmer. We use the present continuous to talk about repeated actions around the time of speaking. Im seeing Jane a lot these days. We use the present continuous with words such as "always" to talk about things that happen repeatedly (sometimes to say that something is irritating or annoying). Shes always complaining about how difficult her life is. We use the present continuous to talk about future arrangements. Im meeting my father at the airport at 5 oclock tomorrow.
  17. 17. Present Simple
  18. 18. FORM : [VERB] + s/es in third personExamples:•You speak English.•Do you speak English?•You do not speak English.USE 1: Repeated ActionsUse the Simple Present to express the idea that anaction is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, ahobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or somethingthat often happens. It can also be something a personoften forgets or usually does not do.
  19. 19.  USE 2: Facts or Generalizations The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. USE 3: Scheduled Events in the Near Future Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well. USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs) Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.
  20. 20. Functions And Examples We use the present simple to talk about permanent situations. She doesnt speak English. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. We use the present simple to talk about things that happen repeatedly. I go to school every day. Jack sometimes plays tennis. We use the present simple to ask for and give instructions. How do I get to the bathroom? You go up the stairs and turn right. We use the present simple in narrative (to tell stories). At the start of the film, a big spaceship comes to Earth and lands in LA. Then the aliens eat all the people. We use the present simple to talk about future scheduled events. The meeting starts at 10am. The train leaves at 7.32pm. We use the present simple in certain introductory expressions. I hear you went on holiday to Spain this summer. I gather youre leaving the company. We use the present simple to do things by using some special verbs (for example: promise, advise, suggest, apologise, insist, agree, swear). I promise Ill never do it again
  21. 21. Be Going To
  22. 22.  Going to - intention We use going to when we have the intention to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision before speaking. Look at these examples: -Jo has won the lottery. He says hes going to buy a Porsche. -Were not going to paint our bedroom tomorrow. -When are you going to go on holiday? In these examples, we had an intention or plan before speaking. The decision was made before speaking. Going to - prediction We often use going to to make a prediction about the future. Our prediction is based on presentevidence. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples: -The sky is very black. Its going to snow. -Its 8.30! Youre going to miss the train! -I crashed the company car. My boss isnt going to be very happy! In these examples, the present situation (black sky, the time, damaged car) gives us a good idea of what is going to happen.
  23. 23.  We use going to when we want to talk about a plan for the future. -Im going to see him later today. -Theyre going to launch it next month. -Were going to have lunch first. Notice that this plan does not have to be for the near future. -When I retire Im going to go back to Barbados to live. -In ten years time, Im going to be boss of my own successful company. We use going to when we want to make a prediction based on evidence we can see now. -Look out! That cup is going to fall off. -Look at those black clouds. Its going to rain soon. -These figures are really bad. Were going to make a loss. -You look very tired. Youre going to need to stop soon. We can replace going to go by going. -Im going out later. -Shes going to the exhibition tomorrow.
  24. 24. Examples Affirmative Sentence Im going to play handball. Negative Sentence Im not going to play handball. Question Am I going to play handball?Do not mix up with the Present Progressive! Going to Present Progressive Hes going to read the Hes reading the book. book.
  25. 25. Thank You